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No 

Boston 

Medical Library 

Association, 

19 BOYLSTON PLACE. 




I 



J 



MEDICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



ISTE^W^ JERSEY. 

TRANSACTIONS, 

1866. 
NINETY-NINTH ANNUAL MEETING. 




NEW TfORK: 
V. 80HEB8, BOOK AND JOB PBINTEB, 
82i 



1866. 



ozF'ZF'ioEin.s, ises. 



^ » » 



ABRAHAM COLES Nbwabk. 

Vle«-PrMld«nt« 

IsT. B. B. BATEMAN. Qbdabyillb. 

2d. JNO. 0. JOHNSON Blaibstowk. 

3d. T. J. CORSON Trbmtok. 

« r y— p ondiny Seeretevy* 

C. HODGE, Jb Tbbnton. 

B«MMrdlnf BeeretMry. 

WILLIAM PIERSON Obahob. 



J. 8. ENGLISH Manalapak. 

standing CoaunHtoe. 

STEPHEN WICKES, Chairman Obangb. 

CHAS. HASBROUCK,. . . , HACKBNBiCK. 

F. GAUNTT *;.... BuBUHOTOir. 




TT^-AJsrsj^oa?ionsrs 



OF THE 




dirnl ^miti^ d 




The Ninety-ninth Annual Meeting of the Society was held 
at Burlington, January 24th, 1865. 

The President, Dr. Hunt, in the chair. 

Certificates of delegates were read and accepted ; also certifi- 
cates from corresponding societies, and the delegates, on mo- 
tion, were invited to take seats and participate in the dis- 
cussions. 

The Society was organized as follows : 

OFFICEBS^ 

Pre»ident^E. M. Hunt. 

Ist Yice-President — A, Coles. 

2d Ftoe-Prcstcfew^— B. R. Bateman. 

id Vtce-Prestdeni-r^. C. Johnson. 

Corresponding Secretary — ^T. J. Corson. 

Beoording Secretary — ^W. Pierson. 

Treasurer — J. S. English. 

Standing CommitteeS. Wickes, W. Elmer, L. C. Morrough. 

DELEGATES. 

Essex — J. J. Love, E. A. Osbom, S. H. Pennington, and 
E. P. Nichols^ 



4 JCEDICAL SOGIETT OF NEW-JERSET. 

EMLson — R. P. Chabert, Payne, Pipii, and Vondy. 

Middlesex — ^Treganowan. 

Mercer — C. Hodge, Jr., H. S. Desanger, R. R. Rogers, and 
W. W. L. PhiUips, 

Hunterdon — J. S. Cramer. 

Burlington — ^Pngh, Lpngstreet, Page, and Martin. 

Cumberlcmd—T. H. Tomlinson, C. C. Phillips, S. G. Cattell, 
and R. M. Bateman. 

Monmouth — ^A. A* Howell, A. A. Higgins, W. A. Newell, 
and R. Laird. 
• Sussex — J. Linn Allen, J. R. Stuart, C. V. Moore, and H. 
Htdsbizer. 

Warren — G. D. Fitch, tuid R. Byington. 

Camdenr—T. F. Cullen, A. Marcy, W. E. Brannan, and H. 
G. Taylor. 

FELLOWS PRESENT. 

Drs. Stratton, Elmer, Pennington, L. A. Smith, Varick, 
Woolverton, I. P. Coleman, Read, Blane, Cooper, and J. B. 
Coleman. 

Delegates from New York, E. S. F. Arnold. 

Delegates from Pennsylvania, Traill, Green, Corson, and 
Maybury. 

Dr. Griscom of New York, and S. W. Butler of Philadelphia, 
and other Medical Gentlemen, who were present, but not regu- 
lar members, were invited to take seats as Corresponding 
Members. 

The Minutes of the last meeting wer^ read and approved. 

On motion, the Act to reK)i*ganize the Medical Society of 
New Jersey, passed by the last Legislature was read and 
adopted by the Society. 

The Committee on application to the Legislature, for estab- 
fishing a State Inebriate Asylum, reported by Dr, L. A. Smith, 
that the application was a failure. 

The report was accepted and the Committee dischai^ed. 

The report of the Committee on revision of By-Laws was 
ordered *to be taken up immediately after the report of the 
Standing Committee to-morrow. 



HINXJTES. O 

The President read the list of licenses granted by him. 

The Corresponding Secretary made a verbal report, which 
was accepted ; and his bill of expenses, $11.23, ordered to be 
paid. 

In the absence of Dr. English, Treasurer, in consequence of 
the fracture of his leg, Dr. A. A. HoweU was appointed Treas- 
urer pro. tern. 

Dr. Elmer on behalf of the Delegates to the American Medi* 
cal Association, reported verbally, which was accepted. 

Verbal reports from the Delegates to Massachusetts, Penn- 
sylvania and New York, and a written report from the Dele- 
gates to Connecticut were accepted. 

The following Committee on Nominations of Officers were 
selected by the Districts represented : 

Drs. C. Hodge, Jr., S. G. Cattell, A. A. Howell, B. P. Nichols, , 
Pitch, Pugh, Payne, Marcy, and Cramer. 

The President appointed the following Committees : 

On Treasurer's Aooaunts — ^Varick, Hodge, and Elmer. 

On Unfinished Business — Stratton, Corson, and Byington. 

On motion, it was ordered that the Delegate^ from Corres- 
ponding Societies be heard to-morrow, after action upon the 
revised By-Laws. 

Adjourned to nine o'clock to-morrow morning. 

January twenty-fifth, the Society met agreeably to adjourn* 
ment. A Certificate of Delegation from Camden was read and 
accepted. 

The roll was called, and absentees noted. 

Prayer was oflFered by Rev. W. Johnson. 

The President addressed the Society on " Our Profession as 
a Science, Business, and an Art.'' The thanks of the Society 
were voted, and a copy requested for publication. 

The Chairman of the Standing Committee, Dr. Wickes, being 
absent, their annual report was read by Dr. Elmer. T^e 
thanks of the Society were voted, and the report referred back 
to the Standing Conmiittee' with instructions to publish such 
portions as they may deem expedient. 

The bill of expenses, being a balance of $22.26, of Dr. Wickes, 
was ordered to be paid. 



6 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW-JERSEY. 

The report of the Committee on revised By-Laws was taken 
\ip, and read by chapters. The same having been amended, 
it was 

Besdved, That the same be adopted, as the By-Laws, Rules 
and Regulations of the Society ; and that they go into opera* 
tion on the fourth Tuesday of Jaiuiary 1866. 

Besclvedf That 500 copies of thes0 By-Laws be printed for 
the use of the Society under the direction of the Committee, 
and that the expense of the same be defrayed out of any 
monies in the treasury not otherwise appropriated. 

The Committee made an additional report relative to the 
Centenary Meeting in 1866, recommending the following plan 
of arrangements, which was adopted, viz. : 

1. The next annual meeting to be held at New Bruns- 
wick, on the fourth Tuesday of January next, at eleven o'clock 
A. M., for the transaction of the regular routine business of the 
Society ; and to adjourn to the succeeding day, at eleven o'clock 
A. M., for the centenary exercises proper ; which are to be as 
fellows, viz. : Prayer ; Address of the President ; Historical 
narrative ; Dinner ; and the remainder of the session to be 
spent in social interchange of sentiments, and speeches at the 
table. 

2. To carry out the above, it is necessary to appoint an 
Historian, a Committee on Invitations, and a Committee of 
Arrangements. Whereupon the following were appointed : 

Historian, Wm. Pierson. Alternate, S. H. Pennington. 
Committee of Arrangements, H. Baldwin, R. M. Cooper, and 
T. J. Corson. Committee on Invitations, S. Wickes, S. H. 
Pennington, and W. Elmer. 

On motion, the President Dr. Hunt was added to both of the 
: above committees. 

8. Invitations to be extended to gentlemen of the profes- 
sion out of the State, and especially to members of medical 
societies in correspondence with this ; and to such other distin- 
guished gentlemen as the Committee may deem expedient. 

All regtdar members of District Societies to have the privi- 
lege of attending the centenary meeting -without certificates of 
delegation. 



^ 



KOyUTEB. i 

i. The expenses of the dinner to be paid by those who par- 
take, except the invited guests ; and in order to meet the 
expenses of the celebration, and other necessary charges, an 
assessment be made the ensuing year of $2.00 pr. each regular 
member of the District Societies. 

5. That it be the duty of the Recording Secretary to obtain 
the name, age, residence and profession of all who shall attend 
the centenary meeting, that the same may be entered in the 
book of minutes. 

^ Delegates from Corresponding Societies, viz. : Drs. Arnold 

and Griscom from New- York ; and Drs. Green and Maybury 
from Pennsylvania, were heard and responded to by the 
President. 

The report of the Treasurer, Dr. English, was accepted and 
filed. 
' The Committee on Treasurer's accounts, reported the ac- 

counts to be satisfactorily stated, and the balance in his hands 
to be $3.74. 

The following Resolutions oflFered by Dr. Cooper were 
adopted : 

Besolvedj That the members of this Society have heard with 
regret of the accident which has befallen our venerable and 
respected Treasurer, Dr. English, who, for more than thirty 
* years, has faithftiUy served this Society. 

Resolved, That we tender to Dr. English our heartfelt 
sympathy and condolence, with the wish that he may be 
speedily restored to health and strength. 

Besdved, That a copy of these Resolutions, properly attested. 
be forwarded to Dr. English. 

On motion, Besdved, That the Scientific Committee, of which 
Dr. J. B. Coleman is Chairman, be continued. 

Dr. Stevenson, essayist, read a paper on the Means of Im- 
proving the Physical Development of the Community. Thanks 
of the society voted, and a copy requested for publication. 

The following were elected ofiicers : 

President — A. Coles. 

Ist Vice-President — ^B. R. Batsman. 



8 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW-JERSEY. 

2d Vice-President — J. C. Johnson. 
id VicerPresident^-T. J. Corson. 
Corresponding Secretary — C. Hodge, Jr- 
Becording Secretary — W. Pierson. ^ 
Treasurer — J. S. English. 

Standing Committee — S. Wickes, Chas. Hasbrouck, and F. 
Gauntt. 

CENSORS. 

Essex — ^W. Pierson, Jr., A. Coles, A. M. Mills, and C. Eyrick. 

Hudson — ^Wilkinson, Varick, Culver, and Morris. 

Mercer—^. B. Coleman, E. Grant, T. J. Corson, and C. 
Hodge, Jr. 

Hunterdon — ^BoiUeau, Abel, Johnson, and Blane. 

Middlesex — ^Baldwin, Morrough, J. McKnight, Smith, and 
Treganowan. 

Somerset — H. H. Vanderveer, J, W. Craig, J. G. Maynard, 
and J. B. Vanderveer. 

Curnberlandr^'W . Elmer, Potter, E. Bateman, and T. H. 
Tomlinson. 

Burlington — ^B. H. Stratton, J. P. Coleman, Gtoodell, and 
Thornton. 

Monmouth — ^B. Laird, A. A. Higgins, A. B. Dayton, and 
E. Taylor. 

Sussex — ^I. S. Hunt, J. R. Stuart, W. H. Linn, and Ribble. 

Warren— Q, D, Pitch, Clark, E. Byington, and B. P. 
Brakely. 

Camden— J. S. Mulford, T. P. Cullen, J. V. Schenck, and R. 
M. Cooper. 

Delegates to Corresponding Societies, with power to appoint 
substitutes : 

To Connecticut — ^B. R. Bateman, S. G. Cattell, and J. B. 
Potter. 

To New Fori— J. A. Cross, P. Gauntt, and T. R. Varick. 

To Massachttsetts — Drs- Pennington, Cooper, and J. W. 
Hunt. 

To Pennsylvania — T. J« Corson, J. Woolverton, and R. M. 
Coopen 



MINUTES. 9 

Delegates to the American Medical Association — Drs. 
WickeSy E. M. Hunt, Yarick, Elmer, Stratton, A. Coles, Blane, 
W. Pierson, L. M. Disbrow, S. Lilly, J. H. Pugh, J. P. Cole- 
man, Pennington, and L. A. Smith. 

To the Sanitary Convention — ^Drs. C. Hodge, Jr., J. V. 
Schenck, E. Byington, and H. Baldwin. 

On motion, 

Iteacivbd, That the usual number of copies of the Transactions 
be printed, and 500 extra copies of President's Address, 

Society adjourned to meet at New Brunswick on the fourth 
Tuesday of January next, at eleven o'clock A. M. 

Wm. Piebson, 

Seoording Secretary. 

Licenses granted by Dr. E. M. Hunt in the year 1864. 

A. M. J. Gregory, of Jersey City, Graduate of Columbia 
College, New York. 

ComeUus Shephard, and Richard B. Rogers, Graduates of 
University of Pennsylvania. 

Duncan P. Vail, Graduate of Vermont Medical College. 



PKESIDENT'S ADDKESS. 



It is my high privilege, this evening, gentlemen, to welcome 
you to the returned anniversary of the State Medical Society 
of New Jersey. Ninety-nine years of its existence are now 
joined to the memories of the past, and the fresh, dewy da^vn 
of its hundredth natal morn is already casting its twilight 
shadows upon us. Venerable with the acquirements of age, 
yet vigorous with the energy of youth, it again welcomes us 
to the council-board of professional re-union, and bids us ex- 
change the kindred sympathies of a mutual art. 

We come together to review the medical history of the 
year, to maintain the true courtesy of our calling, to pay defer- 
ence to the mementoes of the past, to measure the claims and 
progress of our science, to join the hands of a genial friend- 
ship, and to bid each other God-speed in all that relates to the 
true advancement of the noble profession to which are devoted 
the stirring energies of our manhood. 

But a temporary sadness comes over my heart as I proceed 
to the duty which devolves upon me. I can not forget that 
since last we met, from among the honored members of this 
Society, one has. fallen, who, each returning year, was wont to 
greet us here, with all the warmth of personal and professional 
attachment. You have not forgotten his last utterance in our 
midst. It was a plea in behalf of the interests of unfortunate 
himianity ; in which the arguments, derived from elaborate in- 
vestigation, were presented with the earnest voice and the 
thrilling enthusiasm of a living sympathy. He felt that while 

1 



12 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW-JEBSET. 

others may be philanthropists by occasion, the physician is 
such also by profession ; and, had he known his time to be so 
short, he could . not have pronounced a valedictory more con- 
sonant with himself, or said parting words more worthy of his 
honored memory. The name of Condit, for his own sake, as 
well as for his father's sake, will not be forgotten by us ; and 
the mantle of their honor shall inspire us to be faithful to our 
profession, to humanity, and to God. 

But my duty to-night is not so much to speak of our cher- 
ished dead, as to the living members of a living profession. I 
beg that you will pardon me the formality of an extended in- 
troduction, and permit me to propose, as the subject of ad- 
dress this evening, 

OUB PBOFESSION IN ITS THREE-FOLD RELATIONS, AS A SCIENCE, A BUSINESS, AND 

AN ART. 

At the very outset of student life. Medicine is presented to 
ns as a science, vast in the area which it encompasses ; and 
when years of practice have added to the treasuries of knowl- 
edge and experience, its claims as such are ever impressing 
themselves upon us. And yet we have stout and sturdy crit- 
icisms, to meet us, in respect to it. In the midst of our soar- 
ings to its heights, our penetration into its depths, our meas^ 
urings of its lengths and its breadths, the world stands up, 
and, striking a blow at its foundations, asks, ^' Is it a science at 
all." Men, perhaps learned in otlier respects, but ignorant as 
to ity too often bring it to their false judgment-bars, and, from 
isolated facts and vague generalities, give sentence in the neg- 
ative. The poet that thrills me with the real philosophy of 
verse, presides over a college for graduating quacks. My city 
pastor gives diluted tinctures to his complaining horse ; and a 
learned theological professor, by the identical argument, which, 
if applied to his own theme of instruction, would land him and 
it into hideous infidelity, assumes that the human organism, 
and its relations to disease and remedies, is so mysterious and 
complex, that it is safest to rely upon a sysjbem which can do 
"'no harm. Many thus (who are well instructed in the other 



pbbbident's addbbss. 18 

sciences or in literature) infer that they are abundantly com- 
petent to decide upon this. Now and then a physician who, 
because he cannot understand everything, concludes he under- ' 
stands nothing, by the false logic of doubt falls into the same 
error ; and even a late President of the Excelsior State So- 
ciety has announced the doctrine that Medicine, as an art, has 
never been profited by Medicine as a science. In mind, as in 
nature, centripetal and centrifogal forces sometimes loose their 
co-ordinate action ; the orbit is disturbed, and great planets be- 
come little asteroids. History had its Gibbon, as a man, a 
downfall like that of Rome ; philosophy its Voltaire ; astron- 
omy its La Place ; and Religion its Golenso ; and the fact that 
now and then a great soul goes overboard from the vessel 
which moves, even upon unfatbomed depths, as on a friendly 
element, only shows the occasional' frailty of reason, in contrast 
with the substantial basis of truth. 

If we could submit this whole question to antiquity, and to 
the confirmed verdict of the ages, we should have no trouble. 
The ancients saw in man, even as to his body, a condensation 
of human knowledge, and an object for scientific research, such 
as was presented in no other created thing, and thus made of 
the " yroavi isavrov^ a science by itself. 

They viewed the human form as the grandest idea of nature, 
developed it by the skill of the athlete, sculptured it in the 
choicest of Parian marble, painted it in enduring colors on 
speaking canvass, and when they found an art whose design 
was to preserve it, they called it the Science of Physic — not 
physic in the paltry sense of drugs, but cpviM^ Nature's grand 
embodiment, its most meaning text ; and amid aU the false 
systems of medical theory and medical practice, that have 
gleamed across the galaxy of almost every decade, with Mi- 
nerva, the goddess of wisdom, as its patron deity, it has pre- 
served for us that which it fears not to send word along the 
wires of time is the true science and art of medicine. But 
this 19th century will not take antiquity at its word. It is 
mighty doubter — ^full of endless questionings. Human though 
seeks new channels. There is more excitement and vivacity 



U MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NBW-JEBSEY. 

in a freshet, breaking- over into new courses, than in the ocean 
staying where it belongs, lasting portraiture of the unchanged 
Infinite. 

Men say not the old is better, but give us the new, bub- 
bling and boiling though it may be with scum. The old Pa* 
lemian will not do. Champaigne and carbon gas are more 
representative. In government, in law, in ethics, they call in 
question the grand consolidations and expressions of the past.. 
America, especially, with its vindicated nationality, its stirring 
activity in all that relates to mind or matter, breathes its spirit 
of inquiry over every science, and with its " cui bono," its 
whys and its wherefores, puts the past to its test without a 
bow to "your Riverence." We must not, therefore, ccnnplain 
if the great fortress of Esculapius, with its massive turrets and 
elaborated enclosure, is battered and stormed like a citadel ;. or 
if, beside it, some pseudo-medical philosopher opens up his 
arsenal, and with sarsaparilla, seaweed tonic, life bitters, teeth- 
ing fluid,, and cephalic pills, builds on foundations cemented 
with prepared glue imposing superstructures. 

In all this there lurks, for us, no real harm. In such a pro- 
fession as ours, founded in antiquity, and sustained, developed, 
and improved through centuries, we need sometimes to take 
reckoning, in order to appreciate it. Truth does not always 
move in imobstructed air-lines. It fronts the cave of -^lufl,and 
often facea grim North-we»ters. Even in a seeming calm, gales 
Bpring'up about it; but, though its progress is thus made zig- 
zag, the very adverse winds beat it fwward. Although not an 
ocean steamer, plowing its way through the broad brine, care- 
less of wind or tide, it is a little Pintay beating hither and 
thither, not in vain. Though the crew are sometimes discour- 
aged, and Faith below deck instead of at the helm, there are 
men like Columbus aboard, and faithful ones watching around 
the mast-head ; and, when all is dark and mutinous, '^ I see a 
light " breaks the spell of the shoreless sea, and the very drift- 
wood tells of land. True science and true art, which are al- 
ways practical epitomes of truth,, have a similar experience, 
but need never fear the rude buffetings of change or the test 
of searching criticism. 



PRSglDENT's ABDBESS. 15 

Let 118 then fully to the question : Is medicine a science T 
True science has three prominent characteristics : 

It deals with some object of nature, with a view of eliciting 
truth. 

It has deiSnite and determinate laws. 

These laws are studied in reference to their practical appli- 
cation and results. 

Surely our profession answers this first test of a science. It 
deals with the grandest object of nature in order to define its 
method of action. The sublimest combination of the handi* 
work of Divinity is the material for our specific study. If the 
natural philosopher, in the earnest investigation of his partic- 
ular department, feels the thrill and joy of science, its poetry, 
its pathos, its logic — ^if, as he analyses the 'flower, questions the 
sandstone or fossil, or scans the heavens with magnified vision, 
he is engaged in scientific inquiry, how much more the physi- 
cian, who, in one embodiment, can study both material and im- 
material things, whose science is that of matter and its pre- 
servation ; who has for analysis the most wonderful of mechan- 
isms, the most admirable of combinations, and the most elabo- 
rate connections of cause and effect. The man of numbers 
may have to deal more with axioms and theorems, the meta- 
physician may soar higher into the regions of the Infinite, the 
natural philosopher, in his questionings of mother earth, may 
have a wider field from which to gather his cabinets and herb* 
ariums, and the astronomer a wider range through the star-lit 
avenues of space, but this microcosm, man, is equal to them 
all. In the construction of bone, so as to unite strength with 
lightnesss and mobility; in the arrangement of muscle and 
tendon, so as to secure mechanical power at no loss of space ; 
in the organs of nutrition and assimilation, performing func- 
tions as elaborate and successful as the harmony of the uni- 
verse ; in the lungs, inhaling the sweet, rustling air, and trans- 
acting the unique chemistry of life ; in the heart, lone prototype 
of perpetual motion, throbbing out the melody of life, the soul 
rhythm of humanity ; in the ear, with its bony chain-work, and 
its labyrinth of waters rippling to the echoings of sound ; in 



16 KEDIGAL fiOCIETT OF NEW-OEBSET. 

the eyes, star planets of the mind, glorious . in their orbits as 
Castor and Pollux, the Gemini of the zodiac ; in the sepses, all 
combining the material and immaterial as no science can fully 
display, and the whole subject to the nerve, net-work of the 
organic and inorganiq Ufe — surely, I need no longer stay my 
course to prove that the science of nature is here enthroned 
in all the glory of its royalty. And the physician takes hold 
upon it just on purpose for investigation. To hiin it is the 
more than golden ore-bed of material, and its principles, by 
studious zeal perceived, constitute science — ^not symbolized, but 
realized — not defined, but synonymed — ^not described, but felt 
like love. 
. Nor is it general in its character. 

n. It has definite and determinate laws. 

It deals with man specifically. It has to do with synthesis 
and analysis, and obtains decisive results by strictly scientific 
methods. If not demonstrative, like Euclid, it is definite with 
the logic of accumulated facts. Quinine and opium have their 
results as well as a binomial theorem. There are certainties in 
. this world besides logarithms and logic. Because mathematics, 
as a pure science, is built only on self-evident truths, or be- 
cause metaphysics is built on certain generally admitted truths, 
we are by no means to conclude that only these have deter- 
minate laws. When, indeed, as in the natural sciences, you 
bring together the various facts which observation has afforded, 
and thus have an assemblage of the general principles of an 
art, you really come directly back to the very kind of reason, 
ing upon which rest all the truths of metaphysics, t.c., you have 
. as a basis generally acknowledged facts. 

Experiment itself is an effort in a scientific direction, and 
when you classify the ascertained results of a series of well 
conducted, oft repeated experiments, you have experience, and 
that is as really a foundation and a part of real knowledge, as 
to rest upon the laws of personal identity or the axioms of 
numerical formulsB. Experience has the word experiment as 
its root, and success as its fruit, and by its arranged aggrega- 
tion of facts, assumes all the strength and dignity and certainty 



pbbbidbnt's addbbss. 17 

of a science. It is the general assent of the learned to these 
views, that has given the Baconian and Newtonian philoso- 
phies their hold on the reasonings of men. We have come to 
feel and know that it is safe to assume, that what is true of a 
vast numbers of individuals of a class, is true of the class ; and 
hence the inductive method of Bacon, and still more Newton, 
applying the relations of cause' and effect to natural science 
has shown us, that deductions -from these natural relations, as 
determined by repeated observations, are safe as foundations, 
and yield logical results. With such reflected light, it is not 
difficult to recognize medicine as a science with fixed and de- 
termined laws. We call Theology a science, not because it is 
finished and has no mysteries, but because with Faith as the 
substance of things hoped for, and the evidence of things not 
seen, it reasons correctly of God and of man in his relations to 
him. We call Law a science, because it has principles fotinded 
on eternal equity ; and though often pettifoggers go quibbling 
with it, and make it dispense injustice, it loses not its high 
behest. So we call Medicine a science, because it too has 
fundietmental principles, and arrives at its conclusion by evi- 
dence derived from nature, experience and observation. We 
cannot select a single organ of the body in reference to which 
enough is not known to entitle the study thereof to the name 
science, because of the specific laws which relate to it. We 
know from absolute investigation of organ and ftmction, what 
kind of food is suited to the human organism, why pure air is 
necessary for the lungs, and what pure air is ; why heart and 
brain must suffer from causes that disturb the equilibrium of 
circulation ; why impression made upon the skin by sudden 
alternations of temperature must effect the inner man, and so 
of multitudes of facts of which these are but the passing illustra- 
tion. Pathology too, as well as health, has its appreciable 
laws. Our profession includes within its pale a knowledge of 
the antecedents and sequelae of disease, its cause, its cure, its 
effects. We know that as a rule, its ansesthetics and sedatives 
will control pain, and that other remedies are in certain definite 
and specified cases curative, and can rely upon them just as 



1^8 MEDICAL SOCIETT OF NEW-JEBSE7. 

well as the Mathematician^ on the laws of Parallax, the Logi- 
cian on the facts of established identity, or the Parmer on the 
general results of Agriculture. There may be possible and 
even unknown contingencies, interrupting the process of the 
law ; but the mariner's needle, though it has its m3'^steriou8 
variations, is on the whole a faithful guide amid ocean billows. 
The learned and experienced physician knows that he can 
approach disease with scientific forecast, and while none in this 
or any other science are- absolutely free from puzzling doubts, 
yet only those are skeptical who are unduly influenced by 
isolated cases, or who instead of lacking knowledge, lack the 
ability to practicalize and apply it. 

In the character of the foundations upon which it rests and 
its superstructure, it will, in its harmonious subjection to prin- 
ciples, compare favorably with any of the sciences of material 
life. Although it is not a very Parthenon with every frescoe 
finished, and every column fluted and assigne^d, it is nevertheless 
an edifice with great huge blocks of granite truth for its comers, 
upbuilded with stones polished after the similitude of a palace, 
and better than if finished, each year is adding both to its solid- 
ities and adornments. 

Nor need I spend long time in noticing the third respect in 
which medicine answers the description of a true science. The 
activities of our art are the standing proof that it is studied 
in reference to its practical application and results. It does 
not wrap the drapery of conscious greatness about it, and then 
lie down to pleasant dreams. It is studied, not for theory, but 
for practice. Having classified its truths, with admirable 
promptness, it brings' them to apply to the daily necessities of 
life. It has no cold abstract formulas on which to prate, but 
with a living ardor submits each and all to the' test of utility. 
Its constant efibrt is, mutually, to correct its science and its 
art by each other, to look to the one as the confirmative or test 
of the other, and it thus seeks to have good theory only that it 
may have good practice. Its whole object is result— such 
result as identifies the causes of disease and prevents them ; as 
seeks their cure and overcomes them, or when acknowledging 



^ president's address. 19 

their mortal power, controls, assuages and delays them. 
This, indeed, is science awake for a cause; and that the pre- 
servation and prolongation of human life, with such foundations, 
such aims, such devotion, it stands forth pre-eminently a science, 
in the subject with which it deals — the determinate laws which 
govern the utilitarian eflFort it puts forth. 

I ask you next to notice it as a progressive science, and thus 
still more appreciate the glory of our calling. Where, in all 
the range of human investigation, will you find a field in which 
is displayed more of intellectual activity and patient research. 
Where will you go to find more of the enthusiasm of true phi- 
losophers ; more of the zeal of fond, devoted pursuit, or more 
rapid accumulations of the facts and principles which make up 
a science. 

In order to measure its progress, we need not to commence 
with the history of medicine. We need only to retrace our 
steps within the bounds of the present century to perceive 
that our profession is all alive, not only with the spirit and 
power, but with the fruits of active advancement. Early in 
the present century a new idea, as to the proper basis of med- 
ical truth, commended itself to the professional mind. Too 
long had we relied upon the aphorisms of some prominent 
medical author, or upon the empirical popularity of individual 
practitioners. But a French work, under the title, "Med- 
icine Illustrated by Observation and the Examination of Bod- 
ies," struck the key-note which was to be the guide of future 
and of successful investigation. The profession commenced, 
AS it had never learned before, to look to ascertained facts, to 
statistical record, to anatomical and careful observation, as 
the only true bases of substantial advance. From dealing 
with general opinions, it came to inquire for specific facts. It 
studied disease, not only in view of symptoms, but of lesions. 
It penetrated into physiology that it might know what should 
be, and into pathology that it might ascertain what was. 
Brous^ais on Chronic Inflammations; Corvisart, Laennec, Gri- 
solle, Bouillaud, and Hope, on the Lungs ; Lallemand, Mar- 
tinet, &c., on the Brain ; Andral and Gavarret oi^ the Blood ; 



20 MEDICAL BOdETY OP NEW-OEBSET. 

Bayer on the Kidneys ; Bichet in General Anatomy ; Collins 
and Bamsbotham in Practical Midwifery ; and moltitades of 
other more recent observers in every department of oar sci- 
ence, have given direction and precision to our inquiries. A 
zeal arose to enrich medicine by facts, and to rely upon that 
kind of conclusion, of which intelligent examination, careful 
diagnosis, and an accurate enumeration of the ascertained 
phenomena of disease, in numerous classified cases, consti- 
tuted the material substance. The profession came to feel 
that it must rest its claims as a science upon a careful study 
of relations of cause and effect, of organ and function, of at- 
tack and lesion, of disease and remedy, derived, not by any 
philosophical abstraction, or from results in a limited sphere, 
but from a numerical comparison of a large number of cases, 
in which all points should be stated with clinical exactness. 
Hence, the remark of Sir Henry Holland is fully justified, 
that " the methods of research in medicine at the present 
time have gained greatly in exactness, and in the just appre- 
ciation of facts, upon those of any previous period.'* Thin, of 
itself, is a grand progress, even were it only preparatory. 
But this rigbtness of method, and definiteness of system, is 
full of actual, practical results — a tree fiiU of fruit for the 
healing of the nations. Diagnosis has become a science by 
itself, and, with admirable precision, we are often able not 
only to give name to disease, but to specify its locality, |ts 
extent, its stage — in fact, to have its fall descriptive vividly 
before the mind ; and this is what we want, in order to lay 
right hold of it for treatment. There is glory and progress 
in the discovery of a little star, not so much because of the 
jmomentary result, as because it shows accuracy and zeal in 
investigation, and adds to the real material of a science ; and 
so each step in diagnosis is a discovery in the range of our 
profession which lights up the track of a hopeful destiny. 
But not in accuracy of diagnosis alone do we note advance. 
We have evolved therefrom, and from experience added 
thereto, actual treatment very different from the methods of 
the past. We study more accurately the relation between 



PSniDENT's ADDRESS. 21 

remedies and disease in its particular stages. We know more 
of the action of remedies, as modified by circumstances. We 
see a reason why the medicine given in the second stage of 
pneumonia is not to be depended upon when grey hepatiza*- 
tion- has almost suspended vital action. 

If the case be one of rheumatism, or pleuritic efiFiision, we 
can measure the relation of our medicine to the appearance 
of chlorides in the urine, or if the kidney is involved, tell 
with no small degree of accuracy whether the disease is to be 
treated as one functional or ;Organic. Even in cases where, 
with all our knowledge, we are yet too often unsuccessful, we 
have dispensed with a great deal of false treatment, and, if 
we do not cure, we at least understand the design of treat- 
ment, and prolong life, and deliver the patient from long 
courses of iU-ad vised medicines. The action of remedies, too, 
has become an important part of our study. We have more 
definite medicines, can measure their effects more accurately, 
and suit them more judiciously to the invasions of disease. 

If one doubts the progress of medicine as a science, let 
him but turn to the standard works of 1800 and those of 1865. 
Then the whole of medical science could be kept in a corner 
book-case, and, even of that, a larger proportion was specu* 
lative than now. Instead of chemistry you had alchemy, melt- 
ing up medleys in crucibles, and looking in the dark for elixirs 
and magical stones ; materia medica, with a little more sense, 
searching amid the luxuriance of vegetable life, and yet, but 
for a GuUen, scarcely a science at all. Uterine diseases were 
aadly misunderstood. Surgery, though bold, had not even 
enunciated much of what is now regarded as a part of its 
fundamental principles ; and practical medicine was so ex- 
clusively an art as to be too artistic, and so little of a science 
as to be empirical. . As for special anatomy, it was a very 
little infant. Physiology had but an indefinite meaning, and 
the oldest professor of Pathology in this country, who had 
Qot been born when the century commenced, has told me that 
when he returned from Paris and commenced to lecture, as 
he migtit be permitted to do, on pathological science, many 



22 MEDICAL 80CIETT OF NSW-OEBSET. 

looked npon him as a medical visionary, and the first chair 
had to be made for him with misgiving. 

As for the nervous system, as little was known of it as of 
the circulation of the blood before Harvey ; and the whole 
of hygienic and sanitary science had scarcely been thought 
of as a part of the study of medicine. 

Too often empiricism asserted royalty in dealing with dis- 
eases of the body, and the straight-jacket was the catholicon 
for the diseases of the mind. But now, turn to Virchow,ainid 
the elements of molecular action, tracing the starting points 
of organic life ; Clark on Clinical Pathology ; Dalton in Phys- 
iology, and the fields of biological research ; Barclay, Turner, 
and Da Costa, on Diagnosis ; Hall, S6quard, and Bernard, on 
Nervous Affections ; Watson on General Practice ; to Vel- 
peau, Miller, Sym, Mott, and Gross, on Surgery; and to mut 
titudes of elaborate monographs on the specialties of our 
calling, and we have enough to satisfy us that outspeaking 
facts have taken the place of speculation, and that these have 
been so studied and classified as, in most cases, to form a part 
of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Even where we have 
not reached the ultimatum of their application, we know that 
we have hold of the right handle, just as much as Sir Hum- 
phrey Davy, when he had discovered two or three of the 
alkalies, knew that he was on the road to scores of like re- 
sults. 

It would be pleasant, did time permit, to draw attention to 
other points illustrating the power of medicine as a science. 
There is, evidently, about it an attraction which awakens the 
most noble enthusiasm in the intellects and hearts of those 
who pursue it as such. To-night, could you take a passing 
glance into the offices and laboratories of our profession 
throughout the world, you would find an activity and enter- 
prise which, of themselves, would stamp it with the sign-tokens 
of a true philosophy. Anatomists, amid unpleasant odors, by the 
midnight lamp, are still picking away, to discover the minute 
relations of the human organism. Microscopists are spending 
lone hours where no plaudits of stimulating audiences greet 



fbesident's addbess. 2S 

them, revealing in the human world wonders as marvelous as ' 
those which the telescope notes as it traverses the loftier but 
Dot deeper depths of another science. The medical chemist la 
busy prying into the nature of poisons, or discovering new 
therapeutic combinations ; and so, in every department, there 
are zealous votaries, pursuing their investigations with a care, 
an accuracy, and a diligence, which would be inexplicable if 
they were not impelled by that love of learning which meas- 
ures its devotion, not by the acquirement of wealth, or the 
huzzas of fame, but which, with a magical charm, binds the 
scholar to his pursuit, and fills his soul, as by a spell, with the 
inspiration of an indescribable enthusiasm.. 

Five or six years since, I was pleasantly chatting with a 
distinguished professor of physiology, when in walked a jolly 
old Irishman with a train of a dozen dogs. ^The professor 
sprang from his. seat as if in an ecstasy of delight, and as he 
whistled and talked to them, and called them by pet names, 
and heartily commended and rewarded his successful agent, I 
could not but look upon it as quite a scene, and it was the first 
love of dogs for which I had ever had much respect. He was 
occupied in experiments which proved most important, and 
had been scant of material, and as I beheld his sprightly joy, 
his delighted familiarity, his forgetfulness of every thing but 
the objects of his scientific affection, it afforded me a perspec* 
tive of the ecstasy of a true lover of science such as I shall not 
forget. There was pictured right out, as a stereoscope does 
it, the thrill of a scholar's zeal, in the consciousness that he 
had before him, the demonstration of great physiological and 
functional laws, and the method of illustrating how vital 
action is performed. And this is but a homely specimen of 
the true enthusiasm which warms many a hundred of those 
who are studying the philosophy of human life in its bearings 
upon health and disease. 

Ours, too, is a God-adoring, as well as attractive science. 
The poor materialist may stop short of its glory and grandeur, 
and in dealing with matter, commit the same error that the 
rationalist does in dealing with mind f but the true logician 



24 MEDICAL SOOIBTY OF NEW-JEBSET. 

who is not content with half conclasionB, and who does not 
attempt to weigh with the balances of reason, that which 
reason itself teaches to be beyond its bonndaries, sees in 
humanity and its construction just as it is, the highest proof 
of divinity — the image and superscription not totally effaced. 
He at times feels as did the ancient anatomists, who when 
they first sawed into the bony labyrinth of the ear and beheld 
its melodeon of bones, its winding channels, its pearly sea 
rippling to the waves of sound, dropped as by instinct their 
instruments, and together joined in a Te Deum Laudamns to 
the Maker. '. 

From oub profession as a science i pass briefly to notice 
rr AS A business. As we have to do with it as a livelihood, we 
are under th^ necessity of considering it and ourselves in 
practical relation to society. As well as a science and an art 
it is an occupation for support — a vocation — ^if you choose a 
trade, and as such it comes in contact with other callings and 
must be pursued in some respects on a common basis. As 
such, we claim for it all the rights which belong to any other 
occupation in which learning and culture are made conducive 
to support. It is a candidate for success as a living, as well 
as for scientific and artistic acceptance. It must bear its 
share of jostling in the crowd of business rivalry, and must 
expect to stand in part upon its business merits. 

We think there are two classes of errorists in respect to 
medicine as a vocation. The one " Mens conscia ecientia," 
hangs out its sign, and that is all. It uses no effort to sustain 
itself as a branch of human industry. It throws itself back on 
intrinsic merit, with more of dignity than of perceived power. 
It resorts to none of the usual efforts by which men build up 
a business. It feels that it deserves success and then leaves 
success to come as best it may through what it calls natural 
channels. It is over*sensitive, would not be suspected.of having 
an eye to business, sneers at a man who attends to a specialty 
as if he were a medical sinner, talks much of punctilious ethics, 
and is as formal as a Romish archbishop in his robes. I have 



prbbibevt's address. 26 

known such men, appreciated only by the very few who know 
tbeir real merit, living like artists and poets on hope instead 
of assets, worthy of admiration because men of honor and 
attainment, but still failing in the profession as a daily support, 
in a way that it is not necessary to fail, in order to preserve 
high models of professional self respect and ethical propriety. 

Another class is more impressed with medicine as a*busi- 
ness, than with it as a science or an art. They practice to 
make money, have an air of mystery about them as if in the 
secrets of patents, see no harm in pushing their claimts upon 
the public, take advantage of every operation as a means of 
notoriety, cajole antiquated nurses that they may be recom- 
mended in private circles, ride very fast when not in a hurry, 
have a pressure of business Sunday mornings at church time, 
are specialists pre-eminently in self-esteem, and in a word, 
place themselves on the same footing with Yankee tradesmen 
. and dealers in small wares. 

Now there is a proper medium between these. There is 
such a thing as a legitimate business tact in the practice of 
our calling. The doctor should be above all petty arts, but 
there are arts which are not petty. His culture, antecedent 
to his profession, should be such as will enable him to express 
himself with correctness and ease, whether in conversation or 
with the pen, as well as to write elegant prescriptions. As a 
business qualification, and as a debt due his profession, no one 
more needs the culture and the heart of the true gentlemen. 
His approach to the invalid requires none of the studied eti- 
quette of the mechanical formalist, but it does demand the 
happy ease of one who has learned how to adapt himself to 
the phases of human nature. There is the child who often 
needs by that true art, which has true feeling as its basis, to 
be brought into confidence, the modest sex who have a kind 
of felt repugnance to our art which deserves our respect, and 
which if properly appreciated grows into reliant trust, the 
man of business, anxious, restless, and perhaps unreasonable 
in his sickness, and all need to be dealt with, not only with 
medical skill, bat with that discernment of character which 



26 MEDICAL SOGISrr OF NEW-JEBSEY. 

also becomes an element in treatment There is hot a calling 
in life, even including the other learned professions of which 
the masses of men and those well educated in other respects 
are so illy able to judge correctly. They can not measure the 
doctor by the same standard they do the minister or the law- 
yer, who deal with subjects of which the hearers know some* 
thing, and hence, popular judgment is more often erroneous 
in physic than in anything else. We come in contact largely 
with the prejudices and impulses of men, at a time when by 
their anxieties they are easily moved to try various remedies 
in the hope of more speedy recovery, and we n^ed, »o^ so 
much from self-respect, as out of respect to our profession, to 
give it all the advantages of a favorable introduction. The 
polite bow, the quiet manner, the word of firm but tender 
kindness, the neat apparel and the general demeanor of cheer- 
ful thoughtfulness for the welfare of the patient, are never 
more in place than when illustrated by the medical attendant. 
True and manly adaptation of ourselves to varying circum- 
stances, is a fit accompaniment of an adaptation of our reme* 
dies to the disease on hand, and the study of character belongs 
to the business of our art. 

In the preparation of our medicines, too, we may use 
another kind of justifiable tact. We should study to make 
them taste better, and take much more pains to please the 
palate when we can do it without sacrificing strength or' value. 
The people have a just claim upon elegant pharmacy. There 
is now little need of nauseous potions, and as the law of 
associatioiji is a law of life, strong in the cradle and growing 
to the grave, we should conform to the demand it makes upon 
lis. There is no necessity that even the country doctor should 
be, to the child or the adult, the synonym of assofoetida and 
castor oil, and if you have ever been long sick yourself, you 
will appreciate that kind of natural inclination there is toward 
the attendant whose drugs are coated with sugar, fragrant 
with essential oils, or flavored with odorous extracts. We 
have no right, in justice to our calling, to allow paltry quacks, 
wth sweetened bubbles, in their gramdar-degeneration, to steal 
away from truth, if possible, our very elect. 



president's address. 27 

There is much discxission now-a-days as to specialties in 
I medicine, and as to how far the regular practitioner may, in his 

business, give prominence therefo. We believe the tendency 
of some medical organizations is, to be too strenuous in refer- 
I ence to them. I for one see in them the highest hope for 

I Progress. The scope of our science has become in the last 

: half century enormously enlarged. It is now rather a family 

^ of sciences — a Banyan-tree with its grand old centre still in* 

' tact, but the branches have arched over and taken root, and 

we have a noble group ; an academy amid whose groves, as 
did Plato and his followers, we may sit and sup each our relish 
of the fulness of Philosophy. One man can not now expect in 
perfection to encircle this forest-city, and our most frequent 
. failures are in the attempt. It is only by joining hands that 

^ we can complete the rotmd. Let each one feel himself as of 

the family ; draw nourishment from the same abundant 
source ; receive a full curriculum in every department ; and 
then choose his favorite branch. To be great aurists, occu- 
lists, stethoscopists, microscopists, dermatologists, toxicolo- 
gists, orthopoedists, obstetricians, physiological, pathological, 
and chemical classifiers of all acute and chronic conditions, 
^ surgeons, apothecaries and physicians, is asking too much 

for three score years and ten. There must be division of 
labor in order to success ; and the time is coming when 
the general practitioner will dare to claim that he knows only 
what he does know, and will feel it to be a not unworthy part 
of his professional duty to serve his patient in divers other 
cases, by directing him to those skilled in a specific branch. 
The old distinctions, so well recognized in the British Empire, 
will ere long be revived here under a different kind of classi- 
• fication ; and medicine pride itself, not as complete in each 

practitioner, but complete because all its members will togeth- 
er make up a harmonious whole ; and the man of real merit 
and science, who puts up a modest sign of his specialty, will 
be criticized no more than her who by his M. D. proclaims him- 
self a proficient in all. Thus will we find exaltation accruing 
to our profession, and be less in danger than now from imag- 

2 



28 KEDICAL SOCIETT OF NEW-JEl»3ET. 

inary and arbitrary distinctions. We shall then not fail to 
distingnish between those w.ho, in a proper way, lay claim to 
superior skill, and those who, with gilded baubles, long adver- 
tisements, and vannted cures, seek only cash and notoriety 
combined. 

Let the practice of physic, as a business, have thus its defi- 
nite plans and methods ; let love of it as a science and an 
art^ and energy, high-toned devotion to it as a daily vocation, 
be the motive power, and it will not fail to place itself in a 
still more commanding position, and reap brighter and more 
golden rewards. 

I HASTEN TO SPEAK LASTLY OP MEDICINE AS AN ART. 

Old Plaj'fair was right when he said, " a principle in science 
is a rule in art." It is difficult to dissociate art from its sci- 
ence, or science from its art. Wherever you find a real sci- 
ence, there you are sure, ere long, to discover a corresponding 
art. There is not always the same order of sequence, for 
sometimes the science gives rise to the art, and then again the 
art may introduce the science ; and oftener still, botli are uni- 
ting their labors to luminate and advance each other. And 
so it is in our calling. The science and the art qf medicine 
are indissolubly connected. They travel on in the 8?upe di- 
rection, not always just alongside, but still ever in intimate 
correspondence, aiding, abetting, and elucidating each other. 
A true art always seeks to illustrate and apfAy science, and to 
test theory by tUility. The profession of medicine responds 
to these requisitions. It is so practical that it is called the 
practice of medicine. Its chief efibrt is to use Ha science and 
its art, both in direct application to the wants of man. With 
both, it aims at practical purposes, and has definite plans by 
which it operates for the benefit of humanity. It is eminent- 
ly utilitarian in all its ends and aims. All art is so. Even 
the fine arts, with the exquisite pleasure they yield to the 
senses, and the culture they give to the developing taste, are 
humamtarian and utilitarian ; but still more, our art, as it 
seeks to give that sweet relief which follows the lull from ex- 



PRESIDBNT'b ADDftB88. 29 

cmciating pain, and to delay the pangs with which body and 
aonl take parting, is aiming at one of the most nsefol offices 
which it can propose, as the goal of its ambition. 

Oar art, as such, has a threefold relation to humanity. Its 
designs are, 1st, to cube disease; 2nd, to prbyemt rr; and 8rd, 
TO EEUEVE PAIN« It recognizes these as three separate depart- 
ments for its effort. It is not only the healing art, but the 
preventive and the soothing art. The true physician feels 
that he has in charge the physical welfare of his species, and 
nothing that relates to hygienic or preventive science is for- 
eign to his occupation. In fact, as an art, independent of its 
r^ations to business, it has no higher triumphs than in seek- 
ing out and abating the sources of human misery. As it sur- 
veys the broad expanse of disease, it perceives bow much of 
it is a direct result of a disobedience of natural laws, by the 
individual himself, or by those who have in charge the sanitary 
or municipal regulation of society, and the zeal of the true 
philanthropist, combines with that of the earnest physician, 
to strike at the roots and cut off the sources of human malady. 
Thus, in reference to the laws of health and diet, in the study 
of meteorological changes, and in various other matters bear- 
ing upon the physical status of the nation, we feel no small 
degree of interest and accountability, and realize that society 
and humanity have claims which can not be measured or dis- 
charged by pecuniary considerations, but which, like many 
an out-gushing effort of earnest devotion to one's pursuit, are 
rendered, because of a living interest, in all that relates to the 
material elevation and vitalization of the race. 

But when our science can neither heal disease or prevent it, 
it still has a noble office to perform. When the body is writh- 
ing with the contortions of pain, and every nerve twinges 
with the sensitiveness of misery, there is something worthy of 
the name of art and science, too, in the man who can speak 
peace to the excruciating pang, and make quiet repose take 
the place of agonizing wailing. Yet this is not alL We 
know that we not only avert and relieve disease, but that we 
often cure it. We step in between life and death, and with 



30 ICEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW-JEBSET. 

those remedies which the God of nature has placed at our 
command, turn aside the reaper, death, and restore health 
and strength to the prostrate form. However perplexing 
may be the indications in some cases, every physician can re- 
call manifold instances in which he knows, as far as human cer- 
tainty can go, that he has averted the stroke of the destroy- 
ing angel, removed the barbed arrow rankling amid the life- 
blood, and can say of this or of that one : " I saved his life.'' 
Let .others pursue the paths of fortane, and build their pal- 
aces of wealth, or run the race of fame, and listen to the plau- 
dits of the forum and the stage ; let the poet and the painter 
revel in the delights of their work and picture colorings, but 
write my name as one who strove to quell the fountains of hu- 
man misery, to delay the progress of fatal disease, and ward 
off the strokes of earnest death — as one who learned to ease 
the pain and lull the anguish of bitter trial — who loved to 
work, and watch, and wait by the bed-side of suffering human- 
ity, in order that mortal grief might be assuaged, and that mor- 
tal tnaladies might yield to the remedial agencies of our art. 

I now further claim that, in all these respects, as a prevent- 
ive, a relieving, and a curative art, medicine is progressive 
and successful. As we viewed its progress as a science, so 
let us view its progress as an art. Here again we do not 
need to extend our vision over the remote past, but can gath- 
er in abundant evidence from the scope furnished by the pre- 
sent century. At its commencement comparativly little was 
known qf the relation of causes to disease. Certain facts, sucli 
as the spread of epidemics in specific latitudes, and the cessa- 
tion of diseases by special influences, as when the burning of 
400 acres of tenement houses in London stopped the Plague, 
had, indeed, long drawn attention to the fact that there was 
some connexion between atmospheric and constitutional chan- 
ges, between locality and disease, but no definite method of 
investigation or law of action had been deduced therefrom. 
But now hygienic and sanitary laws have their definite appli- 
cations. Though we can not trace the origin of such subtle 
causes as eliminate the poison of cholera, or the contagion of 



president's address. 31 

I 

certain fevers, yet, even in such cases, we know much that can 
be turned to practical account. We recognize enough of the 
antecedents of cholera, of the definite connexions between re- 
mittent fevers and miasm, and between human filth and the 
prevalence of typhus, to enable us to do much in diminishing 
their frequency, or modifying their severity. We know that 
certain measures as to cleanliness will secure immunity from 
many diseases, while the influence of proper drainage, good 
air, good diet, and contentment of mind, are appreciated and 
applied by the physician in many practical ways. 

Besides, by the process of Yaccination alone, thousands upon 
thousands have been rescued, not only from death, but from 
disfiguring disease, and the greatness of the immunity and 
blessing, can scarce be appreciated, now that variola has 
ceased to be a sweeping, unchecked scourge. The value of 
preventive medicine has been so frequently illustrated in the 
last few years, that it no longer rests upon any doubtful evi- 
dence. Cities in which all curative methods have failed to 
arrest prevalent disease, have been delivered therefrom by 
removal of accumulated refuse, and it is not too much to say 
that were those laws of hygiene, which are no longer a matter 
of doubt, applied with earnestness and efficiency, the aggre- 
gate of sickness, in city and country, would be reduced not less 
than forty per cent., and that of premature death in propor- 
tion. Even in an economical point of view, such an applica- 
tion of these laws is desirable, inasmuch as disease and mortal- 
ity deduct from the industrial wealth of a nation, but in the 
higher and more important aspect of blessing to humanity, 
there is the highest appeal to our professional and personal 
effort. The cities of Boston and Providence have well illus- 
trated the value of such efforts in their permanent methods, 
and even New York and Washington been greatly bene- 
fitted by occasional awakening, but have been oftener stand- 
ing proofs of neglect. 

New York City, with its 5000 or 6000 cases of small pox the 
last year, is good evidence on the point ; and the proportionate 
surplus of deaths by 6000 or 7000 is not to be accounted for by 
latitude or locaUty. 



32 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NBW-JBRSET. 

As to miasmatic diseases, their laws are so well understood 
that correct views, as to preventive measures, have often led 
to the relief of prevailing disease, by resort to practical meth- 
ods of drainage, and the removal of obstructions to the flow of 
natural channels. Thus, by this one department of hygiene 
and sanitary art alone, thousands have been rescued from un- 
timely graves, and tens of thousands from the long-continued 
inflictions of disease, and yet there is no field in which more 
remains to be done. Strange to say, here, medicine as a sci- 
ence is yet far ahead of medicine as an art ; in other words 
we know far more of the general and specific laws of health, 
as applicable to individuals and to crowded communities, 
than has as yet found its way into practice or municipal regu- 
lations. 

Not less, as a relieving art, has medicine recorded grand 
progress in the present century. The discovery of such an 
anesthetic as chloroform, or as ether, is of itself enough to 
crown our profession with honor for an age. Human pain and 
agony are sad and terrible things, and he is no small benefac- 
tor to his race who discovers, or whose business it is to apply 
principles and methods which lead to its relief. If we con- 
trast the past age of medicine in this respect with the present, 
we have reason for joj^ful congratulation. To perform opera- 
tions without causing a struggle or a moan, which once re- 
quired the lashing-table and the strength of human force ; to 
substitute the sweet, calm smile of quiet sleep, for the scream 
of distress, when the scalpel is penetrating nerves ; and yet 
meanwhile, to accomplish the most skilful operations of sur- 
gery — this is a glory and a triumph of which any science or 
any art may well be proud. Could all the relief which has 
been afforded to human pain by chloroform alone be express- 
ed by measure of quantity, or test of quality, or power of hu- 
man language, you would have an aggregate of capacity, of 
choice selection, of thrilling delineation such as any mere con- 
ception fails to impress. Gould a painter in one glowing picture 
present you the sum of relief and of comfort that thus our pro- 
fession has bestowed, it would be worthy to take its place as an 



toesibent's address. 38 

image of contentment beside the sleeping Madonna ; and coald 
another portray the condensed misery and pain it has averted, 
it would be a portraiture with La Miserable as its name, and 
a part of Cornelius' ^^Last Judgment" as its model. 

Nor are we to lose sight of manifold other methods of relief. 
The whole class of narcotics and sedatives have, with all 
their power, a& a prominent design, the relief as well as the 
cure of disease, and how effectually and satisfactorily they 
accomplish it, patient and physician are often the happy wit- 
nesses. Improvements in ease and simplicity of treatment 
have added, in the last few years, much to the comfort of the 
sick or injured ; and the whole practice of medicine is now 
pursued with less of inconvenience to the patient, and of less 
expenditure of that vital power which constitutes pain, than 
ever before. Thus, the art of relief becomes next in precious- 
ness to that of cure ; and unquestioned, may take a high posi- 
tion among well directed and philanthropic efforts. 

No less progressive is medicine as a curative art. Where 
once it shook the head of doubt, and trembled with the pre- 
sentiment of failure, it now advances with the firm tread of a 
reasonable certainty. While by reliable statistics it is able to 
show an appreciable, numerical gain in the management of old 
ailments, it cures others which were once consigned to the sad 
Golgotha of hopelessness, and grapples with disease, not to lull 
into unconscious security, but to renovate with the blushing 
ruddiness of restored health. It attempts cure by methods 
once unknown, and sustains their value by accurate experience. 
In every department, it reaches put with energetic hand, for 
all that reason can suggest and example prove, and hesitates 
not to subsidize to its service every thing likely to overcome 
or ameliorate injury or disease. Once dealing with disease by 
name, it now successfully defines its stages, and assigns its 
remedies, with no small degree of accuracy. Operations once 
considered hazardous, or not even proposed, have become an 
actual part of our science. Articles of Materia Medica, which 
were unknown, or so crude as not to be available, have had 
their virtues so extracted as to be manageable, and have taken ' 



34 MEDICAL SOCIETT OF KEW-JEBSE7. 

their place as valuable remedies ; and in the department of 
Uterine disease an almost radical change has been inaugurated. 
The physician of the present day can approach almost any 
disease with a consciousness of valuable facts in possession 
bearing upon it, and in a large number of cases these facts are 
such as advance our art as much as they elevate our science. 
Notwithstanding the inroads of luxury, and the deterioration 
of physical stamina, which too much marks our age, careful 
statistics show. that where the principles of our art are faith- 
fully applied, there has been a uniform and appreciable de- 
crease. Under improved hygienic regulations, Paris, since 
1830, has diminished its percentage of death from one in thir- 
ty-two to one in thirty-seven. In London a corrresponding 
improvement has taken place, until the death rate is reduced 
to one in forty. 

We next pass in conclusion to inquire whether medicine as 
an art is sv/ccessfuL. This is in fact involved in the idea of 
progressiveness, for that scarcely deserves the name of a pro- , 
gressive art, which does not eventuate in advantage and suc- 
cess. But it may be well briefly to inquire to what extent the 
art of prevention, relief, and cure, as represented in the prac- 
tice of medicine, is successful. 

A general proof of the success of an art is to be derived 
from its antiquity, and from the estimation in which it is held 
by all civilized communities. While the deference and pat- 
ronage which is often extended to empiricism may sometimes 
lead to disgust and doubt ; yet this can only result from a cir- 
cumscribed view of the area of our profession. While, ever 
and anon, some new system is vaunted and popular, yet the 
great fact stands out from the rubbish of all these false meth- 
ods, that the regular profession still holds its way amid them 
all, and not a single system, which has stood the test of time, 
pretends to vie with it. The alchymists and vegetarians, the 
Thompsonians and hydropaths, the chrono-thermalists and 
eclectics, and many other upstarts whose very names are 
now forgotten, have passed away, as will Homeopathy in 
its turn, with the age begetting them, and the progress of the 



pbesidekt's address. 35 

world writes Nihil, as their epitaph. This alone shows that 
in the general estimate of mankind it is snccessfnl ; for a pro- 
fession in which are involved the actual life and health of the 
people, would not have had such perpetuity conferred upon it, 
in compare with other systems, unless in the main it had com- 
manded the intelligent assent and approval of the world. This 
alone confers upon it, so far as the " vox populi" is concerned, 
the crown of successful competition, as having, in the long run, 
ftdrly and fully distanced its more pretentious rivals. Mankind 
have thus honored it, because in general they have recognized 
it as the most successftd dispenser of the preservatives of life, 
and the restoratives of health ; and that old English duke is 
yet worthy of admiration, who, in a time when Popery and 
Quackery were rampant in England, was taken sick, with in- 
curable ailment, and when informed by his medical attendant 
that his disease was mortal, replied, " I am content, inasmuch 
as I am permitted to die in the faith of the regular church, and 
under the care of a regular physician." 

But we need not rely for proof of success upon the general 
assent of mankind. Our advance is more demonstrative than 
this. When a man is writhing with the contortions of pain, ' 
as the result of intestinal irritation, and successive narcotics 
quell the griping monster, and relax the woful spasm, that 
relief which is as responsive to the remedy as ever effect is to 
cause, is quite convincing enough to the patient and to us. 
When the injured artery is pouring out the life blood, with 
the pale death damp settling on the countenance, and the well 
applied ligature is the thread which interweaves with the 
parting thread of life, and gives it strength for other years, 
the patient does not fail to see the connexion between his 
surgeon and his rescue. These are but specimens of number- 
less cases of direct demonstrative success, and besides these, 
there are thousands of others, which, although not so accurate- 
ly sequent, yet can appeal for proof of success to the same 
kind of evidence deemed satisfactory in other vocations. 

In dangerous diseases it is always safe to refer recovery to 
treatment, where the symptoms have been such as are gene- 



36 fiEDIOAL 800IETT OF NEW-JERSET. 

rally fatal, and where the treatment adopted has been such 
as experience and statistics prove to have diminished the 
fatality of the particular disease. In respect to pleurisy, 
pneumonia, puerperal fever, typhus and many other diseases, 
we may rest our proof upon just this kind of evidence. In 
phthisis pulmonalis, although cure is seldom effected, we have 
many and indisputable principles of treatment, and that we 
are able to elevate the system above the consumptive mark, 
and to prolong life, we. have all that kind of assurance which 
is furnished by increasing strength, diminished cough, 
higher vitality, and cessation of serious symptoms. In other 
cases, such as organic heart disease, where we can not change 
structure, yet we are able to make accurate diagnosis, and by 
warning the patient against certain contingencies, lead him to 
prolong his life, and thus secure a partial success. I knew a 
man with pulmonary aneurism, who, after treatment for con- 
sumption and divers other ailments, had his obscure case 
recognized by a learned auscultator, and not only was relieved 
from all doubt and long courses of ill advised medicines, but 
led to such a judicious course of regimen and life, as served 
•to add much to his comfort and his days, and even this cannot 
be called failure. A profession which had no higher claim 
than that of thus securing partial deliverance, would not be 
cast out as useless, and much less, one which has in it so much 
of real success that we need scarcely allude to such evidences. 

There is another kind of success, not attracting the public 
eye, which our profession has a ftdl right to claim. 

By the writings and opinions of medical men, a very great in- 
fluence is exercised in behalf of public and private medical 
charities, which, while adopted in most civilized countries, is 
seldom traced to its primal source. As many a river is bounding 
with life, and bearing over its waters the commonwealth of the 
people, whose fountain-head away off in the quiet top of some 
rocky mountain has never mirrored a single face of those who 
travel on it ; so these sources of correct physical law are un- 
seen and unknown while the world is gathering in the rich 
reward of their labors. Thus, a large part of what has become 



f 



FRESIDEirr'fi ADDRESS. 37 

the common stock of enlightened humanity, as to the laws of 
life and health, and pnblic provision therefore is due to the 
investigation and experience of our profession. Those noble 
charities which grace the world, with the realizations of a prac- 
tical philanthropy, as exhibited in infirmaries and dispensaries, 
for the poor and needy ; in hospitals for the sick, the wounded, 
and the sore; in asylums for the deaf and the blind, the 
outcast and the destitute, are in no small degree the direct 
outgrowth of our profession. If religion is the foster-mother, 
our scientific art is the foster-father. All over the broad area of 
Christian civilization, every asylum for the blind is a monument 
to the energy of Dr. Howe, who not only looked to their tempo- * 
ral wants, but invented the raised letters, which introduce them 
to the Bible and the literature of the world. The hospital 
upon the Alps, on the grand landscape slope of the Abend- 
berg, which has demonstrated how much can be done to ameli- 
orate the condition of the cretin and the idiot, is the life-work 
of Dr. GuggenbtLhl ; the idea of rescuing the drunkard from 
the wierd power of the spell enchantress' habit, by medical 
treatment, has been happily practicalized under the fostering 
care of Dr. Turner ; and never let it be forgotten, that the noble 
charity at Trenton, which confers upon our state all the honor 
due to a generous provision for the most unfortunate of her 
children, had its origin in the action of this society, and its in- 
ceptions in the minds and hearts of some who to-night honor 
us with their presence. In no profession is so much of service 
thus rendered without pecuniary reward ; and even the call of 
public institutions for the relief of their suffering inmates, is re- 
sponded to by the very ablest men of the profession, without per- 
sonal recompense. I speak after investigation of the subject, when 
I say, that in aU countries a very large proportion of the pubUc 
provisions made for mental and physical disability, its prevention 
and its cure, is traceable to our profession, and we need only to 
read their careftd reports, to satisfy us how much of success 
has attended our efforts. Civil and political power have neces- 
sarily been called upon to consummate endowments, and to 
secure munificent pecuniary patronage, and thus have gene- 



38 liEDIOAL SOCIETY OF NEW-JEBSET. 

rally been regarded as the authors. Bnt, behind all this, you 
will find the earnest labors of medical men, by essays, by 
appeals, by petitions, by expenditures of time and skill and 
money, touching the main springs which have started these me- 
chanisms of philanthropy into motion. Their success is the 
success of our profession ; and though the world may not regis- 
ter our names upon the tablet of fame's temple, in the eternity 
of knowledge, in the hidden registry of hxmian benefaction, ** Lo, 
Ben Adhem's name leads all the rest." 

Another proof of success is to be found in the spirit and in 
the result with which we grapple new diseasfes. If diptheria, 
or spotted fever, or malignant pustule or other sudden epidemic 
invades a locality, how quickly medical men are on the alert to 
trace its history and to stay its deadly tramp ; and even in 
such a class of cases, we are conscious of increasing success. 
Although we may not folly eliminate the poison, or eradicate 
the disease, we can and do meet it with the powerful antago- 
nism of an earnest and a practical art, and generally have the 
satisfaction of seeing the severity decrease as we the more 
thoroughly study and treat it. 

Besides all this, there are numbers of diseases now success- 
ftdly treated which once bade defiance to all the investigations 
of our science, and the experience of our art. There are dis- 
eases of the eye, such as Iritis, which once consigned nine-tenths 
of those attacked to hopeless blindness, jpv^hen now such a result 
is only the sparse exception. There are affections of the brain, 
such as the Hydrocephaloid disease, which a careful diagnosis, 
has so separated from acute dropsy as to save many a child. 
Diseases of the heart, the lungs, and the alimentary apparatus 
are much more definitely understood, and we know, from 
a comparison of aggregated results, that we meet them better 
than did our fathers, and almost every year improve upon our- 
selves. 

In Uterine affections, the last twenty-five years have wit- 
nessed great modifications of treatment, and the operation for 
vesico-vaginal fistula has been but the prelude to local treat- 
ment of other sexual ailments, which has lifted many a sigh 



> 



I 



president's address. 39 

from off the sorrows of womanhood and returned many a chron- 
ic invalid to the useftd happiness of restored health. A new 
era has dawned upon this department ; and new and surprising 
success is attending those who keep pace with the advance. 

In the domain of surgery it would be too tedious to particu- 
larize the progress. With chloroform as the presiding almoner 
of peace,' the dislocated joint, by scientific manipulation, falls 
into its socket without the seven mechanical powers ; and 
French surgery, during the past year, even reports the reduc- 
tion of a broken neck. The broken bone no longer consigns 
the patient to weeks of bed-ridden impatience, and exsection 
and resection preserve many a limb, once buried before its 
time. The system of extension and counter extension no longer 
means a cumbersome appliance of boards, and bandages, and 
dragging weights, but with simple adhesive plaster, or Smith'a 
anterior splint, ease and motion are alike secured. The 
pitiable sufferer from hip disease, no longer lingers long 
months of weary confinement, but with well adjusted splints 
walks forth to breathe that air which is health to his bones 
and doeth good like a medicine. 

The swollen epiglottis no longer necessarily proves fatal, and 
had George Washington lived in our day his valuable hfe might 
I have been prolonged for many years. Plastic operations, if we 
can judge from growing custom have made hare-Up popular, 
while the orthopoedist has nb apology to offer for any limping 
Mephibosheth he may meet. 

The beautiful system of arterial lignature, as with silken or 
silver thread, it has passed from one success to another, has 
recorded the grandest triumphs of modem surgery, until since 
last we met, it has reached the climax of its achievements in a 
successful tieing of the ateria innominata. With wounSs and 
bruises and putrifying sores we deal in a simpler and more suc- 
cessful way, while diseases of the joints are less fatal than for- 
merly. Hernia admits of many a radical cure, and encysted 
dropsy, and ovarian tumors are not imfrequently reheved by 
operations, which by their extent, and length, and boldness^ 
seem to the unpracticed eye almost superhuman. Contracted 



40 HEDiCAL socmrr op hcw-jebset. 

tendons yield to mechamci^cOntriYances ; and spinal corvatures 
resume the graceftd symmetry with which nature has elaborat* 
ed. the great flexible oolnmn of upright humanity. Scientific 
ingenuity has provided us with the microscope, the ophal- 
mascope, the larjrngosoope, in such rapid succession, that we 
have yet only partially profited by their augmenting revela. 
tions* Numberless minor instruments have simplified or ren- 
dered possible inany operations ; wooden limbs are walking 
as if with the comfort and agility of living calibre ; and in the 
vdrious departments of mechanical appliance we are daily prov- 
ing, by our success, how much can be done externally to over- 
come the invasions of disease and injury. 

In a word, our profession in all its departments, is teeming 
with the trophies of recent suceess, and is bidding its votaries 
to keep pace with its advancing triumphs. 

As thus we have glanced over the field of vision presented 
in this hasty review, there is found enough to thrill the heart 
of science with zealous enthusiasm, and to warm the practi- 
tioner of medicine with all the glowing energy of a living, ad- 
vancing art. 

Such, my fellow laborers, is the noble calling which we. have 
selected as ours, among the learned professions. In the name 
of all that is precious in humanity, of all that isjoyfal in the 
ecstacy of advancing knowledge and successful application, I 
bid you hail ! Galled by your kind preference to the highest 
honor within the gift of the Profession of this State, I desire 
to magnify my office only by endeavoring to arouse one .and 
all to an adequate appreciation of the power and progress of 
our noble vocation^ When I address you as the Fellows and 
Delegates of the State Medical Society of New Jersey; I call 
you *by no common name. With it are intertwined not only 
the precious memories of ninety and nine years full of friend- 
ship and renown, but the devotion of true men to a glorious, 
scientific art ; the majestic campaign of an organissed battal- 
ion against the encroachments of disease ; the unflinching 
valor of tried heroes, battling with life-energy against the 
grim forces of Deaths It is the ccHubination of learning and 



PRISII^ENt's ADVRBBB. 41 

experience ripened into accurate judgment, and wielded with 
mtellisrent skill, in order that the aged grandparent may still 
occupy the good old family chair ; that the bonds of conjugal 
affection, cemented in love, may not be rudely severed by the 
untimely separations of the grave ; that the prattling cherub 
may still cheer the household with his ringing laugh ; that the 
fond parents may still gather their loved ones, like olives, 
about the table, and that all the sweet amenities that render 
life a social, holy joy, may be prolonged as much as the insta- 
bihty of the world will permit. 

Consecrated to such work, we meet, that our plighted vows 
may be renewed. We review the past, that we may gather 
strength for the future ; we grasp the hand of professional 
friendship, that we may warm our mutual sympathies to no- 
bler and stronger endurance. We trace our progress, and re- 
cord our success only that we may rise up and tread the road 
that leads to more ; we compare our experience, that each 
may profit by that of the other, and thus hope to return to 
OUT respective fields of labor, the better prepared to meet the 
exig^cies of disease. 

Thus, in our own appropriate spheres, we will do our part 
to make America, in the triumph of her arts, coequal with 
America in the triumph of her arms. Over all the broad do- 
main we will spread the protecting aegis of the Healing Art ; 
and while others are battling for the nation's life, with the 
booming roar of the sea-fight or the terrible conflicts of the 
battle-field, we will bring sanitary and prophylactic science to 
bear, in hold, hospital and camp, will care for the people's 
health with the well directed efibrt of good Samaritan admin- 
istration ; and, when at home, the strength and glory of the 
land, its men, its women and its children, are prostrate with 
disease, unheralded as the dew, noiseless as the sun, we will 
dispense those remedies, which, with the blessing of God up- 
on them, will give strength, and health, and vigor to the land. 
With such high resolves and strong desires, let us welcome 
each other to these deliberations, hoping and expecting bene- 
fit from this fraternal and professional interview, and from 



42 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW-JEBSEY. 

heuce shall wo return to our duties, with invigorated deter- 
mination to act well our parts as members of that profession, 
whose foundation is a true science, whose superstructure is a 
growing temple of successful art, and around whose Doric pil- 
lars, Religion, Philosophy, Philanthropy and Humanity bind 
the chaplets and entwine the garlands of their majestic ap- 
proval. 



I 



ESSAY BY JOHN R, STEVENSON, M. D. 



Mr. President and Gentlemen of the New Jerset Med- 
ical Society : A century in the history of this old and hon- 
orable Society is about to close. How eventiiil has this period 
been. A space of time that began long before the memory 
of the oldest member now present, and long before this na- 
tion had its birth, or even a dream of existence. It closes 
amid the din of arms— amid a great and fratricidal war, that 
is shating our country to the very centre. 

While all around we see the pomp of war, and hear contin- 
ually the echoes from the battle-field — while men's minds are^ 
absorbed with war, and man's greatest ingenuity is taxed witb 
devising and executing new problems for the greater destmc-r 
tion of his fellow-man, it is our high privilege to meet to- 
gether, in one of the noblest of the pursuits of peace, to com- 
mune together for the advancement of our noble calling, and 
to take counsel how we may be the better aMe to sa^e and 
prolong the lives of our fellow-men. 

In times like these, it would seem to be especiially enjoined 
upon us, the pioneer Society on this continent, for the ad- 
vancement of medical knowledge and professional good feK 
lowship, to strive, with renewed earnestness and more devoted! 
zeal, to fulfill the great mission to which our lives have been 
devoted — the preservation of the health and lives of the com- 
munity in which we live. The life-blood of the nation is rap- 
idly wasting away. The bone and muscle of the land is daily 
and hourly offering itself a sacrifice at its country's altar, and' 
the youth and vigor of tlie nation ^ that should be the germ.tD» 

a 



k 



44 MEDICAL 'SOCIETT OF KEW-JEBSBT. 

give health and strength to the coming generation, is disap- 
pearing, to give place to the old, the feeble, and the diseased. 

The condition of our country at the present time seems to 
make extraordinary calls upon our profession, to put forth all 
its strength and influence, to aid in securing physical strength 
and health for the people who are to form the future genera- 
tion of the nation ; and it has seemed to me that some re- 
marks, as to how the demands (^ our country upon the medical 
pro/esaion may be in some measure responded to, would not be 
inappropriate on the present occasion. 

No class or profession have responded more nobly to the 
calls of the country than her physicians. None have made 
greater sacrifices in her behalf. The best talent in the land 
has abandoned the comforts and luxuries of home, the society 
of kfnd relatives and friends, and the pecuniary rewards of 
lucrative practice, to share with the soldier the hardships 
and privations of the field, and the dangers of the battle, to 
bind up his wounds, and conduct him safely through his lin- 
gering sickness. No dazzling vision of military glory allures 
the surgeon ; no high honors or great rewards await him ; no 
official bulletin proclaims, throughout the land, a nation's grat- 
itude for the sleepless, weary hours passed in the hospital, to 
trim the flickering lamp of life that burns so dimly in her 
wounded sons. To the honor of our profession be it said, 
that no arm of the service has to-day a brighter record. No 
one has been more faithful to its duties, and no one has 
achieved in its sphere a greater success. 

While our brethren are responding so nobly to the cry, from 
the battle-field and hospital, for their sacrificing efibrts, those 
who remain at home may find increased demands for the ex- 
ercise of their talents and labors. The daily routine of a 
physician's visits to his sick patients gives but a faint idea of 
the vast ajnount of disease and infirmity that exist through- 
out the land. The number of men among us who are feeble, 
deformed, or diseased, is very great indeed — far beyond the 
belief of any one who has not seen them with his own eyes. 
If the district in which I live is any criterion for the State, 



ESSAY BY JOHN B. STEVENSON, M.D. 45 

or the State for the country, the vaunted boastings of the 
superlative health and physical perfection of our countrymen, 
with which we have been wont to delude ourselves, have been 
put on a par with our self-satisfying laudations of the com- 
pleteness and infallibility of our social and civic structure. 
If this war has already opened our eyes to the fallacy of the 
latter, it is just as surely disabusing our minds of the former 
error. It is doubtful if the physical development and health 
of our people is equal to that of several of the European na- 
tions. When we take into view the many natural hygienic 
advantages we possess, superior to those of other countries,* 
and which ought to make us so much their superiors, we must 
certainly acknowledge to a comparative, if not a real infe- 
riority. The climate, the productive soil, the extended space 
for population, and the general diffusion of wealth, form a 
fertije soil, from which should grow a hardy, healthy, and vig- 
orous race of men. Such, indeed, is the youthful growth ; 
but this same rich soil will also produce, with great luxuri- 
ance, the tares — the elements of future disease and death. 
Observation reveals to us too plainly both of these facts. 
Our men grow in height above the standard of other nations, 
but a proportionate breadth is not generally obtained. The 
hale, hearty, and robust man of to-day too often begins to de- 
cline before the meridian of life. Chronic disease and local 
weakness early begin to manifest themselves in a large num- 
ber, who long conceal them from the eye of the physician. 
Your next neighbor, who daily meets you with the profession 
of health, is wearing slowly but surely away. He only asks 
your aid when brought to the brink of the grave, and then 
impatiently expects you to quickly resurrect him to health 
and strength ; and when you fail, he sends for the nearest 
quack, who speedily aids him to shuffle off this mortal coil. 

It is not proposed to discuss here the causes that operate in 
making the American standard of physical development fall 
short of what it ought to be. They are numerous, and many 
of them must change with the varied local circumstances by 
which different sections of the country are surrounded. Many 



iji MEDICAL 80CIETT OF NEW-JEBSET, 

of ihem are contifiually appearing to the yiew of every physi- 
cian in his field of labor. We daily violate the simplest laws 
of hygiene. Absorbed in the pursuit of wealth, we toil un- 
ceasingly to Obtain the coveted treasure ; neither the mind 
nor the body are allowed sufficient rest or recreation. Our 
food, although so plentiful, and of such good quality, is un- 
doubtedly, in many places throughout the rural section?, not 
sufficiently varied in i^s character ; and everywhere is bolted 
with the utmost haste, instead of being properly masticated 
and prepared for digestion. It is probable that these causes^ 
more than any others, exert a baneful influence over our health 
aiid strength. Recent observations of a large number of men, 
distinctly show us the fact, that those localities which are most 
highly favored with diffused wealth, inducing men to make 
use of a varied diet, and to dispense with excessive bodily 
and mental labor, invariably present the largest number of 
well-formed, healthy and robust men, even although climatic 
and othef^ influences may be less favorable than neighboring 
poorer districts. 

It would be of great advantage to the people if the physi- 
cians of the present day would devote some of their leisure, 
time to the investigation of the various agencies at work, un- 
dermining the health and lives of the community, and apply- 
ing remedies for their removal. Do we do all of our duty to 
the public when we visit the bedside of the sick, and, with 
our remedies, bring them into convalescence ? Have all the 
obligations between the doctor and his patients been fulfilled 
wheuy promptly at the call, he flies to the rescue, and, at the 
end of the year, he has his bill and receipt as promptly ac- 
knowledged ? The physician, within .his circle of practice, 
should be the custodian of its health. He should have a 
watchful eye over the hygienic conditions operating upon the 
healthy, as well as over the effects of remedies upon the dis- 
eased. 

The' physician should, indeed, be the medical adviser of his 
people, both sick and well, and the people should seek counsel 
from the profession. But herein lies the great difficulty — the 



B88AY BY JOHN' B. STEVEVSOK, ILD. 47 

great Btumbling-block to the eradication of many an exciting 
and predisposing cause of disense. The mass of the comma- 
nitj fail to seek this advice. He who is sick, and fears he in 
going to die, is quite willing and anxious to call for medical 
assistance, but he who is in robust health, with no present fear 
of the grave before his ej'es, rarely asks for counsel. The 
man who builds a house, first consults the architect, for a plan 
that will give it beauty and convenience, and the mechanic, to 
ascertain the cost of its construction. But who ever consults 
the doctor, to inquire if it will be healthy ? And yet that 
building may influence, for good or for evil, the physical con- 
dition of generations. Thus it is with every department of 
life ; medical advice is seldom or never sought for as a pre- 
ventive of disease, but only as a curative agent when It has 
become established. It is certain that this great want of com* 
munion, on the part of the people, with the profession, is a 
most serious injury to the physical well-being of the former, 
and, at the same time, a great obstacle to the usefulness of 
the latter. 

How to remedy this evil, is a question worthy of the most 
careful study, and the successful solution of which would con- 
fer the greatest of blessings upon the community. The peo- 
ple themselves do not appreciate or understand its importance. 
And how shall they understand if they have not learned? 
And how shall they learn without a teacher ? May not every 
medical man become a teacher? But in what way are they 
to be taught ? It is scarcely to be expected that the knowl- 
edge of what conditions will favor the highest grade of health, 
or what circumstances will conduce to longevity, can be dis- 
seminated by health conventions, in which long discussions on, 
favorite hobbies are delivered, and a series pf dogmatic resolu- 
tions passed, which few read and still fewer ever regard. 
Neither can it be di£fased, to any considerable extent, through 
any of the ordinary vehicles for the conveyance of information 
to the public. But every physician, in the round of his daily 
visits, can do much, successfully, for the eradication of those 
habits which are at variance with the laws of hygiene, and of 



48 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW-JEBSET. 

those careless practices which sap the foundation of life. 
Here it is that their evil effects come directly under his 
notice, and here the opportunity opens for the application of 
the antidote. His opinions are listened to here with respect 
and his advice always makes its impress. 

It would seem as if this was a field of usefulness, in which the 
profession could increase its benevolence quietly and unosten- 
tatiously to an almost unlimited extent, and one from which 
would spring the most enduring and substantial fruits. 

The man, who in a malarious district would ignorantly build 
his house on the low ground, and be subjected to its continued 
deleterious exhalations, will listen to his physician, who kindly 
advises him to locate on an adjacent eminence, up to which the 
concentrated poison will not rise, and thereby may not only 
much suffering be avoided, but the health and constitution of 
future generations be greatly influenced for the better. 

The man of sedentary habits, who daily overworks his men- 
tal powers, at the expense of his corporeal strength, in the 
confined atmosphere of an illy ventilated room, will oftentimes 
lend a listening ear to the suggestion from a medical friend, 
that his labor must be more equally divided between mind 
^d body, if he wishes to avoid inevitable disease, or desires 
to prolong a life hastening to an early grave. 

The family, who, by hereditary descent, fall heirs to a tu- 
berculous diathesis, and who, from force of habit or mistaken 
ideas of economy, are inclined to adopt too spare, unvaried, or 
improper diet, will most generally heed the caution of their 
oft-trusted physician,, when he points out to them the evil con- 
sequences likely to follow from a persistence in such a course. 
And who can tell how often it may happen, that such simple 
and easily followed advice, may preserve a name and a family 
far down into the future, that might otherwise soon become 
extinct? 

It would be impossible, even if time permitted, to enume- 
rate the numerous causes that are operating deleteriously 
upon the health of the community without their effects being 
generally known, and which could, in most instances, be easily 



ESSAY BY JOHN R. STEVENSON, M.D. 



49 



removed by each individual interested, if duly and wisely 
cautioned and instructed by his medical adviser. Many are 
entirely local in their character, and as such have no genei'al 
interest to the mass of the profession. But in the practice of 
every medical man, they come into view, and their baneful in* 
fluence is constantly indicated in the forms and types of dis- 
ease that he is called upoti to combat. Frequently, too, in his 
power alone lies the remedy. 

It may seem to be but a trifling matter, thus to call atten- 
tion to a professional duty, which each and every one of us, to 
some extent, are every day faliilling, in the hopes of awaken- 
ing an increased interest in it, and exciting an increased activ- 
ity in this direction. It is true that the fruits to be obtained 
in each single field of labor, are slow of growth, and too often 
small in fruition. But who can estimate the grand sum total 
of benefit to the country, that may be garnered from this field 
alone ? It is true that the rewards for the bestowal in this 
manner, of so much professional labor, are rarely those that 
directly enrich the pocket, or encircle the brow with honors. 
But what reward is equal to the satisfaction derived from the 
knowledge of having been the means of adding a single day to 
the lives of our fellow men, or of having saved them from a 
single hour of suffering? This reward would most surely 
come to our profession ; that the public would be drawn to 
us by a closer union ; they would see in a clearer light, the 
true benevolence that forms the corner stone of our ethics, 
and be the better able to estimate our services at their true 
value. With their increased confidence in us, our influence 
would be widened and strengthened, until its shadow would 
enshroud the host of charlatans who rob the purse while they 
destroy the body, and the medical profession would become a 
power in the land. 

The hope of reward is not the only incentive that actuates 
the noble profession to which we belong, to good or exalted 
deeds ; but there is a higher motive that underlies the sub- 
strata of our faith — ^the welfare of our fellow men. Patriotism, 
too, in all ages past, has been an attribute co-joined with it. 



50 MEDICAL SOCIETT OF NEW-JEB8ET. 

Throughout all the world's history', the physician has always 
stood in the foremost ranks of patriots, ready and willing to 
do his duty fearlessly, and if need be, to sacrifice his all for 
his country's sake. Our country has demanded much of us, 
during the past few years of her trials and her perils ; but she 
.has not asked in vain. And now that the great and terrible 
disease, that has so long preyed upon her vitals, has spent its 
force, and the crisis is passed, there is much that is still asked 
.of us. Convalescence is approaching, and as the disease has 
been severe and lingering, so may we expect that the return 
to full strength will be slow, and will need the most careful 
watphfulness. As a society, as physicians, as men, let us not 
relax our vigilance, nor cease our efforts to meet the responsi- 
bilities, and fulfill the obligations that devolve upon us ; but 
let us continue to strive earnestly and faithfully in our sphere, 
to render to society, in the re-constiruction of our country to 
power and greatness, that material assistance which can only 
be received at our hands. 

In conclusion, permit me to express the hope, that the Cen- 
tennial Anniversary of the New Jersey Medicaji Society may 
dawn upon a united, peaceful and happy country. 




REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMIITKE. 



There has been throughout the State, with a few exceptions, 
a very general prevalence of health, during the past year. The 
diseases noticed in the reports, received by the standing com- 
mittee, as having met the observation of the profession, are 
fevers, intermittent and typhoid, scarlatina, diphtheria, rubeola, 
pertussis, variola and spotted fever, or cerebro spinal, meningi- 
tis. 

In Hudson Co., the reporter remarks that all the physicians 
concur in the statement, that the past year has been character- 
ized by an unusual amount of sickness. In one portion, where 
the earth, which has lain dormant from time immemorial, has 
been exposed to the sun, for the purpose of making new roads, 
/<&€., intermittents were prevalent, and almost all classes of com- 
plaints, during the warm season, assumed the same type, ren- 
dering necessary the use of antiperiodics for their cure. In 
another locality, the turning up of new soil, consequent upon 
the construction of railroads and other improvements, was fol- 
lowed by the prevalence of fevers — a few of the enteric, but 
chiefly of the intermittent type. The two localities named 
above, are remote from each other, while a coincidence is man- 
ifest in the class and type of the disease, seemingly consequent 
upon the disturbance of the soil. We make mention, in this 
•connection, of the report from Camden, which notices the fact, 
that, in a portion of that county, a remarkable change has 
taken place in the character of fevers which there prevail. 
While, previous to the past two years, no cases of intermittent 
disease originated there, it has now become the prevailing fe- 



52 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW-JEBSE7. 

ver ; and typhoid fever, which formerly was prevalent, has now 
become rare. Tlje cause assigned by the reporter, is the gen- 
eral cutting off of the timber in what was formerly a heavily 
wooded district. To return to the report from Hudson Coun- 
ty. In addition to the forms of malarial fever, diphtheria and 
croup, in some Ipcalities, and scarlatina, rubeola and pertussis 
in others, have prevailed to a considerahje extent. In one por- 
tion of the county, pertussis was in many cases complicated 
with pneumonia and capillary bronchitis. In the treatment of 
these affections, the experience of the physicians has elicited 
nothing new. The reporter roinarks, in regard to scarlatina, 
that the supporting and stimulating treatment is generally re- 
lied upon, while he calls attention to the use of alkeline 
sulphites in zymotic diseases. Dr. Wilkinson, of Bergen, re- 
marks, in reference to the treatment of pertussis, that the much 
vaunted remedy for its cure, bromide of potassium, has, in his 
hands, manifested no efficiency whatever, either in modifying 
the paroxysmal character of the disease, or in cutting it short. 

From Bergen Go. the committee has received an interesting 
communication from Dr. Hasbrouck, of Hackensack, from which 
we note that a malarial typhoid fever has prevailed, character- 
ized, more or less distinctly, by periodic remissions, and con- 
trolled principally by quinine. The doctor notices also the 
prevalence of pneumonia in a severe form. He says, further, 
that diphtheria, pertussis and scarlatina have, for some years 
past, occurred only in a sporadic form. Small pox has been 
unusually prevalent, as also measles, which has swept over 
nearly the whole of that part of the county which is brought 
under his professional observation. In allusion to the Dist. 
Medical Society, of Bergen, he remarks : " Our medical society 
seems to be in a state of torpor ; not from repletion, but from 
inanition. Nevertheless, the profession get along tc^ether very 
harmoniously. We have the skeleton of a good district socie- 
ty, and I live in the hope that the breath of life will be breath- 
ed into it some of these days." 

In Passaic Co., a mild form of remittent fever, with typhoid 
tendency, prevailed throughout the year. Intermittents have 



REPOBT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. &3 

been very rare. In the early part of October, an epidemic of 
small pox made its appearance, and extended with wonderful 
rapidity through every part of the city of Paterson, all clasfie^ 
being subjected to the disease, {n many cases, an eruption of 
roseola preceded the appearance of variola. There is, at pres- 
ent, very little abatement of the disease. It presents itself in 
every form, from the mildest varioloid to the severest confluent 
small pox. 

During the last few months, occasional cases of spotted fever 
have occurred. The symptoms as described are similar to 
those more particularly detailed hereafter, as also the treat- 
ment. 

A history of a case of cellielitis and of erysipelas, by Dr. Rog- 
ers, acompanies the report from Passaic, and is submitted here- 
with. 

In Essex Co. there has been no unusual mortality during the 
year, nor any prevailing epidemic. The reporter notices one 
locality, in his neighborhood, which has been terribly scourged 
with scarlatina. It lies four miles west of Newark. The dis- 
ease presented, in almost every instance, a malignant charac- 
ter, and in nearly all the anginous affection was very severe. 
He remarked in this epidemic, a disposition to diphtheritic de- 
position implicating the larynx and trachea. Some of the pa- 
tients sank under the shock of the disease ; in others, its force 
was spent upon the lining membrane of the bowels^ If any 
eruption appeared, it was livid in color. Upon the decline of 
the eruption, abscesses formed about the neck, in some cases, 
three or four upon the same patient. At this period of the 
disease, an erysipelatous inflammation appeared upon the face, 
in a few instances, commencing upon the side of the nose, and 
extending quite rapidly. The disposition to anasarca, as a se- 
quel, was strongly marked, the kidneys being tender, and the 
urine albuminous. For the treatment of the disease, the soci- 
ety is referred to the report in which it is fully detailed, and 
is singularly judicious. We would notice, only, the use of the 
syringe, instead of the swab, for applications to the inner surfaces, 
and also the benefit resulting from the application of ice in the 



54 MEDICAL SOCrBTY OP NEW-JERSEY. 

more inflammatory cases. The attention of the society was called 
to this agent, at our last annual meeting, as being of no avail in 
inflammations of the throat. We have, during the year, made 
repeated trials of the remedy, in simple and diphtheric throat 
inflammations, and with the most marked beneficial results. 
We were stimulated to the persistent use of it, by reading a 
communication upon the use of ice and cold effusions, by Hiram 
Corson, M. D., read before the medical society of Peimsylvania, 
and published in the last volume of the transactions of the so- 
ciety. The reporter upon this endemic of scarlet fever, re- 
marks, that this is the third time, within his knowledge, that 
the disease, in severe form, has visited the same neighborhood, 
and observed the same limits on each occasion. 

Spotted fever manifested itself in Newark in four cases, and 
presented some peculiarities in feature. The spotted appear- 
ance of the skin strongly resembled purpura haemorrhagica ; to 
distinguish it from which, required a careful observation. The 
fatal cases revealed the cerebro-spinal lesion. Dr. O'Gorman, 
who treated and made a postmortem examination of tlie cases, 
has communicated to the society an intelligent history of the 
cases, and of the post mortem appearances. 

In Middlesex Co., diphtheria has been somewhat prevalept 
near New Market, and quite fatal. In other localities, it has 
been sporadic, and more manageable than formerly. During 
the first summer months, an endemic of child-bed fever prevail- 
ed in South Amboy . The reporter remarks that he does not re- 
member a single case of child-bed which came under his notice, 
which was not more or less interfered with by this affection ; 
and the experience of other medical men, in his neighborhood, 
corresponded with his own. There were many deaths from 
the fever, but they occurred mostly among women who either 
had no physician, or employed persons of deficient scientific 
knowledge. The treatment which was usually successful, was 
quinine, calomel and opium, and applications to the abdomen 
of fomentations of tobacco and turpentine. The quinine was 
made the basis of the treatment, as all the diseases of the lo- 
cality, during the summer and fall were of a periodic malarial 



BEPORT OF THE STANDING COMKITTEE. &5 

type. As appropriate in this connexion, we remark, that I>r* 
Johnson, of Warren Co., reports two fatal cases of puerperal 
peritonitis, which were painless, while the other symptoms 
showed plainly the disease, snch as extreme rapidity of pulse, 
unequivocal tympanites, and suppression of the lochia. The 
absence of pain, and tenderness on pressure, and the anxious 
countenance, obscured the condition of the patient, and medical 
aid was asked for too late. 

Prom Sussex Co. the committee has received a comrannica* 
tion from Dr. Thomas Ryerson, containing a history of his 
practice during the year, with the results, and detailing some 
cases of interest. He also describes a form of fracture bed, 
readily extemporized, and original in its construction. We 
quote his remarks upon a point of obstetrical practice : 
" twenty-five per cent, of my cases of labor were of the right 
occipito posterior position, most of which were speedily and 
spontaneously converted to right anterior positions. When this 
spontaneous conversion failed, it was due to the extension of 
the head, or an occipito frontal position, because in this case 
the vertex does not reach the ischiatic plane until the fore- 
head is more or less engaged. I may say here, that the expe- 
rience of twenty-one years has convinced me that a very large 
percentage, almost all of the tedious labors are due to pre- 
mature extension of the head ; and the lateral obliquity 
which often results." He remarks, ** that the speedy termina- 
tion of the labor by bringing down the feet is so feasible that the 
temptation to praptice it is very great ;" but, in view of the 
ordinarily safe natural termination of these cases, he does not 
recommend it. The committee commends Dr. Ryerson's 
paper to the attention of the profession as illustrative of the 
value to the cause of medical science, of a careful and detailed 
history of individual practice. 

Warren Co, has not been characterized by any unusual 
prevalence of disease during the year. In Belvidere enteric 
affections are becoming yearly less frequent and less severe. 
In the north-west part of the county, typhoid fever is the 
type most prevalent. Intermittents are unusually rare } the 



56 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW-JERSEY. 

typhoid cases tbis year were mostly mild. When unusual 
attention was required, the enteric symptoms were promi- 
nent. 

Dr. Johnson remarks, that in his portion of the county, he 
met with cerebro-spinal complications in the diseases of the 
first months of the year. He further states, that he has had 
to combat similar difficulties' in previous years. 

Prom Hunterdon Co., Dr. Johnson, of White House, 
informs the committee that, in his portion of the county, the 
winter and early spring months were unusually sickl}^ and 
the ratio of mortality great. Diphtheria appeared in about 
thirty cases, some of which were fatal. Typhoid fever, of a 
mild form, has been somewhat prevalent. Four of the fever 
cases, which fell under his observation^ he remarks, might be 
termed walking fever, as the patients kept their feet nearly 
all the time of their sickness. 

Dr- C. W. Larison reports from Ringoes, of the same 
county, that enteric fever prevailed during January and Feb- 
ruary of last year. During the month of August diphtheria 
was endemic in a malignant form. Forty-four cases occurred, 
five of which were fatal. 

In Lambertville, pneumonia was prevalent for the greater 
part of the year ; more particularly during the autumn and 
winter months. While the epidemic was at its hight, rubeola 
invaded the locality. About one-third of the cases wore com- 
plicated with pneumonia ; one-qu irter of which were fatal. 
About seventy fatal cases occurred in about six weeks, wjien 
the disease over-run the entire population and subsided, while 
the pneumonia; less frequent and in milder form, still contin- 
ues. There is m^re intermittent fever in the miasmatic por- 
tions of the town than in three years before. Scarlatina has' 
also prevailed in this district of the county ; forty-six cases 
occurring, one of which was fatal. Variola has been endemic 
since January last ; out of ninety-one cases, forty-two were 
f^nuine small pox, twenty-one of which were confluent, and 
three malignant ; the remaining fort]f-nine were modified. 
Of two hundred cases previously vaccinated, eighty-two on 
re-vaccination, were affected with the vaccine disease: 



REPORT OF THE STANDING COXMITTEE. 57 

r 

Dr. Blane remarks that, in the vicinity of Perryville, in 
Jane and July, scarlatina prevailed in a small district situated 
on the sonth side of a -low monntain range drained by pure 
water. A few cases took on all the symptoms of regular me* 
ningitis, or, without the rash so well marked in scarlet fever, 
put on that of spotted fever, with its other symptoms, more 
or less fully pronounced from the beginning. Dysentery also 
prevailed in Perryville in August and September, confined to 
certain localities. It is apt to be found endemic along a line 
where the different soils meet. Where the lime-stone soil 
ceases, and the red shale and other 6oil commences, about a 
mile wide on either side of such line, the disease has prevailed 
and confined itself to that altitude around and on the side 
hiUs. 

In Burlington Co., during the winter and early spring 
months, an unusual number and a great variety of attacks on 
the respiratory organs occurred. They were general through- 
out the county and, in the practice of Dr. Coleman, the re- 
porter, particularly severe. They were usually amenable to 
treatment, except among the aged, those subject to chronic 
cough, and those in whom an incipient tuberculosis existed. 
In Burlington there was a more general prevalence of pneu- 
monia, during the winter and early spring, than had been ex- 
perienced in that community for many years. 

Scarlatina has made its annual visit in the district without 
any features of peculiar interest, except in the neighborhood 
of Columbus, where the disease has existed throughout the 
year. At Morristown it prevailed as an epidemic in Februa- 
ry, March and April, of a low grade and rash dark. Dr. Thorn- 
ton, of that town, remarks upon the treatment of the disease, 
that beginning early with sugols solutini internally, has pre- 
vented the formation of ab^^cesses in the neck. Diphtheria 
has appeared, more or less, in the county, but in a less malig- 
nant form than in previous years. 

Spotted fever was endemic in the northern section of the 
county. It has been fully noticed in an excellent paper read 
before the District Medical Society, and published in the Med- 



60 HEDIGAL BOCIETY OF NEW JEBSBT. 

and muscular rigidity, with the irritability of the stomach and 
owels, corresponded with the usually described phenomena 
of the disease. In the two fatal cases, both of w^ich termi- 
nated in a few hours, a livid or purplish appearance was mani- 
fest after death. In the case which recovered, under the use 
of large doses of quinine and iron, frequently repeated, the 
patient broke out in pink and purple spots over the whole sur- 
face of the body, from the size of a pea to a fine rash. 

From Atlantic Co., Dr. Joseph Pitney writes that the 
year has been marked by the general healthfulness of the 
district. He alludes to a few cases of pneumonia in old peo- 
ple, and remarks that the causa morbi in this disease is not 
known. The exciting cause is ascribed to cold, but the sud- 
den appearance of coma, with cessation of pain and slight 
cough, seems to indicate the action of some morbid poison on 
the brain. He is disposed to attribute these symptoms to 
uremic poison, either combined with Bright's disease, or a 
separate disease, sui generis. In . all cases he has observed a 
diminished urinary secretion, and, in some, an entire suppres- 
sion. This has led him to look at the pulmonary symptoms 
as merely symptomatic of mischief elsewhere, of which the 
coma, insensibility and speedy death is the consequence. 

Dr. Joseph Fithian, of Gloucester County, informs the com- 
mittee that the diseases of the district have been few, and. of the 
mildest type. The Dr., in his communication, calls attention 
to the importance, on the part of medical men, of a thorough 
knowledge of the minatiaB appertaining to the science of ob- 
stetrics, commending patience, delicacy, a masterly inactivity ; 
and promptness of action when interference is required. He 
has been in the habit of prescribing three doses in his obste- 
trical practice, which he says, in ninety-nine cases in one 
hundred will bring the sufferer safely through. The first 
dose is patience, the second dose is patience, and the third 
dose is patience. And they are necessary, both for the patient 
and the doctor. 

He relates an interesting case in this department of science, 
which is submitted with this report. 

A resume of the diseases of the year, discloses a more 



BEPOBT OF THE STANDING COHMITTEE. 61 

than usual prevalence of pnenmonia over wide districts of 
the State. Though grave in character, and, in feeble subjects, 
sometimes fatal, it has proved to be usually amenable to treat- 
ment. Typhoid, both enteric and malarial, and intermittent fe- 
vers are mdre frequently noticed in the reports of this year, than 
for some years past. Scarlatina, in one or two localities, malig 
nant a^d intractable, has been less general than in former years. 
Diphtheria has declined in a marked degree, both in severity 
and general prevalence. Yariola h^^ called for more than its 
usual share of professional attention — a tendency to the dis* 
ease manifesting itself in the readiness with which the vac* 
cine and vaccinoid disease is developed in unprotected and 
protected subjects. Our attention is also called to the dis- 
ease known as spotted fever, or cerebro-spinal meningitis. 
The committee regret that two localities in the State, Long 
Branch and Trenton, which furnished a favorable field for the 
study of the phenomena of the disease, have found no reporter 
to the Society. The reports furnish notices of four cases in 
Newark, a few in Hunterdon County, apparently complicating 
Scarlatina, about twenty cases in Burlington County, four in 
Cumberland, and about the same number in Camden, and a 
fe,w cases in Paterson. While there was not an entire uni- 
formity in the symptoms of the disease, as it appeared at the 
various points, the history of the cases is substantially the 
same. They may be succinctly detailed as follows^ The on- 
set is marked by a more or less distinct chill, as in other fe- 
brile attacks, attended with, or speedily followed by, pain in 
the head or limbs, confined sometimes to a single Joint. In 
3ome cases the pain first occurs in the limbs, and afterwards 
attacks the head — ^irritable stomach and bowels, causing either 
vomiting or purging, or both ; spasm in the muscles of the 
neck and back, producing retraction of the head, and some- 
times complete opisthotonos ; and a general muscular rigidity. 
These phenomena are attended with great depressiod of the 
vital powers ; frequent and feeble pulse ; coated tongue ; and 
an eruption of spots, varying in size from that of a pin- 
head to the size of the hand, cmd in color from a light pink to 



62 llEDICAt BOCIISTt OF Nl^«JE«^St. 

dark pnrple. Supporting and heroically tonic tbeasnred 
formed the basis of the treatment. 

We notice a few cases of interest which have been reported 
to the committee. 

Dr. Hasbrouck, of Hackensack, details a case of arrest of 
the fsBtUs in the parturient process, byan enormously distend- 
'ed abdoitien. The case was in charge of a midwife, and the 
doctor w«ls called after the head had been delivered* When 
he examined the Woman,»he found that the bony continuity of 
the head with the body had been sundered by too severe 
traction, on the part of the midwife. It was held only by the 
soft parts. He found, upon a careful and perplexing examin- 
ation, that the delivery of the body of the child was prevented 
by an enlarged abdomen, which he found it necessary to open 
and evacuate, before delivery could be effected. 

Dr. Eugene Jobs, of Essex Co., reports a case of proci- 
dentia uteri, possessing much interest in itself^ and rendered 
rfemarkuble by the passage, a few days before the death of 
the f)atiefat, of urinary calculi varying in sizsd from that of a 
^ea to two by ohe-and-a-hHlf inches. She Voided fifty or more 
of these stones. The tissues, in their course, had been de- 
stroyed by an absorbent or ulcerative process, 60 as to allow 
tfceii to fall down, as it were, by gravitation simply. The 
point of their exit looked like a greatly enlarged meatus with 
fen ulcerated inargin. 

The following ca6e occurred in Bridgeton, Ouinberiand Co., 
under the bbservAtioh of one of the members of the standing 
committee, and is interesting chiefly as showing ia very rethark- 
Uble endurance of life, hotwithstetnding the ravages of diseaseu 
Itrs. N., aged about sevtoty-five, noticed, about sixteen years 
Cilice, a small, hard, schirrus-like lump on the right frontal em- 
inence, which subsequently ulcerated, and gradually increased 
in dize, destroying the skin and fmperficial tissues, and after- 
Wards the bones thelnselves, imtil, at the time of her deaths it 
exhibited the following appearance : Taking the right an^le of 
tfce itoouth as a starting-point, the ulceration extended back- 
Ward and downward, behind the angle of the inferior knaxUiary 



'REBOOT OP TPB ST^VPim GOHiaXTBE. t^ 

bone, aroimd behind the ear, to the mastoid process, up oyer 
the scalp, passing across the sagittal satnre near its middle, 
then oyer the left parietal bone, to th^ upper border of the 
squamous* portion of the temporal bone, thence to the external 
angle of the left orbit, and across the cheek to the middle of 
the upper Up, to the point where we started. The right half 
of the upper lip, and the whole nose were completely eroded, 
leaving only apiece of the cartilage, at the extreme tip, loosely 
attached. The nostrils were bolh laid open by the destruc- 
tion of the nasal boneS; through which could be plainly seen 
the posterior nares back to the posterior wall of the pharynx. 
The vomer cov^r^d by mucous membrane, was also e:i[:posed. 
The t^eth and alveoli of the back portion of the right lower jaw 
were gone, while the whole of the malar bone, on that side, 
with part of the superior paaxillary, laying bare the antrum 
t^ighmorianum. The zygomatic process and arch, the eye and 
its appendages, one half the orbit, the frontal sinus to the in- 
ternal table of the skull, the entire pinna of the ear, and the 
right half of the osfrontis were destroyed, freely exposing the 
dura mater for a $p^,ce three indies in diameter, over oil of 
which the brain oould be seen pulsating. Within the past 
fo^r months, ik^ j.eft eyp also, with the surrounding hard and 
soft structures, was destroyed, and the cavities c^.the fronts 
^inus and antrum highmorianum, on that side, laid bar^. Vis- 
ion was entirely destroyed, about si:|: months since, the circum- 
jacent structures being consumed before the eye-ball was much 
affected, and this bi^ng loosely suspended by the optic nerve. 
For two years, sbe W be^u confined to her bed, although I>er 
^mental faculties remained unimpaired to the last. Deglutitiop 
was good, and speech intelligible, until within a few days of her 
death, subsisting on liquid and semi-solid ^ticles of food. 
Paralysis of the righjb side occurred shortly before her .death, 
^jgfitlk some aedema of the extremities. Her general conditio^ 
being one of extreme enpiaciation. 

Dr. Pierson, Jr., of Orange, reports the post-n^ortei?Q appear- 
ance, in the case d'a lady, about seventy years of age, y^ho, 
sJiKMit tbirty ye^rs before her death, was led to believe, by 



64 MEDICAL SOdBTY OP MEW-JEBSET. 

the most reliable medical authority, that she was affected with 
an aneurism, near the heart. For twenty-five years, she has 
been confined to her room, and mostly to her bed, expecting at 
any hour, suddenly to die. The aneurism seemed to be very 
apparent, under and below the right clavicle, both to the hand 
laid upon it, and to the observant eye. We saw the case three 
times, as one of the thirty or more curious professional observ- 
ers alluded to in the doctor's report, and had no doubt of the 
accuracy of the diagnosis. We took it for granted, both be- 
cause of the source from which it came, and from the more man- 
ifest symptoms of the patient. The ppst mortem disclosed a 
normal heart and vessels contiguous. We are left to but one 
conclusion in regard to it — ^that the concentration of mind in an 
hysterical subject, upon one particular organ of the body, be- 
lieved to be diseased, produced phenomena closely simulating 
the disease supposed to exist. The case, as reported, is in- 
structive and worthy of study* 

Dr. G. H. Larison reports a case of rupture of the uterus, 
during parturition, in a woman thirty-six years of age, who had 
borne four children. About six months before hcjr confine- 
ment, she fell, and received a bruise on the left side of the uter- 
us, which was painful till the time of her delivery. The labor 
was natural, till, in one of her bearing-down efforts, a rupture 
occurred ; the pains ceased, and the patient died in thirty min- 
utes. The rent, upon examination, was found at the place of 
the previous injury. 

Dr. C. W. Larison details a case of dropsy, in a lady fifty-five 
years of age, which was rendered remarkable by .the density 
of the fluid which was drawn off by paracentesis. It much re- 
sembled light grape jelly, and was possessed of such a density 
and adhesiveness, that it formed into strings from five to fif- 
teen inches long, as it passed through the canula. Any one of 
these strings, being pierced by a probe in one end, could be 
lifted and sustained entire 'for several seconds, clear of the re- 
ceiving vessel. 

The committee has received a paper on new remedies, by 
Geo. W. Talson, M. D., of Hudson Co., which was read before 



BEPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 65 

the district mediccd society, and by their vote, is commended 
to the consideration of this society. It is an instructive paper, 
and worthy of a place in our published transactions. The 
committee quote a paragraph from the paper, for the purpose 
of remark. "It is now generally conceded," the doctor re- 
marks, " that the physician who wishes to retain his patients, 
must contrive so to prepare his remedies, as to remove all that 
is offensive to taste. It ccmnot be denied, that the accessions 
to the ranks of Homeopathy, have been in a great measure due 
to the bulky and nauseous doses of the regular practice, and if 
the spread of the delusion is to be arrested, the proffered aid of 
science, in isolating and concentrating active principles, so as 
to render medicinal agents tasteless or pleasant, must be ac- 
cepted." These remarks we respectfully suggest, are the ex- 
pression of a too general error in the community, in regard to 
remedies for the cure of diseased action. 

We admit, in the fullest degree, the necessity of making our 
remedial agents as agreeable as possible to our patients ; but 
we may not lose sight of the fact, that medicine is ahvaya an 
evU. It is never, jser «e, a good. The true question which aris- 
es in the case of sickness, is, which evil shall be chosen, the 
malady or the medicine? and we submit, that he alone vindi- 
cates the true dignity of the healing art ; and we may add, is 
the most successfiil in the cure of disease, who, in the face of 
popular prejudices, commends and insists upon the use of med- 
icines and remedial appliances which have acknowledged pow- 
er, even if they " don't taste good." We do not look forward 
to the time, this side the Millenium, when science will make 
dU our medicinal agents " tasteless or pleasant." 

The report of the committee for the year now closing is 
not without its record of mortality among the members of the 
profession in the State. 

While we record our gratitude to the preserving Provi- 
dence which has led us hitherto, and brought us here as a 
society to the borders of its century of existence, we remem- 
ber with affectionate interest, those who have fallen at our 
side, and who now sleep in the sepulchre. Nine of our med- 



66 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW-JERSEY. 

ical brethren have, dariog tbe year, been called to their finul 
account. Henry Van Arsdale, of Morristown, Silas L, Con- 
diet, of Jersey City, J. Watson Young, of Montague, Sussex 
County, L. G. Thomas and Wm. M. Brown, of Newark, Jacob 
T. B^. Skillman, of New Brunswick, a former President of the 
society, Daniel Babbit and J. Addison Freeman, of Orange, 
and James Pyatt. of Hunterdon County, have departed this 
life since our meeting in 1864. 

A notice of most of the above named has been obtained by 
the committee, and is appended to this report. One of the 
number, Dr. Gondict, was a delegate to the society at our last 
meeting, and will be remembered for Uie interest he uniformly 
manifested in the prosperity of the society, and in the pro- 
gress of the medical profession. Resolutions for the estab- 
lishment of an inebriate asylum in the State of New Jersey, 
were offered by him at the last annual meeting, which he sus- 
tained by interesting statements in regard to a similar enter- 
prise in the State of New York, and by arguments which made 
a strong appeal to the good judgment of the Society. They 
were unanimously adopted, and a committee appointed to fur- 
ther tlie object proposed, of which he was chairman. His 
i^ehcy in this important measure was speedily cut short. In 
a week or two after the annual meeting, he sent noticq^ to the 
members of the committee to meet in Newark for consultation, 
but before the day of meeting arrived, he had been borne to 
his buried. 

The committee would here make specif notice, also, of an- 
other in the list of the dead. J. Addison Freeman, M. D., left 
his practice in Orange, in 1862, as assistant sui^eon of the 
Thirteenth New Jersey regiment of volunteers. After serv- 
ing for a term with that regiment, he was appointed to the 
charge of the hospital at Nashville, Tennessee. He filled the 
post with credit to himself, and with acceptance to the Gov- 
ernment. He was attacked, soon after the battle of Nashville^ 
with pneumonia, and died after an illness of a few hours. Dr. 
Freeman was a young man of fine education, and superior 
medical attainments. In his early death the State has lost a 



Bi^OBT OF THB ^H^JOm GOHXITTEE. ^^ 

valuable citizen ; the professipn a "worthy aud promineiit zaemr 
ber; and the Government, an accompliahed and valu3»blQ 
medkal oiScer* So far aa the committee ia informed, the 
death of Dr. Freeman is the oiUy one which has occin-ed among 
the medical men who are serving their country on the field of 
battle. 

Tbe committee take pleasure in acknowledging the receipt 
of reports from nearly all the District Societies in connection 
with the State organization. We discover a growing interest 
and harmony in tbe local societie«,and a desire to render them 
efficient for the promotion of medical science. A member of 
one aocietj* writes to the committee, *' I am happy to say that 
after exertion on the part of the few, our society is looking 
up. We mean to keep on, till we enlist all the worthy prao- 
titioners of the county." If the " few," or if oa€, in any asso- 
ciation which is in a decayed condition, will be stimulated to 
restore and perfect the working machinery of his county so- 
ciety, we have no doubt that such efforts will be crowned 
with success. It should be remarked here, that wont of har- 
mony and local jealousies among the members of the profes- 
sion, in most cases, lie at the foundation of tbe want of interest 
in those district societies, where that lack of interest exists^ 
Unity of feeling and of interest in the general medical wel- 
£are, uniformly goes hand in hand, with active and efficient 
efforts to promote and sustain our medical societies. Before 
anch efforts quackery hides its head, and the profession standi 
out before the community in its true dignity, and commands 
its profound respect. 

We would notice here a too manifest lack of interest and 
co-operation, on the part of the members of the profession in 
the duties of the reporters of the local societies. The fact is 
well expressed by the reporter from Warren County in the 
preface to his report, when he says : " In truth the members 
of our society seem to religiously forget the just claims of their 
reporter. Even his lean and feeble appearance in the Trans- 
actions awakens rather sympathy for his incompetence, than 
a sense of their own dereliction." We most earnestly ask the 



68 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW-JEBSET- 

attention of the profession to this remark, and respectfully 
submit that, as a society formed for the promotion of our best 
professional interests, we have a claim upon the co-operation 
of every loyal member of the profession. Let the question 
come home to each medical man in the State, What can I do 
to promote the general welfare of the profession, and make 
the communications of the reporter of our district society 
creditable to our district, and useful to our science? and we 
have no doubt, that the reporters every where will cease to 
apologize for their "lean and feeble appearance" in our pub- 
lished Transactions. In answer to a letter of the committee 
inquiring the address of the reporter in one of the districts, 
they received the reply, " I hold this year the lucrative posi- 
tion of reporter for our Society." The reply, though jocose, 
is full of sober truth. The reporter who is faithful to the du- 
ties of his office obtains a quid pro quo for all his eflforts, while 
by elevating the standard of the profession in his district, he 
secures to himself and his co-laborers a remuneration which is 
substantial and enduring. 

The committee desire, in concluding their report, to ask the 
attention of the district societies to these considerations as 
especially appropriate in view of our centennial anniversary 
of 1866. A carefully prepared report of the sanitary condi- 
tion of each district, together with a full detail of all subjects 
illustrating the medical history of the year, will largely con- 
tribute to the interest of the occasion, and furnish a record of 
inestimable value to those who a century hence shall stand in 
our places to commemorate the hi-centennial anniversary of the 
society. 

Stephen Wickes, ) c,, ,. ^ 
William ELBiEE, } Standing Committee. 



•APPENDIX TO EEPOET OF STANDIHG COMMITTEE 



O IB IT TJ -A^ :E\ I E © . 
« LUTHEB a. THOMAS, M. D.— By L. A SMITH, M. D. 

Luther Goble Thomas, M. D., son of Frederic S. Thomas, 
Esq., was born in Newark, January 27, 1830. His family was 
highly respectable and influential. His grandfather, the late 
Luther Goble, Esq., was one of the most prosperous manufac- 
turers of his day, and did more than any other to promote the 
interests of the then town of Newark. Dr.' Thomas was fitted 
for college in th^ school of the late Rev. Dr. Wm. R. Weeks, 
in this city, and graduated at Princeipn College in the year 
1849. His standing was highly respectable, his average grade 
having been 85. At the first class meeting, in 1852. Dr. T. 
was chosen Secretary, and at the second meeting, two years 
afterward, he made an able report, accompanied with sta- 
tistics, which were published in pamphlet form, and are of 
much interest. Immediately on leaving college, he entered 
the office of Dr. L. A. Smith, in his native city, and com- 
menced the study of medicine. He was an industrious and 
successful student, and secured the entire approbation of his 
instructor. He attended a course of lectures at the Berk- 
shire Medical Institution, and two at the College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, in New York, where he graduated in 
1852. He commenced practice at once in Newark, and con- 
nected with it an extensive drug store, and was successful in 
both enterprises. Dr. Thomas was a careful, attentive, skill- 
ful and kind physician, and had the confidence of his em- 
ployers. 

In the year 1863 he was induced to offer his services to his 



70 ICEBICAL SOCIETY OF NEW-JEBSET. 

country, and entered the 26tb regiment of New Jersey vol- 
unteers as surgeon, in which capacity he continued till the 
regiment returned home, at the expiration of its term of ser- 
vice, (nine months,) when he again resumed the practice of 
his profe^sipDi wd coi^tinued iq it till the Ist of May, 1^4* 
At this time he was suddenly attacked with what was sup- 
posed to be congestion of the brain, and expired after a very 
short illness, aged 34 years and 5 months. 

Dr. Thomas was a member of the South Park Presbyterian 
Church, in good standing, and was much esteemed by the 
pastor and members of that congregation. ♦ 

Qis funeral was largely attended by his pumerQiis friepds 
m^ the Esses^ County Medical Soci&ty, and his rpmain3 wer^ 
deposited in the Mount Pleamint Cemetery, on the beaiutifi^l 
banks of the Passaic, tp w{^t th^ general ^e^uirrpptiop. ^- 
quiejscat in pace. 

CKHiAS L. CX)J|DICT, M. P--By TPBO. R. VARICK, M. p. 

Doctor Silas L. Coitdict was born in Morriatown, M^i^ 
county, in this St^^te, in August, 1806. His father. Dr. h^w'i^ 
Condict, was one of the most eminent of oi^* public fi^en mi 
the Legislature, and for twenty years a memb^r of C.ongi'aiifl 
from this State. The subject of thU memoir entered tf^ 
Junior Class of Prioceton College, in October, 1823, aini r<^ 
ceived the degree of A. B. in 1824. He at once coo^tn^o^ 
the study of Medicine with his father, and attended his fi|«t 
course of lectures in New York, in 1829-27. In the aut«Qifi 
of 1827, he entered the office of Dr. Thomas SewaU, m W»»kr 
ington City, and attended a stecond poiirse of lectures, reoeif^ 
ing the degree of M. D. in M^rch, 1828. S!j)tering ippoa hi^ 
profession, he pra(^ced for a time in Mor^ii^town, from whence 
he i^emoved to Ni^wtown, Long I^l^nd, ahoBi the year 18S<). 
On locating in his new field of labors, he formed 4 copartoer- 
«bip with Dr. jBs^kiel Ostrander, of the l^st nas^ed pl^e^ (th^ 
home of his maternal gr^apd&ther, the JKey. N^4^in Wood- 
hull. Bilious fever, of a severe type, prevailed nearly evierj 
sununer and Autumn oyer that portion of tb^ Island, ntin^er- 



appendO: W ^XPtfM 01^ «*AKf>ni0 oewinTTEE. Tl 

ing Dr. Gondict ftiaong its victimB two or three yenrs in snc- 
oeesion. As a fesiilt, bis constitution was serionslj impaired 
by these repeated attacks of tniasmatio disease. The im- 
pairment of his health finally induced him to return to Mor- 
ristown, from which place he^ after a few years, removed to 
Jersey City. During his residence at Newtown, he com- 
nltoced fats labors in the temperance cause, which were nerer 
intermitted to the clode of his life. When the Order of the 
Sons of Temperance was instituted, he united with it, and 
labored constantly in its service. As a member of Fidelity 
DiVifAon, in Jersey City, and often as its presiding officer, as 
Grabd Worthy Patriarch of the Order in this State, ctnd finally 
as the h6nored head of the Order in North America, he was 
universally regarded as one of the tnost distibguiahed and 
efficient promoters of the temperance cause. 

At the last annual meeting of the Medical Society of New 
Jersey! Dr. Gondict introduced the subject of provision being 
made, by the State, of an asylum for the cure and restoration 
of inebriates, after the same plan te that at Binghamton in 
tiie State of New York. He with oiher members of the So- 
eiety were appointed a committee to bring the matter before 
tke Legislature of this State. The matter was favorably re- 
eeived^ and a committee appointed to report at the next meet- 
ing of said body. 

The writer of this brief mismoit has been on terms of dose 
ioliiDaey with the Doctor for a number of years, and can 
eheerfalfybear testimony as to his noble and unselfish nature, 
k» devoiiob .to his friends, his untiring zeal in* e'very good 
work) and the brightness of his Christian character. As a 
physician, he was eminently conservative in practice, and his 
genial smile and tender sympathies robbed the si<^k room of 
half its glo6m, cheering the desponding, and whispering 
words of comfort and consolation to the dyings 

On the night of the 4th of February he was attacked with 
pleufo^pneumonia of a typhoid type. The {^ain attendant 
upon it was most itttetee, and which cobtinted to within a 
fonr hours of bis death, which occurted on the Sunday ibUow- 



72 MEDICAL 80GIBTT OP NEW-JERgET. 

ing, the 7th of the month, at about the hoar of noon. The 
same Christian character which prominently shone forth 
daring his life was his support in the hour of trial. 

JACX)B T. B. SKTTiTiMAy, M. D. 

Jacob T. B. Skillman was born on the 10th of March, 1794, 
at Three Mile iBun, N. J., where his father, an intelligent and 
industrious farmer, lived, in comfortable circumstances. After 
having pursued the usual course of instruction at a primary 
school, he was sent to the academy, at Basken Ridge, N. J., 
then under the care of the Rev. Dr. Finley, an institution 
which long enjoyed a reputation for thorough training, espe- 
cially in the classics. Here he was prepared for college, and 
in 1816 entered Union College, which, under the venerable 
Dr. Nott, at that time in the prime of manhood, was in the 
full tide of prosperity. In his class were several who have 
attained to eminence ; among whom was Wm, H. Seward, 
the present Secretary of State. Soon after graduating he 
accepted a call from Hampden Sidney College, Prince Ed- 
wards county, Virginia, as principal of the academy, con- 
nected with that institution. In due time he entered upon 
his duties there, and at the end of the first year, having pre- 
pared a large number for admission into the Freshman class, 
the Faculty committed to him the instruction of all the col- 
lege classes in the Latin and Greek languages. At the close 
of the second year, his classes having sustained in the opinion 
of the Trustees, "an examination which had not been 
equaled," the appointment was confirmed by them, with the 
intention of electing him at their next annual meeting. Pro- 
fessor of the Latin and Greek languages ; expressing their 
belief that " his success would not be less in teaching the 
mathematics, and other branches of science." But owing 
to ill health, engendered by a Southern climate, he declined 
the professorship, and also relinquished his theological stu- 
dies, commenced under the celebrated Dr. Hoge, of Virginia. 
Such was the estimation in which he was held, that without 



APPENDIX TO BBPOBT OF BTAKBIKO COlOmTEE. 73 

solicitation on his part, the Faculty gave him at his depar- 
ture a most flattering testimonial, from which the following 
extract is taken : 

'' The preservation of order in the college hsts for the last 
year been priDcipally committed to Mr. Skillman ; and his 
ability to act with promptitude, skill, and dignity, on all oc- 
casions, has secured to him the respect of all the students, the 
affection of his fellow officers, the confidence of the corpora- 
tion, and the esteem of a refined and enlightened community. 
From a regard tahis health, and a wish to complete his theo- 
logical studies, he declines his very responsible and honorable 
station in this institution. His resignation is accepted with 
reluctance, and with a lively recollection of his past services. 
We are assured that any college or academy that shall repose 
their confidence in Mr. Skillman, will find, as we have long 
known him, an able instructor, an honorable man, and, we 
trust, a sincere Christian." On his return home he began the 
study of medicine with Augustus R. Taylor, M. D., of New 
Brunswick, N. J. After completing the appointed course of 
medical studies, he was licensed November 8th, 1825, and set- 
tled at Woodbridge, N. J., in partnership with Dr. Freeman. 
Here an extensive practice in three years enabled him to ac- 
quire much experience and skill, particularly in the treatment 
of fevers. He subsequently removed to Rahway, N. J., and 
at once succeeded in establishing himself in a large and pro- 
fitable practice. Induced by the solicitation of relatives, he 
left Rahway, after a residence of two years, and went to New 
Brunswick, where he soon gained the confidence of the com- 
munity. In this city, during a period of thirty years. Dr. 
Skillman faithfully and conscientiously discharged the onerous 
duties of his profession. With ability and success he dis- 
pensed the healing art, which is not often rewarded as it 
should be ; yet he could not complain more than others ; for 
the kindness and respect of his co-practitioners, the trust 
reposed in him by patients, and the pecuniary compensation 
of his practice, abundantly realized his expectations. He not 
unfrequently rose from his bed, in sickness and pain, to visit 



74 MEDICAL socnsrrr of NBW-jBftSHY. 

the Mck, without regard to the inclemency of the weather, or 
the darkness of the night ; and this, too, on occasions when 
the poverty of those who summoned him to their aid, preclud- 
ed the hope of compensation. But he made no distinction 
between the rich and the poor. To both he ministered alike, 
knowing that if the latter could not pay, he would neverthe- 
less be recompensed by the satisfaction of having done his 
duty, in healing the victims of disease, or at least alleviating 
their bodily anguish. Dr. Skillman was punctilious in the 
observance of professional etiquette, always treating with the 
utmost courtesy his brother physicians ; never omitting to ren- 
der to them all that could be expected from him as one of their 
fraternity, while at the same time, firm in the maintenance 'of 
his own rights. 

He abhorred empiricism ; quackery in his view was a cheat 
and humbug ; to it was meted out the merited denunciation of 
a mind fully convinced, that it is against the laws of God and 
man, to trifle with the life of a human being. Thus while his 
intercourse with his professional brethren evinced a high sense 
of honor and unselfish generosity entirely free from malicions 
detraction, or cringing obsequiousness, his just appreciation of 
genuine science, and profound regard for truth and honesty, 
led him to rebuke and denounce falsehood and imposture. 
Modest and unobtrusive, he cared not for meretricious dis- ^ 
tinction and preferment ; as long as he was in the path of duty, 
and conscious of being useful, his ambition was satisfied ; his 
aim was not the plaudits of man, but the peace of a good con- 
science. Peeling a lively interest in the progress of sound 
learning, and especially of medical science, he heartily em- 
btt^ced and actively engaged in every measure calculated to 
promote the diffusion of scientific knowledge. The State Med- 
ical Society, of which he was President, in 1849, had no mem- 
ber more interested in its welfere, or more diligent in dis- 
charging the responsibilities it imposed. 

But that which ^stinguished Dr. Skilhnttn was his moral 
and religious character ; upri^ and honorable in his dealings 
with others, he coukJ not endure chicanery and fraud. All 



APPBNPIX TO REPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEB. 75 

who knew him, could not but admire his singleness of purpose 
and stem integrity. In the words of a Roman poet, he might 
justly have said, " Vir bonus et prudens dici delector." His 
irreproachable conduct won for him the esteem and aflFection 
of those with whom he €issociated for many years. In the bo- 
som of his family he was best known and most loved. Soon 
after his return from Virginia, he was united in marriage to 
Miss R. 0. Ayers, of Six Mile Run, N. J. This union was 
blessed with an interesting circle of children. But the loving 
parents were called to part with all except a surviving son 
and daughter. These afflictions were sanctified to the mourn- 
ers. Bereavement and sorrow bound together the diminished 
circle more closely than ever, which continued unbroken until 
the affectionate husband and father was taken away. 

In early life Dr. Skillman made a profession of religion, and 
was for some time an office-bearer in the First Reformed Dutch 
church of New Brunswick ; his walk was humble and consist- 
ent ; vividly realizing the truth of the gospel, it was his con- 
stant endeavor to adorn it in his daily vocation ; nor was his 
hope deceived in its rich and abundant consolations ; for when 
disease prostrated his strength, he was patient and resigned ; 
and when the King of Terrors confronted him, his faith was 
luminous, and his heart filled with peace and joy. 

In May, 1860, he was attacked with congestion of the brain 
and slight paralysis, from which he partially recovered. In 
August, 1862, a second attack of paralysis confined him to his 
bed until June 26, 1864, when death ended his sufferings in the 
eeventy-first year of his age, 

JHO. WATSOW YOima, M. D.— By JNO, BLANB, M. D, 

John Watson Young, son of Nelson V, Young, Esq., a gen- 
tleman extensively known and much respected as an efficient 
instructor of youth, was born at Mount Airy, in the townshipi 
<rf West Amweil, Hunterdon County, New Jersey. When 
quite a little child he showed a taste for books, and, ii4th very 
little assistance, learned to read very young. He often re- 
marked that he did not remember when he could not read, 

5 



76 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

He was so given to etudy that, at the age of ten years, in ad- 
dition to the primary branches taught in common schools, he 
had Btadied geography, English grammar, history, algebra, 
mensuration, surveying, and geometry, with a partial knowl- 
edge of astronomy and navigation. 

At about ten years of age he was afflicted with disease of 
the " hip joint," with which he suflfered very severely; during 
this stage of the disease his physician forbid him the use of 
any books, but after several months, he began to travel by 
means of crutches, which he had to use for several years. 
During this period, though but a boy, he had a strong desire 
to study medicine, and as soon as he had sufficiently recovered, 
and was able to study, had his mind taken up with his studios, 
pertaining to inedicine, and pursued them with as much eager- 
ness and success as he had pursued other branches when a 
child. 

He selected for his instructor Dr. William Wetherill, of 
Lambertville, who was his attending physician during his 
illness. 

He never fully recovered from his disease, the abscess gen- 
erally discharging, and occasionally spicula of bone making 
their appearance. If at any time the abscess ceased to dis- 
charge, or " dried up," it invariably produced sickness, gener- 
ally attacking the brain and producing most distressing symp- 
toms, until the discharge was again established by the appli- 
cation of remedies. This state of health continued until within 
a short time of his death, when the abscess suddenly ceased 
discharging, and his physician not being aware of the fact, 
and. the patient almost immediately becoming insensible of his 
situation, in a short time he died. 

He matriculated at the opening of the session of 1860-61, 
at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, and of the 
Medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, at the 
opening of its session in 1861, and seldom missed a lesson in 
either school during their respective sessions, when he gradu- 
ated with all the honors of the profession. In June following 
he located at Montague, in Sussex County, New Jersey, and 



APPENDIX TO REPORT OP STANDINtf COMMITTEE. 77 

commenced the practice of his profession. His patients always 
spoko of him in the highest praise as being both skillful and 
successful. 

. He died at Montague, and his remains were brought to his 
father's house in Mount Airy (where he was bom), and were 
interred in the burying grounds connected with the church at 
that place, a few rods in front of the school-house where he 
received the first part of his education. His tomb-stone* bears 
the following inscription : — 

DOCTOR J. WATSON YOUNG. 

BOBN JANUARY IST, 1840. 

. Graduated at the UniverBity of Pennsylvania, 
(Medical Department), March 9th, 1862. 
DiKD rsBBVAur 14fH, 1864. 

AGBD 24 TXABS, 1 MOUTH, AND 14 DATS. 

He leaves a widow, who since his death has borne him a 
son, who bears his name, John Watson Young. 

DB. DANIBQEi BABBITT.— By W2UL PIERSON, M.D. 

Died, at Orange May 16, 1864, Db. Daniel Babrttt, in his 
75th year. 

. The subject of this obituary notice was born in Morris Coun- 
ty, 1778, and commenced the practice of medicine in Orange, 
1811, in which he continued until 1840. At that period, on 
his return from the island of Cuba, whither he had accom- 
panied a friend as medical attendant, . he relinquished the 
active pursuit of the profession. He was a regular attending 
member of the Essex district society, and frequently appeared 
as its representative in this society. He ever cherished a 
high estimate of the rights and honor of the profession. 

In civil life, he filled stations of honor and responsibility. 

Neither he, or any of the medical friends whom he consult- 
ed, could satisfactorily discover the disease of. which he died, 
or trace its causes. In August, 1863, he was seized with a vi- 
olent spasmodic cough, somewhat similar to attacks he had ex- 
perienced in preceding years. This yielded, after a short in- 



78 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSET. 

terval, and was followed by a diflSculty of Bpeech and degluti- 
tion. These symptoms gradually increased, until at last, he 
was obliged to communicate in writing, and to abstain from sol- 
id food. His strength slowly declined, but his intellectual pow- 
ers seemed to suffer no greater diminution than is frequently 
incident to age, ^ 

No other paralysis, than the above stated, ever occurred. 
His siqkness was painless to the end, and never confined him 
to his room, or debarred him from exercise in out-door walk- 
ing ; in fact, he seemed to swoon away in death, without a 
struggle, sitting in his ordinary dress, almost in an upright pos. 
ture, and imperceptibly to the friends in attendance. 

J. ADDISON TKEEMAJX., A. M., M. D., XT, B A.— By WILLIAM 
PIBRSON, Jr., M. D. 

Db. J. Addison Freeman, the son of A. H. Freeman, Esq., of 
Orange, died suddenly at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 29, 1864. 

He was bom in Paterson, New Jersey, on the 25th of June, 
1833, but at a very early age, his father removed with his fam- 
ily to Orange. During his childhood, he gave evidence of rare 
intellectual qualities. He entered Nassau Hall, in the Junior 
class, in the year 1850, and at the end of two years, graduated 
with honors, having received the mathematical oration. After 
leaving college, he passed about a year in Virginia, teaching 
in the family of Dr. Hunter. Having acquired a fondness, 
while there, for the science of medicine, he determined to study 
it as a profession, and, returning home, he entered my office 
for that purpose. In the Spring of 1856, he received the de- 
gree of Doctor of Medicine, from the College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, New York. Soon afterwards, he entered into a part- 
nership, with Dr. Suydam, at Liberty Corner, where he soon 
acquired a reputation as a kind and skillful physician. He 
was not, however, long contented with the dull routine of a 
country practice, and at the end of three years, he returned to 
Orange, and was gradually building up a practice here, when 
the war broke out, and his patriotic zeal induced him to volun- 
teer his services to his country. He was appointed a contract 



. APPENDIX TO REPORT OP STANDING COMlCITTEE. 79 

surgeon, and assigned duty in a field hospital in McClellan's 
army. During the memorable seven days' retreat, he was 
taken prisoner, but was soon released. Subsequently, he re- 
ceived a commission as assistant surgeon in the 13th regi- 
ment, New Jersey vols., which position he filled in such a 
manner as to command the respect and admiration of both of- 
ficers and men. After the battle of Gettysburgh, he was de- 
tailed for duty in a hospital, where he had an opportunity of 
performing many important operations in surgery. His con- 
duct and skill exhibited in that capacity, have been highly 
complimented by his senior medical officers. After the regi- 
ment was sent to the West, he was ordered to rejoin it, and 
soon afterwards was appointed surgeon of it, vice Dr. Love, re- 
signed. A little later, he received a commission (having pass- 
ed a rigid examination for the same) as assistant surgeon in 
the volunteer corps, and assigned to Hospital No. 8, Nashville, 
Tenn., where he remained until the time of his death, and for 
several months had been senior surgeon in charge. * His du- 
ties, after the recent battles between Thomas' and Hood's forces, 
were very arduous, and the presumption is, that his death was 
caused by an attack t)f congestive pneumonia, brought on by 
too severe labors and exposure. Thus has passed away, in the 
midst of usefulness, and in the prime of life, a man of sterling 
character and marked ability, and one who promised to be an 
ornament to his profession. Dr. Freeman was highly respect- 
ed by the medical profession, in this county, and was a mem- 
ber of the medical societies, and when at home, took an active 
part in the meetings. 
Orange, Jan. 8, 1865. 

WM. M. BBOWN, M. D.— By S. H. PENNINGTON, M. D. 

William Mortimer Brown was born in the town of New- 
ark, N. J., on the 8th of September, 1816. Deriving his descent 
on both father's and mother's side, from the Puritan stock to 
which the place of his nativity owes its settlement, he inherited 
to a large degree the sterling virtues of his sturdy ancestry. 
The limited means of his parents did not admit of the liberal 



80 M6DICAL 80CIBXY OF NEW JEBSET. 

education of their large family of children ; and the subject 
of our notice consequently had hot the advantage of a thor- 
ough classical and scientific culture. Industry and the faith- 
ful improvement of every available opportunity, in. a good 
degree supplied this deficiency, and secured to him an 
amount of elementary knowledge and mental discipline ade- 
quate to a profitable preparation of medical study. After 
leaving school, he spent a short period in a mercantile clerk- 
ship ; and then, in the year 1834, commenced his course of 
professional study in the office of Dr. S. H. Pennington. In 
the fall of 1836, he matriculated in the medical department 
of Harvard University, where he attended a full course of 
lectures. In the year following, he attended a similar course 
in Jefferson College, Philadelphia, whence he graduated in the 
spring of the year 1838. He commenced practice at Newark, 
and was gradually securing the confidence of the community, 
when he was seized with a pleuro-pneumonic attack, which 
greatly prostrated him, and left him with a susceptibility to 
atmospheric influences, that warned him to escape from the 
vicissitudes of the seaboard, and seek a more genial and equa- 
ble climate. The residence of an elder brother in Vicksburg, 
Miss., led him to seek a settlement in that city, where he re- 
mained but a short time, inducements having soon been pre- 
sented, which led to his removal to Philadelphia, an interior 
town in the same State. At this place he remained for a few 
years, practicing with success, and fast gaining for himself 
reputation and influence. His health having greatly improved, 
and the associations into which he was thrown, proving un- 
congenial and unfavorable to the intellectual and moral cul- 
ture he craved, he resolved to return to the east, and he again 
resumed practice in Newark. Soon after, an opening pre- 
senting in the village of Caldwell, in this county, he removed 
thither ; but finding, the labors of a country practice too 
onerous and trying to his constitution, he felt constrained to 
abandon it ajad return to Newark. Here he found sufficient 
encouragement finally to establish himself, and forming a 
matrimonial alliance with Miss Mary Cdndit Freeman, daugh- 



APPENDIX TO BEPOBT OP STANDING COMMITTEB. 81 

ter of Mr. Peter Freeman, a highly respectable merchant of 
Morristown, N. J., he fixed his abode among his early friends, 
and became an honored and esteemed member of the profes- 
sion, in his native city. Here he remained till his decease, se- 
curing to himself a remunerative though not a lucrative prac- 
tice, and enjoying the confidence and respect of the commu- 
nity and of his medical brethren. For several years previous 
to his decease, he noticed the insidious approaches of pulmo- 
nary disease ; but, though not neglecting proper precautions, 
and the use of suitable measures to stay its progress, he con- 
tinued at his post of duty till a short period before his de- 
cease, when increasing prostration compelled him to confine 
himself to his home ; there, in the enjoyment of the society 
and afiectionate care of his interesting family, to await the 
summons that should call him to another home to which, 
with humble faith, he looked for beyond the skies. Dr. Brown 
died on the 14th day of April, 1864, in the 48th year of his 
age. 

As a physician. Dr. Brown was well educated, (Jiscriminat- 
ing in his scrutiny of the symptoms of disease, accurate in his 
diagnosis, judicious in the selection of remedies, wise in his 
regimen of the sick room, and very successful in his treat- 
ment. Modest, perhaps to a fault, in his estimate of himself, 
unobtrusive in his manners, content that his merit should 
pave its own way to reputation and success, and despising the 
arts by which men of inferior attainments seek and often suc- 
. ceed in acquiring notoriety, if his name was not as much as 
others, on the lips of men, he secured the respect of all who 
know him, the love of those whom he admitted to his inti- 
macy, the warm attachment of his first patients, and a high 
place in the esteem of his medical brethren. Dr. Brown loved 
his profession, and neglected no opportunity to promote ita 
interests. He attached himself, not only to those legalized 
organizations, on his membership in which a physician's status 
in his profession more especially depends, but to the volun- 
tary associations, instituted for personal improvement and the 
cultivation of kindly intercourse and mutual friendship, that 



82 ' MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSET. 

should distinguish the members of a liberal profession. His 
devotion to these institutions was early recognized by his 
associates, and their confidence and regard, ever manifested 
by his frequent appointment to positions of trust and respon- 
sibility ; while the uniformly satisfactory discharge of his du- 
ties, thus imposed upon him, bore testimony to the correct 
appreciation of his merits which dictated their choice. For 
many years he was the Secretary of the Essex County Medi- 
cal Union, and Treasurer of the District Medical Society of 
his county ; and of the latter he was President at the time of 
his death. 

It ought not perhaps to be regarded as a quality requiring 
special mention in such a notice as this, that its subject was 
a warm and earnest supporter of the government of his coun- 
try. But, at a time when so many, from blind attachment to 
party or unwillingness to bear the necessary burdens incident 
to a struggle for the national life, prove unfaithful, the loyalty 
that never falters, amid discouragement, public disaster, and 
personal sacrifice, can not with propriety be disregarded. 
This distinbtion eminently belonged to our deceased brother. 
Wholly dependent on a practice that was limited, in a great 
measure, to the industrial classes, whose pursuits were seri- 
ously aflFected in the earlier period of the war. Dr. Brown was 
called upon to endure privatione and exercise a self-denial 
which might wel^have cooled the ardor of a less loyal heart. 
These could not, for a moment, abate his constancy, or recon- 
cile him to the idea of peace upon any other basis than the 
integrity of the National Union, and the unconditional sub- 
mission of rebels to the authority of the government they had 
defied. In this connection, it is proper to state that, soon 
after the commencement of the war, Dr Brown tendered his 
services to the medical department of the United States 
Navy ; but, being beyond the age at which, by the regula- 
tions he could be received, his profier was necessarily declined. 

Dr. Brown, quite early in life, made a public profession of 
faith in the Christian religion and connected himself with the 
Third Presbyterian Church in his native city. In all his mi- 



APPENDIX TO BEPOBT OF STANDING COKMITTEE. 83 

grations, and, at times, surrounded by circumstances in which 
worldly expediency might have tempted him to conceal his 
sentiments, he openly gave utterance to his opinions. After 
he had permanently established himself at Newark, his con- 
sistent life and unsullied integrity soon pointed him out as 
worthy of the confidence of his fellow Christians, and, at an 
imusually early age, he was entrusted with the delicate and 
responsible duties of the deaconship, and at a later period he 
was chosen and set apart as a ruling elder of the same church. 
The duties of these sacred offices were assumed with char- 
acteristic diffidence ; but were performed to the edification 
of his fellow Christians, to the great comfort of the sick 
and the sorrowing, and, as he was wont to say, with much 
spiritual enjoyment and benefit to himself. His faith was a 
solace and support during the period of his decline ; and in 
his passage through the dark valley, and at the moment of 
his departure, he was enabled by it, to lean with confidence 
on his Saviour's merits, ^nd regard with coniposure, if not 
with cheerfulness, the approach of Death. The last words he 
was heard to whisper were, " Peace, the peace that passeth 
understanding," and it was while these were faintly trembling 
on his lips, that his spirit passed from earth. In view of such 
a death, how apt the language, with the alteration of one 
word, of the author of " The Minstrel :" 

''Let them bewail tbelr doom, 
Whose hopes stiU linger Id this dark sojourn ; 
But pious souls can look beyond the tomb, 
And smile at fate, and wonder why they mourn." 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 



HUDSON COUNTY. 

To the Chairman of the Standing Committee : 

All physicians with whom I have coiniimnicated,in this dis** 
trict, concur in the statement, that the past year has been one 
characterized by an unusual amount of sickness. 

Dr. Geo. W. Talson, of West Hoboken, in the northern patt 
of the county, reports, that during the early part of the year, 
" remittents, pneumonia, diphtheria and croup prevailed to a 
great extent." Pertussis was frequently met with. In the 
treatment of the latter disease, Dr. T. speaks highly of the 
bromide of ammonium, in doses of three grains, three times a 
day. 

" During the summer months," Dr. T. writes, " intermittent 

fever was quite prevalent ;• and, in fact, most all classes of com- 

► plaints, during the warm season, assumed this type, and it was 

necessary, to be successful in the treatment of them, to use 

sulph. quinine in large doses." 

This peculiarity is accounted for by the fact, that " Mother 
earth, which has lain dormant from time immemorial, has, this 
summer, been turned up to the sun, for the purpose of making 
new roads, etc." 

Dr. P. G. Payne, of Bergen Point, records, " during the win- 
ter and spring months, an epidemic of scarlatina ; many of the 
cases were of a malignant form, some of them defying all rem- 
edies. Stimulants of the most powerful class seemed to make 



BBPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCI^IES. 85 

not the least impression, the depressing effect of the poison 
bearing down the nervous centres and vital energies of the 
little patient with relentless force." 

Dr. P. farther writes: "Following this epidemic, we had 
another of diphtheria, with deposit of membrane, varying in 
extent over the fauces, tonsils, uvula, and sometimes larynx and 
trachea, accompanied 'with fever, and the usual symptoms of de- 
pression of the vital powers." Dr. P. recommends the tinct. 
guaicum comp., as an alterative in this disease. The doctor 
notes, also, the prevalence of fevers ; some few of the enteric 
type, but principally of the intermittent form. The disease is 
ascribed to " the turning up of so much new soil, consequent 
on the construction of railroads, and other improvements 
going on in this locality." 

In this connexion, it will be noted, that the reports just quot- 
ed are from gentlemen located in extreme points of the county, 
and in each locality, the turning up of the soil was followed by 
intermittent fever ; and also the modifying effects of malaria 
were manifested in other diseases prevailing at the same time, 
rendering the exhibition of quinine essential to the successfal 
treatment of disease. 

Dr. James Wilkinson, of South Bergen, reports the preva- 
lence of a large amount of sickness, throughout the past year. 
"Pertussis, rubeola, remittent* and intermittent fevers, diph- 
theria, dysentery and scarlatina being the most prevalent types 
of disease." Dr. W. also notes that many of the cases of per- 
tussis were complicated with pneumonia and capillary bron-^ 
chitis. Dr. W. goes on to say : " In reference to the much 
vaunted remedy in this disease— bromide of ammonium — ^I must 
confess that my own experienee (which has been limited) would 
lead to the conclusion that it possesses no eflScacy whatever, 
either in modifying the paroxysmal character of the disease, or 
in cutting it short. Dr. W's observations on the intermittents 
which have existed during the past year, are that they have 
not yielded to treatment as readily as usual, requiring larger 
doses, and a longer continuance of anti-periodic remedies. 

Dr. W. also reports a number of severe cases of diphtheria ; 



86 MEDICAL 60CIETT OF NEW JEBSET. 

one of which was followed by paralysis of the muscles of deg- 
lutition, and also of those of the lower extremities. The pa- 
tient ultimately recovered, under the use of quinine spd iron. 
Regarding the general treatment of the last-named disease, Dr. 
W. remarks : " I have found no reason to modify the treatment 
of last year, relying upon stimulants and upon the essence of 
beef from its inception, and giving quinine, iron and chlorate 
of potash, freely.'* 

In this immediate locality, (Jersey City) fevers of a remit- 
tent and typhoid type have been prevalent. The tendency to 
periodicity has not been so strongly marked as in the districts 
quoted, although a tendency to asthenia has characterized dis- 
ease of every class. 

Scarlatina of the anginose and malignant type, pneumonia, 
manifesting an intolerance of depletion, and demanding early 
support have been and still are prevalent. 

In reference to the therapeutics of scarlatina, permit me to 
endorse, as in my previous report, as well as in those just 
quoted, the supporting and stimulating treatment, also to call 
the attention of the profession to the use of the alkaline sul- 
phites in zymotic diseases. The treatment, it may be superflu- 
ous for me to say, originated with Professor Polli, of Milan, 
and has been more recently impressed upon the profession by 
Dr. De Ricci, vide Dublin Quarterly Journal, November, 
1863. 

Acting upon the suggestions there thrown out, I have used 
them not only as therapeutic but also as prophylactic agents in 
scarlatina and diphtheria. My experience thus far with them 
is necessarily limited ; but such as it is I am satisfied they 
possess a powerful modifying influence over both diseases, 
shortening the duration, and diminishing the severity of all 
attendant symptoms. 

In fact, it is safe to assume, we possess a powerful lever in 
checking zymosis, while by a course of stimulation we. over- 
come the depression already produced by the morbific elements 
generated. 

As a prophylactic, in every instance in which they have been 



# 



I MP0BT8 OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES, 87 

I 

used with that view, the disease has not extended beyond the 
patient first attacked, although free intercourse existed with 
other members of the family. 

As before remarked, my experience has been limited ; too 
mnch so, to speak as authoritatively as I could desire^ and sim^ 
ply give the result of my observation in the hope that the med^ 
ical profession in this State, will pursue the investigation and 
i report fufther on the subject at our next regular meeting. 

In concluding this communication, it becomes my duty to 
report the death of our much esteemed professional brother, 
Dr, Silas L. Condict, an obituary notice of whom will be 
found appended to this report. 

I also append, by vote of the Hudson County Medical Soci- 
ety, a paper read before that body on New Remedies, by Dr. 
Geo* W* Talson. 

Theodore R. VaRick, Reporter Hudson Co. 

New Remedies by Geo. W. Talson, M. D., being extracts 
from a paper read before the Hudson District Medical Society, 
and by its vote commended to the notice of the State Society. 

Ist. The Elixir of Cahsaya Ferri Protoxidi — this I prefer 
to all the other elixirs of Calasaya; in it we have one of the 
best Chalybeates protected in solution. One of the great 
objections to prescribing iron is its disagreeable taste, which 
is done away with in this elixir, and experiments have resulted 
in the production of an elegant and permanent compound 
where the chemical equilibrium of each principle is undis- 
turbed. The two valuable alkaloids of bark, cinchonine and 
quinine, are associated with iron not in a sesquioxide con- 
dition, but in the more easily assimilative form of a protosalt, 
and I unhesitatingly express the opinion that when this result 
was reached, no more pleasant and desirable chalybeate 
and tonic had been offered the profession than this combina- 
tion afforded. A peculiarity of this combination consists in 
presenting a protosalt of iron with the active principles of the 
best variety of Peruvian bark, in the form of a pleasant elixir 
or cordial. So far as I am informed this has never before 



88 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSET. 

been BuccesBfulIy attempted. The protosalts for a .consider- 
able period have been known to be more prompt in their 
action and more efficacious as remedial agents than other 
forms of iron, bat their tendency to assume a higher degree 
of oxidation upon exposure, has prevented them from being 
made available for the profession. The presence of iron in 
this elixir is positively shown by the use of a few drops of 
ferrocyanide of iron As a protoxide is much more assimila* 
tive than any other form of the metal, a less amount is required 
as a dose. The elixir of bark and iron contains in each table- 
spoonful about three grains of iron and what is equivalent to 
one-third of a grain each of cinchonine and quinine. This 
quantity or half a wine-glass full may be regarded' as a medium 
dose for adults, two or three times a day. It was long ago 
noticed that the vegetable tonics in connection with iron pro- 
duced combinations of marked activity. The chalybeate 
influence of the latter becomes more prompt, and the tonic 
properties of the former more decided, or the association of 
the organic with the inorganic enhances the activity and 
assimilative powers of each. Hitherto the attempts at asso- 
ciation have been confined to the sesquioxide salts which, 
beside their medicinal inferiority, precipitate the astringent 
principles of the vegetable substances producing inky com- 
pounds. The protosalts do not produce similar reactions but 
are open to what has been regarded as a fatal objection, 
namely, their proneness to absorb oxygen and pass into the 
sesquioxide condition. There are three prominent and 
desirable points attained in this combination. 1st. The pre- 
sentation and preservation of the metal in the form of a 
protosalt. 2d. Attaining this end w^jth the least po^.sible 
amount of saccharine matter, which is apt to produced acidity 
and flatulency in some disordered stomachs. 3d. The pro- 
duction of an aromatic cordial elixir, pleasant and acceptable 
to all classes of patients. 

The great importance of the latter point is becoming more 
and more apparent to us all. Indeed it is now generally con- 
ceded that the physician who wishes to retain his patients 



BEPO&TS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES* 89 

mast contrive so to prepare his remedies as to remove all that 
is offensiye in taste. It cannot be denied that the accessions 
to the ranks of homeopathy have been in a great measure due 
to the bulky and nauseous doses of the regular practice, and 
if the spread of the delusion is to be arrested, the proffered 
aid of science in isolating or concentrating active principles 
so as to render medicinal agents tasteless or pleasant, must be 
accepted. 

The ordinary forms in which iron is presented are generally 
disagreeable to invalids — they are inky astringents, and leave 
an intensely metallic taste in the mouth. These objections 
seem to be obviated in this elixir, and I believe the most 
sensitive and fastidious in matters of taste will commend the 
elegance of this preparation. It is about three years since 
our attention was first called to the protected solution of the 
protoxide .of iron, it has been combined successfully with 
rhubarb aod columba — this has become a favorite tonic with 
many physicians and is now much in demand. The last test 
of the real value of a medicinal agent is the test of time. If 
an article increases in popularity without adventitious aids, 
its merits must rest upon a substantial basis. The protoxide 
of iron and its combinations have steadily increased in the 
confidence of the profession, and their introduction is mainly 
due to recommendations from one physician to another. I 
presume it is not expected of us to state why. that form of 
iron containing, the least amorunt of oxygen is more valuable 
remedially than that which is saturated with the element, or 
why bark is preferable to other tonics in numerous diseases. 

The promptness with which desirable results are attainable 
by the use of protoxide of iron, is remarkable in the returning 
color observed in the lips of chlorotic and anemic patients, 
within twenty-four hours after commencing to use the remedy. 

Patients suffering from debility and exhaustion, resulting 
from protracted mental labors or business cares, have been in 
numerous instances signally benefited by this combination. 
The numerous affections in which its use is indicated are so 
(^vious to us all that it is needless to name them. 



do UBDtCAL SOCIETT OF N£W JBRSET. 

You will understand that no medicinal agent or combination 
of agents will in all cases produce uniform results. I believe, 
however, that the disappointments in the use of the elixir of 
bark and iron, in the treatment of the diseases for which it 
seems specifically adapted) will be fewer than with most other 
remedies. There are other combinations'of bark and iron, 
such as Elixir Calasaya Perri Phosphate — a very good remedy 
when we have a tendency to pulmonary trouble, rachitis, 
scrofula, &c. 

Some of you, gentlemen, will recollect another preparation 
recommended by Dr, Chabert — The Elixir Calasaya Perrat, 
prepared by a French house in New York City, but I think 
the Elixir Calasaya Perri Protoxide will stand bettor than all 
the other preparations yet introduced. The formula is as 
follows : 

^ Solution Perri Protoxide - - • 6 dr. 

Ext» Cort Calasaya 6 dr. 

Spts.. Vin, Rect. U dr. 

Syrup Simplex «- 20 dr. 

Tinct. Aurant, - J dr. 

Tinct, Limom i dr. 

Tinct. Cinnamon 1 dr. 

Tinct. Caryophilla 6 drops, 

2d, I now notice Ammonium Biomide which I have used 
lately with a great deal of success. 

The disease (Pertussis) in which I have used it has bafBed 
all other remedies in the past, but in my hands it has sue- 
cumbed to Ammonium Bromide, I am inclined to think that 
Pertussis is an affection of the mucous membrane of the 
Pharynx and Epiglottis, and I have been guilty of calling this 
complaint Epiglottitis — some call it a purely nervous disease, 
if so where does all the phlegm and mucous matter come 
from? It is true we have seen the pharynx inflamed in other 
diseases, and sometimes I have been led to think erysipelas 
had something to do with it, 

I was called on the 12th of last April to see three children 
of one family, suffering with this complaint ; their respective 



BIPOBT OF DiBimCT S0CI18TIE8. 91 

ages were three months, two years, and six years. I prescribed 
the ordinary remedies, such as Acid Hydrocyanic and Nitric, 
Tinct. Belladonna, and a number of others, which had no effect 
upon the cough. As a last resort, I employed the Bromide of 
Ammonium, in two to five grain doses, according to age, three 
tames a day,4n water* This was about the 20 th. On the 25th 
the cough, or rather whoop, was not so hard or protracted^ 
nor so frequent. I continued the medicine, and on the 2d or 
3d of May the children no longer whooped, but had a slight 
bronchitic cough, which I treated with a simple cough mix- 
ture for a few days, and then pronounced them cured. 

Case second : On June 18 th a child aged eight months had ' 
been whooping for two weeks. Used B. Ammonium, three 
grain doses. On the 20th the mother said the child had inv- 
' J proved, and wanted to know if there was not danger in stop- 

ping the cough too soon. I quieted her fears, and told her 
there>wa8 no danger of stopping whooping cough too soon ; 
the trouble was that sometimes we could not stop it at all. 
24th, child still improving. Continued the medicine, and by 
the 3d of July tbe whoop had dbappeared, and the catarrhal 
cough, treated as above, also disappeared in a short time after. 
I have employed it in other cases with equally good results.. 
Cases are on record where small tumors near the trachea 
have produced irritation of the recurrent branch of the pneu- 
mogastric nerve, and excited a coi^h resembling that in Per- 
tussis. Dr. Yaridc mentions two cases that came under his 
notice. The irritation is not the disease ; it is the effect of 
the inflammation of the mucous membrane of the epiglottis 
and pharynx. I have used tbe B. Ammonium in intractable 
cases of Menorrhagia with excellent effect. 

8d. The Bromide of Potaseium, although not very new, yet 
is not used very extensively. A friend of mine has used this 
remedy in Spermatorrhcaa, Leucorrhoea, Oonorrhoea, Gleet, 
Ac, Bronchitis, and all affections of the mucous membranes^, 
upon which it seems to act specifically like the Bromide Am- 
tnoniunL. He uses it in connection with Bark, in cases of de- 
bility from over mental exercise. 



92 MEDICAL SOGIETT OF NEW-JEBSBy, 

4th. Iodide qf Lime was first introduced in 1855. It has 
been rapidly gaining favor among practitioners as a remedy 
of great value. It is used in those cases where Iodide of Po* 
tassium is indicated, but with more marked effects than usu- 
ally attends the use of that salt. The lime and iodine are 
held together by a feeble affinity, and the salt will not admiii 
of exposure without evolving free Iodine. The solution is a 
colorless and almost tasteless liquid, and remains permanent 
although long kept and exposed to the air. Each drachm of 
the salt contains eight and a half grains of Iodine, and each 
fluid ounce of the solution contains half a grain of Iodine. 
The Iodine in the solution exists in the form of Iodide of Cal- 
cium and lodate of Lime. Acids decompose the solution, and 
free the Iodine, and hence the utility of this form for the ad- 
ministration of Iodine. 

Probably in the state of an oxide, the Iodide of Calcium is 
superior to Iodide of Potassium in several particulars : 

1st. The smallness of the dose, and the minute state of its 
atomic division. 2d. Not passing off so quickly through the 
kidneys. 8d. Its ready combinations with the blood and tis- 
sues, manifested by its alterative effects. 4th. In being 
nearly tasteless, and therefore readily taken by children. 
5th. It is less expensive. 6th. In not producing either gastro 
enteric or vesical irritation. 

It has been used with much success in throat diseases, in 
morbid conditions of the general system, in scrofulous affec- 
tions, intractable cases of neuralgia, diseases caused by metal- 
lic poisons, &c. The dose of the salt is very small — about one- 
fourth of a grain given in solution two or three times a day. 
Of the solution two to four fluid drachms may be given as 
often. 

6th. Unguent Hydrarg. Nit. This is not a new remedy, 
but a new way of preparing it so that we may have a good 
article. It would doubtless be much oftener employed if a 
uniformly good article could be obtained of the dispensary 
druggist, or could we easily and successfully obtain it our- 
selves. The last edition of the IT. S. Pharmacopoeia orders 
neatsfoot oil in its fabrication instead of olive oil, as formerly 



REPOBT OF DISTRICT SOGIETIES.^ 93 

directed. This substitution is certainly unfortunate, as the 
resulting ointment is usually less satisfactory than that pre- 
pared from the materials formerly employed. The cause of 
fieiilure is owing to the fact that it is almost impossible to pro- 
cure in the market true neatsfoot oil. No other variety of 
oil is so uniformly adulterated as this. Indeed, that which is 
offered by dealers is often entirely factitious ; it is a semi- 
fluid compound made of peanut oil, fish oil, rancid lard, and 
tallow possessing a most disgusting odor. The true oil has in- 
deed a peculiarly unpleasant smell, which it communicates to 
the ointment, and renders it unfit for use. Various substi- 
tutes have been proposed in the medical and pharmaceutical 
journals, among which have been linseed, peanut, and even 
bears' oil. But none of them furnish quite satisfactory results; 
the last and best that has been recommended is butter and 
lard. The formula is as follows : 

Pure Mercury - - . 1 oz. 
Nit. Acid - - • 14 f. drachms. 
Fresh Butter - - 6 oz. 
Lard 6 oz. 

Dissolve the mercury in the acid under a draught and stir 
with a glass rod until the nitrous fumes have escaped ; melt 
the butter and lard together, elevate the temperature to 120 
degrees. Fah., and pour in the acid solution — perfect reaction 
will occur. In the course of a few hours the mass will puff 
up evolving nitrous vapors freely. It should be stirred oc- 
casionally with a wooden spatula ; when cool, the result will 
be a perfect golden-colored ointment of the right consistency, 
which will remain unchanged for many months. 

6th. Pepsine Qaairic Juice. ^ The gastric juice of the infe- 
rior animals has been used in three forms. 

1st. That of the fresh liquid taken from the stomach. 

2nd. Rennet or an infusion of the dried stomach in wine or 
water. 

3rd. A preparation called pepsine. Dose teaspoonful half an 
hour before each meal. Gastric juice is a liquid secretion of 
the mucous membrane of the stomach, whereby nitrogenoos 



94 MEDiGAii flocnner of iffiw-jBBfiST. 

food is rendered soluble, and capable of being absorbed ; aod 
other changes «re effected essential to healthful digestion. 
Various attempts, have been made to concentrate and bring 
to a convenient form for administration the peptic principle 
of tho gastric juice. 

It is prepared from the rennet bags of the sheep when 
quite fresh. Tbey are opened, washed, dried, and pulverized 
in a mortar^ Dose, fifteen grains, the same as above, in dis- 
pepsia, debility of stomach following chronic gastritis, and 
that attendant upon convalescence. 



BBROXir COUlfTY. 

Ciymmvmcation by Charles HaahrovxJc, M. D.^ of HdcJoenaach. 

The diseases of the county daring the past year, have pre- 
sented little in their course, character and treatment, that 
calls for special notice. A few facts, however, may prove of 
some interest, and to these I will briefly refer. 

In the autumn of 1863, a peculiar form of typhoid fever 
broke out in different parts of the county, and continued to 
prevail until late in' the winter. The disease differed from 
typhoid fever, as it usually prevails here, in being mixed up, 
apparently with a malarious element. That is, in addition to 
the usual typhoid symptoms, including of course, the charac- 
teri^ic eruption, which was generally found if carefully sought 
after ^ the disease also had more or less distinctly marked 
periodic remissions. Oonvalescenoe was always tedioosi and 
frequently hindered by partial relapses. 

The disease first made its appearance £»nong the returned 
men of the 22d Regiment N. J. Volunteers. This regiment 
was raised almost exclusively in this county, and served its 
time with the Army of the Potomac, principally between 
Washington and Predericksburgh. On the return of the 
regiment in the autumn of 1863, this form of fever began to 
prevail The disease was, I think, certainly contagionsv 
usually extending to the families of those first attacked, but 



REPORT OP DISTRICT SOdETIBS. t5 

eeldom beyond. In the treatment, our physicians soon learned 
to rely principally npon qninine in large doses and continued 
through convalescence, alcoholic stimulants, opium in doses 
sufficient to restrain the diarrhoea and procure rest, nourish- 
ment regularly administered, perfect cleanliness and free 
ventilation. Under this treatment, the disease though exceed- 
ingly tedious seldom proved fatal. Indeed, in a pretty exten- 
\ ^ sive private and consultation practice, I do not now recollect 

a single case that did not ultimately recover. 

Another fact perhaps worthy of mention, is this. During the 
winter and spring of 1864, pneumonia was exceedingly preva* 
lent and unusually severe. In many cases the attack was 
double, and more frequently than usual, the upper lobe of the 
lung was involved. 
* In the treatment of the various forms of pulmonary inflam- 

mation, the lancet is almost entirely discarded by bur phy- 
sicians. Leeches and cups to the chest are sometimes 
employed. As a sedative, the veratrum viride is much used. 
By^this agent we find but little difficulty in controlling the 
action of the heart. Later in the disease, or I may say in all 
its stages, at least until free expectoration is established, 
opium is freely given, or in doses sufficient to quiet pain and 
cough, either with or without ipecac and the neutral salts, 
according to the indications of each case. Calomel is much 
less used than formerly, even when bronchial respiration, Ac, 
indicate hepatization of the lung. 

The only other fact to which I shall refer, is the unusual 
prevalence of small-pox during the last few months. Diphthe* 
ria, whooping cough, scarlatina, Ac, diseases which often 
prevail as epidemics, have for the past few years, generally 
occurred only in sporadic cases, or at most in an endemic 
form. Within the. last few weeks, however, the measles have 
swept over nearly all this portion of the county. This fact 
taken in connection with the unusual prevalence of variola, 
would seem to indicate that a great change has recently 
taken place in the *^ epidemic constitution of the season,'' what* 
ever that may mean. Many of my medical friends have each 



96 MBDICAL BOCIEIT OF NEW JEBBET. 

had several cases of yariola or varioloid diseases in their 
practice, and one of them informs me that he had attended 
upwards of thirty cases within the last two months. For 
myself, I have been so fortunate as not to have had a case. 

In reference to violations of medical ethics, I have nothing 
to report. Our medical society seems to be in a state of 
torpor — not from rqpietum by any means, but rather from 
inanUion. Nevertheless, the profession get along together 
very harmoniously. We have the skeleton of a. good district 
society here, and I live in the hope that the breath of life 
may be breathed into it some of these days. 

The following case, although it occurred more than a year 
ago, may yet be of sufficient interest to warrant its report. 

On the 1st November, 186-, I was requested to visit Mrs. 

T , a poor German woman, living about four miles from 

the village, who was represented to be in labor with her 
twelfth child. I found the woman under the care of a Ger- 
man midwife — very ignorant, and of course very officious. 
From her I learned that nothing unusual had occurred in^be 
labor, until the child's head was born, about three hours pre- 
vious to my arrival. She very innocently told me, that after 
the head was born she had tried her best to ' hdpf^' the 
woman, but notwithstanding all she could do, she '^ covld not 
get the baby" 

I found the patient in bed on her back, with only a slight 
occasional pain, like after-pains. Her countenance was good, 
her skin pleasant and pulse free from excitement. On exam- 
ination I found the child's head lying between the woman's 
thighs, and what particularly arrested my attention was its 
extreme mobility — ^rolling around on the slightest touch, like 
a great ball attached to a string. Indeed it was very plain 
that the midwife had made pretty strong efforts at extraction 
—or to use her own words, to " get the baby." The connec- 
tions of the cervical spine were evidently ruptured, and the 
soft parts of the neck were also giving way. Tbe chord was 
not around the child's neck, and the detention could not 
therefore, result from that. Passing my finger into the vagina 



BSPOBT OP DISTRICT BOCISnES. 97 

I found tho right arm and shoulder beginning to distend the 
perineum, having already passed through the os uteri. The 
arrest could not, of course, be caused by a contraction of the 
08 uteri around the child's neck. It next occurred to me that 
there might be twins, and that parts of two children might 
have become so impacted in the pelvic canal as to hinder the 
descent. But I found that the arras and chest belonged to 
the head already born, and could not discover any portion of 
a second foetus. Passing my whole hand into the vagina and 
up through the os uteri, I found the cervix rather firmly con- 
tracted, but not enough so to prevent the descent of a natu- 
rally developed child. I also reached a loop of the funis, 
which, of course, had ceased to beat. Withdrawing my hand, 
I made slight traction on the head, but desisted immediately, 
as I felt the soft parts of the neck giving way. I next hooked 
my fingers into the axilla, and made as strong traction as I 
could, but without doing more than bringing down the arm, 
the child's body remaining in the same relation to the uterus. 
Finding that I could not deliver the woman in this way, I 
again introduced my hand to make a more thorough explora- 
tion as to the cause of the difficulty, and to facilitate the 
operation, I first removed the child's head. This did'nt look 
well, I know, but the head was. of no use whatever, and its 
presence blocking up the os externum, greatly impeded the 
necessary manipulations. I again reached, and passed my 
hand into, the os uteri without much difficulty, and continuing 
on over the child's belly, reached nearly to the umbilicus. 
Beyond this I could not go, nor could I reach a foot, nor knee, 
nor thigh. All I could find was an enormously developed 
abdomen, expanding upwards like an immense inverted flask. 
The walls of the child's abdomen were so tense and elastic, as 
to convey to my fingers the feeling as if they could easily be 
penetrated. I was so deceived by this feeling that I actually 
tried to thrust my fingers through into the child's belly* In 
this, of course, I failed. Having satisfied myself that the 
detention resulted from this extraordinary development of 
the child's belly, I partially withdrew my hand, and grasping 



9d MBBICAL SOCIETT OP JflfSW-NnBRfiET. 

the arm and chei>st, as well as I conld, I agam tried bj strong 
traction, to bring down the body through the superior strait. 
Bnt I could not move it one iotA* 

I had no obstetrical instruments with me — ^nothing in fact, 
but a small pocket case of dressing instruments. Taking 
from this a small scalpel^ and protecting its edge in the palm 
of my hand, I again introduced my hand, and attempted to 
open the child's belly. In this I also failed, the instrument 
being not at all adapted to the purpose. Finding it necessary 
to have other instruments, I now went home to procure them, 
leaving the patient with strict injunctions as to being kept 
quiet, Ac. On my return I invited my friend, Dr. H. A. 
stopper, to accompany me and assist in the further manage- 
ment of the case. We found the woman, as I had left her an 
hour before, without any signs of exhaustion, and with scarce- 
ly any pain. On my invitation Pr. H. now made a careful 
examination. The tonic contraction of the uterus had proba- 
bly become more completely developed, for the doctor failed 
to reach the expanded belly, and was disposed to believe that 
the detention was caused by irregular contraction of the 
uterus about the child's body— a condition similar to hour- 
glass contraction. I suggested that if such was the case, 
chloroform would be the proper remedy, and with his assent, 
I placed the woman under the full influence of the ana&sthetic. 
I then asked him to repeat his examination, and, if post^ible, 
perfect his diagnosis. He did so, reaching, with some diffi- 
culty, the child's belly, and satisfying himself that my diagno- 
sis was correct. He also coincided with me in the opinion 
that to accomplish delivery, it would be necessary to puncture, 
and perhaps eviscerate the child's abdomen. Requesting 
him to take charge of the cloroform, and also to assist by sup- 
porting the uterus, I introduced my right hand into the 
uterus with the palm looking to the child's abdomen. Then 
passing a crotchet along my palm» I attempted to open the 
abdomen between the umbilicus and sternum. The instru- 
ment slipped along the abdominal walls and did not penetrate 
them until it caught under the sternum. Retaining my right 



BEPORT OF DISTEICT SOCIETIES. 99 

hand in the ntertiB, I now withdrew the crotchet, and intro- 
duced a blunt hook into the opening I had made nnder the 
Bternnm, and attempted to draw down the parts but without 
mccees. Withdrawing the blunt hook, I next passed my 
fingers into the opening I had made, and in so doing I found 
that I had not opened the abdomen at all, but had penetrated 
the thorax. Without much eflfort I succeeded in thrusting 
my fingers through the diaphragm, and seizing the liver I 
withdrew it. , A copious stream of bloody water immediately 
rushed by my arm, and the child's abdomen at once became 
so flaccid as to permit me to reach a knee without the least 
diflSculty. Grasping this I immediately and without any 
further trouble, delivered the woman by version — the child's 
chest and shoulders receding as I brought down the feet. The 
patient came from under the influence of the chloroform 
kindly, and made a rapid and good " getting up.'' 

The child's abdomen was found enormously hypertrophied. 
Even after its contents were removed, its flaccid walls pre- 
sented a bulk much greater than that of an ordinary child. 



PASSAIC COUNTY. 

Chairman of Stariding Committee: 

Sir — ^During the year 1864 the amount of sickness in this 
district did not vary much from the average of previous years. 

A mild form of remittent fever, with a typhoid tendency, 
was prevalent throughout the greater part of the year, in 
which the necessity existed of sustaining the strength of the 
patient in the latter stages, with bark and alcoholic stimulants, 

Intermittents have been very rare, except in a few locali- 
ties in the neighborhood of ponds and overflowed lands along 
the river. 

The summer of 1863 was attended, in this city, with a se- 
vere epidemic of typhoid or enteric fever, diarrhsea occurring 
in all, and hemorrhage* from the bowels in many cases; at the 



100 UEDlCAh SOCIETY OF NEW-JEBSET. 

same time the weather was very damp, a great quantity of 
rain having fallen during the summer. During the last sum- 
mer very few oases were seen. The weather was dry and ex- 
cessively hot. Cholera infantum and other bowels affections 
of children, were very prevalent and difEcult to manage. Dys- 
. entery and serous diarrhoea were common among adults. 

Scarlatina in its various forms was present throughout the 
year. In severe cases, those of a malignant character espe- 
cially, sulph. quinia and tinct. ferri mur. proved highly ser- 
vicable, given every three hours. 

During the spring and fall months measles were very preva- 
lent, and were attended in many cases with bronchial and, in 
a few with laryngeal inflammation. 

In the early part of October an epidemic of small-pox made 
its appearance, and swept with wonderful rapidity through 
every part of the city, all classes being subjected to the dis- 
ease. In many cases an eruption of roseola preceded the ap- 
pearance of the variola. There is at present very little abate- 
ment of the disease. 

It presents itself in every form, from the mildest varioloid 
to the severest confluent small-pox, the latter cases generally 
requiring a free use of stimulants in the later stages. 

Revaccination has been very common among our young 
adult population. Its eflicacy appears to me to have been re- 
peatedly proven. 

A tendency to erysipelas, both idiopathic and traumatic, has 
been observed during the last few months. 

Hooping cough has been common throughout the year, at- 
tended in many cases with pneumonia or bronchitis. 

During the fall and winter months the various inflammatory 
affections of the tihroat have been prevalent, a tendency to 
ulceration of the throat and fauces being observed in many 
cases. The type of these affections has been generally as- 
thenic, requiring supporting treatment in the later stages. 

Diphtheria has been rare, and generally occurring in chil- 
dren. The ordinary treatment by Ghlor. Potass. Quinine and 
Tinct. Ferri. Mur., has been most effectual in my hands. 



BHPOBT OF DISTRICT SOCIBTIBS. 101 

Ulcerative Stomatitis, or Cancrum Oris, has been prevalent, 
occurring usually in damp, unhealthy localities, among poorly 
nourished children. 

During the last few months occasional cases of Cerebro- 
spinal Meningitis, or Spotted Fevpr, have made their appear- 
ance among us. Those* cases that came under my observa- 
tion occurred in children from seven to twelve years of age. 
Commencing with a slight chill, followed by a corresponding 
reaction, a weak, frequent pulse, coated tongue, pain in the 
front and back of the head at the same time, and great rest- 
lessness ; the pain in the head increasing greatly, the patient 
throwing himself about, and sometimes with difficulty kept in 
bed. At the same time purplish spots would appear upon 
the face, arms, and chest, from the size of a pea to that of a 
ten-cent piece. As the disease progressed the tongue would 
become dry and brown ; delirium of more or less violence 
would set in, from which the patient could* be aroused for a 
short time sufficiently to answer questions. Contraction of 
•the muscles of the back of the neck, drawing the head back- 
wards ; bowels costive, and pulse becoming less frequent, and 
at the same time irregular. The Treatment was commenced 
by a dose of Calomel, followed by an infusion of Senna and 
Manna ; afterwards Quinine and Brandy, given alternately ; a 
blister to the nape of the neck, and sinapisms to the spine. 
A majority of the cases, as it exists here, will probably re- 
c(wer if seen early and treated as above. 

Annexed is a communication from Dr. A. W. Rogers, of 
this city. 

R. J. WHITELY, Beporier. 

Patebson, Jan. 1865. 

Cases by Db. A. W. Rogers. Cellulitis. 

Ok tiie 12th of April, 1864, 1 was called to prescribe for 
Mrs. S an English woman, who has resided in this coun- 
try for some fifteen years past, aged ^ and the mother of 

several children. Her previous health had been good, with 
the exception of an occasional attack of ague and fever, to 



101} HBDICAL SOCIETT OF NBW-JEBSBT. 

ward off which, from time to time, she had taken considerable 
quinine. She had a fresh, healthy aspect and was somewhat 
inclined to corpulency. Her habits were of the most temper- 
ate kind. 

I found her suffering from pain in the duodenal region, and 
sickness of stomach, and other symptoms which led me to 
suppose there was obstruction of the common hepatic duct, 
and I prescribed accordingly. She was relieved lor the time, 
but in a few days had another attack, and again in a few days 
another. But the bowels became regular, and the stools 
appeared healthy and no degree of jaundice appeared. About 
three weeks from the first attack, the pain recurred in the 
same place ; and with other remedies a small blister was ap- 
plied over the seat of pain. The patient was relieved ; bat 
about a week after this, and about the 1st of Aug., my atten- 
tion was called to a swelling of the part where the blister had 
been applied. It Appeared like a tumor of a firm consistence 
about five inches long, extending across the t^bdomen, and 
two and a half wide, and as near as could be' ascertained, by 
endeavoring to get the fingers behind it, two or two and a half 
deep. Over the center were three or four little openings 
near together, something like those seen in the early stage of 
carbuncle. After a few days some discharge appeared, to 
promote which the skin between the orifices was divided. 
But the quantity discharged was never much at a time and 
the quality always of a thin consistence. The swelling gradu« 
ally increased and particularly in the downward direction 
toward the umbilicus, and by the 1st of June it extended to 
within an inch of that point, and laterally to the cartilages, 
and somewhat over the border of the ribs in the right side, 
being now about seven inches in its lateral and five in its 
vertical diameter, and two or three in depth. At the orifice 
from which the most discharge occurred, a probe could be 
passed more than two inches deep, vertical to the abdomen ; 
but such explorations gave so much pain to the patient that 
they were but seldom made. The swelling could be rolled as 
it were upon the abdominal wall in some places, in other parts 



B&POftT 09 DiBl»i€T SOCnmSEL 108 

it seemed more fixed. Soon after the last date the discharge 
began to lessen from the upper part and a new point of 
suppuration appeared in the lower part of the tumor, and 
a short time after an opening was here made from which a 
small discharge of thin pus continued to flow for four or five 
weeks. The swelling continued to spread downward and 
around the umbilicus, and made that point appear in a deep 
pit. It alao extended over the ribs on the right side, but did 
not here extend much below .the border of the ribs, so as to 
occupy the hypergastric region. Soon after the second point 
of suppuration became established, it became evident that the 
swelling or tumor was diminishing in its upper edge and left 
side, and flattening down around the first point of suppura- 
tion, and in a short time the upper opening almost ceased to 
discharge. About'the first of July there began to be increased 
pain and tenderness in that portion over the ribs above the 
right hypochondriac region, and a point of suppuration was 
soon after established there. Soon after this the larger part 
of the swellings between the epigastrium and the umbilicus 
diminished more rapidly in bulk, and the general size of the 
abdomen appeared to become much reduced, and the two first 
points of discharge became nearly dried up» 

The general health of the patient, which had suffered con- 
siderable from the pain, loss of rest and appetite, and hectic 
symptoms, about the 1st of August became much improved, 
and during the autumnal months continued pretty good. Sba 
recovered her appetite and strength, and was free from pain, 
except a little soreness around the last point of suppuration* 
On the 1st of October, the extent of the tumefaction was 
about the same (with the exception of change of place) as 
when first observed, and was confined to the right side, its 
longest diameter still extending latterly. It appeared grad- 
ually diminishing, and the dischax'ge was very litde, and there 
was no indication of any exten&ion of the disease beyond the 
points it bad already covered. 

In the middle of November, happening to see ihiB patient, 
I disserved that ^e did not appear so well as she had been. 



104 MEDICAL SOCIETT OP NEW-JBBSBT. 

But she did not complain. She said that a very little dis- 
cbarge continued from the last opening, and that the swelling 
was almost gone. , 

The latter part of December the patient thought she took 
" a cold ;" had symptoms of catarrh, and afterwards cough 
and soreness of the chest, for which she called me to see her. 
She now appeared more as if suffering from constitutional 
disease than she did in November. She had evidently lost 
flesh and strength. She said she had no symptoms of fever 
till she took this cold, and had not recently suffered from any 
pain, and that her appetite had been pretty good. Upon ex- 
amining the abdomen I found some discharge, not only from 
the last point of suppuration, over the region of the liver, 
but also from the other places, but not much from any of 
them. The orifices project like those over diseased bone. 
The skin over that portion of the abdomen which has been 
affected seems more closely attached to the muscles below it 
than it did, and in places around the points of discharge there 
is still a good deal of tumefaction. The abdodiinal wall seems 
to rise and fall more than it used to do, when the patient 
coughs or takes a deep inspiration. There never has been 
any pain from moderate pressure or handling of the part ; 
and the color of the skin over the tumefied part, except just 
at the points of suppuration, has been, an.d now is, natural. 
There is now some evidence of hepatic derangement, in that 
the stools are somewhat lighter in color than natural. There 
is no evidence of enlargement of the liver, or of portal ob- 
struction, nor of any organic pulmonary disease. The cough 
and other recent symptoms are lessening. 

This case, which to me was somewhat puzzling at first, in 
its course clearly proved itself to be one of cellulitis. It is 
a question whether it has had any particular connection with 
some hepatic malady. It is uncertain whether the small 
blister was an exciting cause of the disease. If so, it cer- 
tainly is a very rare case. I have somewhat minutely, and at 
the risk of being tedious, related the rise and progress of this 
case, because I believe such disease in the abdominal region 



BEPOBT OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES* 106 

to be very rarely seen, and becanse little mention is made of 
it in the books. If its farther progress and termination 
should afford anything of interest, I will endeavor to report 
it at another time. 

Ertsipelas. 

In January, 1864, I attended several cases of Erysipelas, 
which, more folly than usual, manifested the connection be- 
tween the disease of the skin and the mucous membrane. 

First, a young woman was affected with fever, then eryeip* 
elas of face, then very severe sore throat, then severe dys- 
entery. Next, the mother of the patient had fever, sickness 
of stomach, and pain in the bowels, lasting several days. 
Next, a sister of the first patient had fever, then sore throat, 
then nausea and pain in the stomach, and dysentery ; and 
lastly, about ten days from the beginning of fever, erysipelas 
appeared and spread slowly over the face and head. The 
affection of the throat, and the gastric and dysenteric affec- 
tion, in this case, were very severe, and prostrated the patient 
very much. This patient, after recovering from the erysip- 
elas, etc., was attacked with very severe and persistent pain 
around the lower part of the chest, which, notwithstanding 
active treatment by counter-irritation, aconite, etc., continued 
till hectic symptoms, with tubular breathing, and every indi- 
cation of confirmed disease of lungs, appeared. But after 
lingering several months, under a generous diet, iron, qui- 
nine, and cod liver oil, by the early summer months she was 
apparently well recovered. In the first of July she showed 
symptoms of meningitis, which, after about three weeks, 
proved fatal, with every symptom of effusion upon the brain. 



GOUJNTX. 



Chairman of Standing Committee: 

Dear Sir : Notwithstanding the large population embraced 
within the limits of the Essex District Medical Society, in- 



106 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW*JEBSJ37. 

eluding, as it does, one of the largest cities of oar county, 
your reporter is not informed of the occurrence of any unu- 
sual mortality during the year, or of any prevailing epidemic. 
Dysentery and scarlatina have visited two or three localities, 
and appeared to be endemic, though the peculiarity upon 
which they depended has not been made out. These instances 
will be subsequently alluded to. The aggregate of the infor- 
mation received rather gives evidence of an unusual degree 
of health. The diseases ordinarily incident to the changes of 
season, and to atmospherical distemperature, however, have 
been met with as usual, though, for the most part, mild and 
tractable in character. While " fever and ague" proper has 
been rarely witnessed, the disposition to periodicity has evi- 
dently entered as a principle into many of the cases of sick- 
ness which have occurred. This incorporation of the inter- 
mittent element is viewed by some practitioners of this sec- 
tion in a favorable light. It is held as modifying the charac- 
ter of disease, and rendering it more amenable to treatment. 
Hence quinine is quite liberally used^ and the majority of 
cases require the use of this agent as an adjuvant, at least, at 
some period of their course. It is not simply that a general 
asthenic type prevails, and, as a matter of course, a corrobo- 
rative treatment is indicated that quinine is used; but its pe- 
culiar, anti-periodic action seems necessary. The success of 
treatment seems to establish the correctness of the principle. 
Fevers pf remittent type have not prevailed to any unusual 
extent; nor has much of enteric fever been reported. Dysen- 
tery made its appearance in my own practice, in two districts 
separated from each other by a mountain range, and present- 
ing a striking dissimilarity as regards elevation and geographi- 
cal character. In the one case we have a mountainous and 
rocky section; in the other, a comparatively level one, with a 
soil partly alluvial. Yet the appearance of the disease in each 
section was nearly simultaneous, and its features and varia- 
tions were quite similar. In each case nearly every family 
for a certain distance was visited by the disease. The suc- 
cession in which the cases seemed to occur, impressed the 



> 



BEPOBTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 107 

commtmity with the idea of a contagious property belonging 
to it. During August, while the weather was hot and dry,. 
severe pain and tenderness over the whole course of the colon;.: 
tenesmus, with frequent and small evacuations of bloody mu- 
cous, were the prominent symptoms. No scybalee were no- 
ticed in any case. The condition of fever was variable, and 
was not influenced by the severity of the above eymptoms.. 
At a later period, when the weather became cooler, a stronger 
hemorrhagic disposition was observed. The treatment was,, 
for the most part, successful. Morphia and quinia, alternately 
used, were the remedies principally relied upon in the first 
instance; while, later in the season, the more liberal use of 
astringents became necessary. The exhibition of purgatives 
did not seem indicated, and, of course, were not resorted to, 
except in a limited degree. 

A number of cases of erysipelas have been reported. The 
treatment adopted has been principally, Tr. Fer. Chlorid., in- 
ternally, with the external use of Tr. Iodine or creosote. By 
some the Tr. Ferri is considered a apec^ in this disease. 

The contagious affections claim a place in the medical his- 
tory of the year. Small-pox having prevailed to some extent 
in Newark during the winter of 1863-4; subsiding during the 
summer months, and reappearing in a limited way upon the 
accession of the present winter. It is spoken of as presenting 
a mild character. 

Measles have been noticed to some extent. They prevail 
at this time in Orange, though not inordinately severe. Scar-- 
latina does not seem to have manifested itself so generally as 
is sometimes observed. One neighborhood, however, within 
the knowledge of your reporter, has been, during the past 
two months, terribly scourged by this too frequently intracta- 
ble disease. 

The locality spoken of is about four miles west of Newark. . 
The cases were under the management of a neighboring phy- 
sician and the writer. The disease, in almost every instance,, 
presented a malignant character, and in nearly all, the angi- 
nose aflfection was very severe. A disposition to diphtheritic 

7 



108 MEDICAL SOCIETT OP NEW-JER8ET. 

deposition, implicating the larynx and trachea, was very 
troublesome. In a few instances the patients sunk under the 
first shock of the disease without the appearance of any erup- 
tion. In others its force was spent upon the lining mem- 
brane of the bowels. These cases were quite intractable ; 
and if any eruption appeared, it was livid in color. Upon the 
decline of the eruption large abscesses formed about the neck; 
in some instances three or four upon the same patient. At 
this period also an erysipelatous inflammation appeared upon 
the face in a few instances. It generally commenced upon 
the side of the nose, and extended itself quite rapidly. As 
a sequel the disposition to anasarca has been very strongly 
marked, the kidneys being tender, and the urine more or less 
albuminous. The treatment relied upon was the potassium, 
chloroform, and Tinct. Per. chlorid, quinia and diflFusible stim- 
ulants, given internally as seemed necessary. When the 
eruption was tardy in its appearance, stimulating and warm 
applications were made to the surface, sometimes with appa- 
rent benefit, and at others with no effect. To the diseased 
lining of the fauces, a solution of chloride of sodium was used, 
and to this, capsicum was sometimes added with benefit. A 
syringe seems to be the best means for making the appli- 
cations ; the injury frequently inflicted by the "swab" is thus 
avoided. Other preparations were used, but with no decided 
advantage over those, above mentioned, except in the instance 
of ice. This was used with decided benefit^ where the throat 
affection was more inflammatory. In small children the plan 
recommended, of enclosing, the ice in a gauze bag, was ob- 
served. The erysipelatous affection of the face was success- 
fully treated by the local use of T. Iodine, and continuing the 
exhibition of T. Per. as before mentioned. The dropsical 
symptoms were treated asadvisedby Professor Wood, though 
the Bitart. Potass, did not seem to act as favorably as wo 
were led to suppose it would. 

Digitalis and squill seem to be more reliable agents. 
Moderate counter-irritation over the kidneys appeared bene* 
ficial in some instances. 



REPORT OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 109 

Still the removal of the efFusion in every case was a very 
difficult matter. The mortality, from the disease and its se- 
quelae, reached about thirty-five per cent. This is the third 
time, within the knowledge of the writer, that Scarlatina Ma- 
ligna has visited the same neighborhood, and observed nearly 
the same limits on each occasion. 

It may be remarked here : the chlorine treatment resorted 
to in this instance was that adopted by Dr. Whittingham, of 
Millburn ; an account of which ij< given in the Transactions of 
New Jersey State Medical Society, for 1860. The success of 
treatment in the epidemic, which prevailed at that time, was 
highly satisfactory ;• while in the present instance, the large 
mortality is truly discouraging. 

Cases of Diphtheria have been reported, but the contrast 
with the wide prevalence of the disease, as given for former 
years, is very striking. May not the expression of some de- 
gree of skepticism, as to the actual occurrence of so much 
Diphtheria as has been formerly reported be excused ? 

It is not believed thiat any member of the profession would 
designedly present a false diagnosis, with a view to swell the 
number of cases of Diphtheria. But, as the disease is a very 
grave one, and one which too often bafiBes the ability of the 
most skilled, may not a disposition (truly laudable in itself) to 
report a large number of cases, as successfully treated, induce 
a looseness in diagnosis which is not creditable to the profes- 
sion, or beneficial to the community ? Is not the fact that 
ordinary Tonsillitis, and almost every anginose affection have 
been classified as Diphtheria, a justification of such a suppo- 
sition ? Further, is it not a duty incumbent upon the profes- 
sion to give more respect to the " landmarks which the fa- 
thers have set," and not admit new n imes except where they 
rightfully belong ? The remark made some time since by 
another : " the profession still needs a more accurate diagno- 
sis of Diphtheria," seems applicable even now. 

Spotted Fever. The reported appearance of the disease 
called " Spotted Fever" at two or three points within this^ 
district, at one time excited considerable alarm among the 



110 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSET. 

community ; the actual cases, however, were few. In regard 
to its occurrence at Bloomfield, your reporter has no direct 
information. The affection as it manifested itself at Newark, 
presented peculiar features. The spotted appearances of the 
skin gave it a very strong resemblance to Purpura Haemorr- 
hagica, to distinguish it from which required a close obser- 
vation. The fatal cases revealed the " cerebro spinal" lesion 
at the post mortem examinations. The paper of Dr O'Gor- 
man, who had charge of the majority of the cases, will be pe- 
rused with interest and profit. The few cases which oc- 
curred in Elizabeth, and which rumor made " Spotted Fever,'' 
I am informed by Dr. Green, of that city, were a low fever of 
remittent type. The subjects were of broken constitution, 
and the " cerebro spinal" trouble in them was only a natural 
consequence. 

Dr. Crane, of Elizabeth, remarks a very unusaal and strik- 
ing frequency in the occurrence of Apoplexy during the last 
few months. In the absence of auy known cause, the fact 
seems an illustration of the disposition frequently remarked, 
for diseases similar in nature, and even surgical affections, 
and accidents to present themselves in clusters. 

Dr. Wm. Pierson, Jr., of Orange, furnishes the notes of a 
post mortem examination made by him, which, with the his- 
tory of the case given, are interesting and suggestive. 

In a surgical way, a number of operations of a capital na- 
ture have been performed. Dr. Abm. Coles, of Newark, 
kindly furnishes the report of a case of Aneurism of the femoral 
artery for which the external iliac artery was tied. The paper 
accompanies this report. In connection with the case of Dr. 
Coles, that of Dr. Cutter, of U. S. Military Hospital at New- 
ark, may be alluded to. This case is reported in American 
Journal of Medical Sciences, for July, 1864. The ligation of 
the external iliac in this case also, was considered for a time 
successful. 

The operation was performed on February 6, 1864 ; and 
from the minutes of the Newark Medical Union it is found to 
have returned ; and, after about seven months, the limb at 



REPORT OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. Ill 

the thigh had attained a circumference of thirty-six inches. 
A second operation was at this time performed ; and, as a 
result, the size of the limb was reduced to eighteen inches. 
In this latter instance, the primitive iliac received the liga- 
tion. The patient survived the operation for five days. The 
post mortem revealed the c6mmunication between the artery 
and vein. 

Dr. Pierson, Jr. mentions a case of urinary calculus, for 
which he performed the lateral operation of lithotomy. The 
patient was a man of aixty-ttvo years. The operation gave 
evidence of perfect success. No haemorrhage followed the op- 
eration. At the fourteenth day the urine resumed its course 
through the urethra, and every thing seemed doing well. His 
appetite, however, now failed him, so that he could not be sus- 
tained, but sank into a typhoid state, and subsequently die^. 
The stone, which weighed about two drachms, was of the 
lithic acid variety. 

Dr. Bethuel Dodd, of Newark, furnishes an interesting case 
of face presentation in labor, with the history of its treat- 
ment, which will be found in its proper order, accompanying. 

I have also appended the notes of a case of calculi occurring 
in the female, which came under my own observation, and to 
me at least, is without precedent. 

The above is respectfully submitted, together with the 
articles referred to. 

Eugene Jobs, Reporter for Essex District Society. 

January 1, 1865. Springfield, N. J. 

CASES OP SPOTTED FEVER. 

BT WILLIAM 0'aOB3IAM, M. D. 

On the 23d of March I vyas called to see a boy about seven 
years of age. Two days previous to my visit, the little fellow 
was dull and heavy, and occasionally complained of headache 
and pain in the back. The day I first saw him, he had had a 
severe chill, with accompanying fever — hot skin, quick pulse, 
and delirium. The tongue was red, and there was occasional 



112 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW-JERSEY. 

vomiting. The eyes were bright — the conjunctiva congested, 
and pupils contracted. 

The next day, the general symptoms were unchanged.' I 
now observed some purpuric-Iooking spots which had made 
their appearance beneath the skin. Those marks bore an ex- 
act resemblance to the limited effusions of blood which occur 
in Purpura Hemorrhagica. The ripots varied in shape and 
size. They, however, chiefly affected the circular form, and, 
while some were not larger than the Petecchise which occur in 
fever; others were at least an inch in diameter. 

They occurred, principally, on the anterior aspect of the 
body, for, with the exception of one or two on the nates, there 
were none to be seen posteriorly. The skin over them was 
slightly raised, giving to the finger passed along the surface, 
the feeling of moving over a slight elevation. 

On the fourth day of my attendance, positive signs of cere- 
bro-spinal meningitis became manifest. A remittent fever, 
an irregular pulse, now abnormally slow, now quickened by 
the slightest motion, occasional vomiting, dilated pupils, and 
well-marked opisthotonos. The little patient slept an uneasy 
sleep, waking up every now and then with a frightened cry. 

The sixth day of his illness, I observed signs of inflamma- 
tion of the right eye, and, on my visit the following morning, 
I was astonished to observe the rapid progress which the in- 
flammation had made. The globe of the eye was unnaturally 
prominent; the aqueous humor was discolored, and the iris 
completely smeared over by a lymphy deposit, and all the 
superficial vessels of the eye in a state of active congestion. 
Notwithstanding the most active treatment, by leeching, bel- 
ladonna and vesication, the sight of the eye was quickly and 
irretrievably lost. A few days later, the wrist and elbow 
joints of the right arm became swollen and painful, and had 
the appearance as if suppuration were imminent. The inflam- 
matory signs, however, gradually subsided, and the joints 
slowly recovered their normal condition. During four weeks 
my little patient hung suspended between life and death. He 
lay in a semi-comatose condition, and could with difficulty be 



BEPOBT OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 113 

roused to recognize his attendants, or give a short answer to 
repeated questioning. The skin remained dry and unperspir- 
able; the tongue, which, in the earlier stage, was red at the 
edge and coated with a creamy coating in the center, became 
dry and covered with dark sordes; the pupils constantly di- 
lated; the pulse was generally very rapid; the bowels, which 
at first had been constipated, were now subject to attacks of 
diarrhea ; the urine was scanty, and deposited a quantity of 
the triple phosphate ; there was extreme emaciation. Observ- 
ing that the head was greatly disproportionate to the shrunk 
body, I was astonished to discover that the sutures of the 
skull had reopened, so that I could almost intrude my finger 
■ between the separated bones. By this time the purpuric 
spots had disappeared. The manner of the disappearance 
was novel and unexpected. The sanguineous effusions in Pur- 
pura Hemorrhagica pass through a variety of shades and co- 
lors, like the ecchymosia resulting from a blow. The spots in 
this disease became more defined, darker colored, and appeared 
to include the skin itself. Instead of the slight elevation which 
was manifest on their first appearance, there was now an evi- 
dent depression. So defined was their boundary, and so black 
their color, that at first I feared that the skin had lost its vi- 
tality. The spots continued to diminish in size, a furfuracious 
scale was thrown, the depression was gradually effaced, and 
the skin resumed its natural appearance. At the end of four 
weeks convalescence began. Two months elapsed before my 
patient regained his usual health. 

At the same time that I was in attendance on this boy, two 
other children of the same family were seized with the same 
disease — a little girl, about three years of age, who died on 
the sixth day of her illness, and an older sister, about nine 
years of age, who had nearly the same symptoms, and the 
same slow recovery as her brother. 

The child who died was seized with Capillary Bronchitis on 
the fourth day of her sickness. There were not in her case 
any very evident signs of lesion of the brain or spinal column. 

I was permitted to make a hurried post-mortem examina- 



114 Hi!DICAL SOCIETT OF NEW-JEBSE7. 

tion, in which I was kindly assisted by Dr. Cross. The paren- 
chyma of both lungs, particularly toward their base, was 
gorged with blood, and the lobes filled with muco-purulent 
fluid. 

Bemoving the calvarium^ the membranes were found con- 
gested, and the arachnoid completely smeared over with lymph. 
There was no serous effusion. The brain itself appeared in a 
healthy state. 

The parents of these children lived in a healthy part of the 
city; their home was neat, clean and well ventilated; their 
children well clothed and well fed. In their case there was 
no apparent cause why children so nurtured and so protected 
should have been affected. 

No other case of this disease occurred in that street or vi- 
cinity. 

I found, on inquiry, that about twelve cases of spotted fever 
occurred in this city during the spring and summer of last 
year. They were mostly isolated, and (except when two or 
three of the same family were attacked) no connection could 
be traced between them. 

As County Physician I was summoned to view the bodies of 
two children belonging to different parents, and living in dis- 
tant localities, who had died suddenly without medical attend- 
ance — one in some twelve hours, the other after a day's ill- 
ness. From the appearance of the bodies, and the history of 
their sickness as given by their parents, I have no doubt they 
died of the malady now under consideration. 

Now, what is this "spotted" fever? Is it simply cerebro- 
spinal meningitis, or is it a constitutional fever, with occa- 
sional or constant lesion of the cerebro-spinal system? My 
opportunities for observation have been too few and limited to 
authorize my indulgence in speculation or crude conjecture. 

Newark, January 1st, 1865. 

Dr. Pierson's Case. 
On the 6th day of August, I made a post mortem examina- 



REPOBT OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 115 

tion of the body of Miss W., aged seventy years. Drs. Wickes, 
Crane, Personett and Pierson, Sr., were present. Miss W. had 
been an invalid for many years, and her eminent piety and pa- 
tient endurance of her sufferings had excited the sympathy and 
interest of a large circle of friends. To the physicans who had 
been made acquainted with her case, she had become a medi- . 
cal curiosity, and during her long illness she had been visited 
by more than thirty members of the medical profession. For 
twenty-five years she was confined to her room, and for the 
greater part of the time to her bed. She was in the habit of 
keeping a diary, in which she noted not only the important 
events of her life, but her thoughts and reflections. In it we 
find an account of the commencement of her illness. She says 
she was suddenly attacked on Friday, August 10, 1837, with in- 
flammation of the bowels. The attack was a severe one, so that 
fears were entertained for her recovery. She was twice bled 
within a few hours. After her recovery she was able to at- 
tend upon a sick sister until the time of her death, which 
was in October. The loss of her sister had a very depressing 
efiect upon her, and from that time her health gradually de- 
clined. During that year she had repeated attacks of chills 
and fever, and remittent fever. In September, 1858, she went 
to Haverstraw for a visit, and while there, was attacked with 
remittent fever, and was attended by Dr. Austin, who informed 
her that, in addition to. her other troubles, she had an aneur- 
ism very near the heart. She says she ** thinks the aneurism 
must have taken place June 20, 1838. At that time I was 
taken with a severe stinging pain about the region of the 
heart." On her return from Haverstraw, in December, she 
visited New York, where a consultation of nine eminent physi- 
cians was held, among whom were Drs. Mott and K. Rodgers. 
The consultation was held on two difierent occasions. The de- 
cision was that she had an aneurism very near the heart, and the 
opinion of the physicians was, that it would soon terminate in 
death. She often speaks in her diary of her suflFerings, sometimes 
of palpitation of the heart, and difficulty of breathing, and of faint- 
ing turns. In 1848, she speaks of being very much bloated, and 



116 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW-JERSEY. 

of having water on the chest. Whether the last is her own im- 
pression or the opinion of the physicians, the record does not say. 
It was my privilege to see her for the first time about ten years 
ago. At that time there was a hard tumerous swelling in the 
abdomen, the precise character of which I was unable to define. 
I was of the impression, however, that it was an ovarian tu- 
mor. There was active pulsation on the right side of the 
chest below the clavicle. It was in that region she informed 
me that the aneurism existed. As my visit was only one of 
curiosity, I did not feel at liberty to make a careful examina- 
tion, especially as I had no reason to doubt the existence of 
an aneurism, it having been pronouced such by the highest 
medical authority of this country. About five years ago the 
swelling in the abdomen began gradually to diminish, until at 
the time of her death it was not larger than a man's head. A few 
days before her death she was attacked with diarrhoea, under 
which she rapidly sunk. The autopsy was made twelve hours 
after death. The figure of the body was very much distorted, 
the legs contracted and wasted, the sternum sunken in, and the 
ribs on the right side very prominent, having the appearance 
of being forced into that position by the growth of a tumor in 
the chest. There was considerable adipose tissue over the ab- 
domen. The heart was found to be in its normal situa- 
tion. The pleura were adherent in places. The lungs, heart 
and large vessels, including the subclavian, were removed in- 
tact and carefully examined, but no aneurism was discovered. 
The heart was considerably enlarged, and its coats were some- 
what flabby, but in other respects the organ was of a noroial 
appearance. The abdominal tumor proved to be a fibrous en- 
largement of the uterus — the growth being in the walls of the 
organ. The surface of the tumor was smooth and regular. Its 
size was about that of a small child's head. 

In reviewing the history of this case, we are naturally led to 
enquire what were the symptoms which led the surgeons to 
form the opinion that the patient had a thoraic aneurism. The 
error in their diagnosis undoubtedly caused the patient many 
years of discomfort and confinement, which would otherwise, in 



REPORT OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES, 117 

all probability have been passed in usefulness. The record 
shows that the opinion was not given until after repeated and 
thorough examination had been made. It is to be regretted 
that the record does not give the symptoms more accurately. 
, Faintness, palpitation, and difficulty of breathing, are the symp- 
toms spoken of, but they are such as could easily enough be 
accounted for on the theory of other troubles. The opinion 
was undoubtedly founded upon the physical symptoms. The 
first symptom of the disease occurred at the age of forty-five, 
about the time of the cessation of the menses, which may have 
had something to do with the symptoms. It would be easy 
enough to account for the rational symptoms upon that theory 
and every physician knows that a loud bruit is often heard in 
the heart, in an anemic condition of the system, and such a 
condition is only apt to occur at that period. 
Orange, Jan. 1, 1865. 

CASE OF ANEURISM OF THB FEMORAL ARTERY HIGH UP KEAR POU- 
part's LIGAMENT, TREATED BY COMPRESSION AND SUBSEQUENT 
LIGATION OF THE EXTERNAL ILIAC ARTERY. 

BT ABBAX C0LK8, X. D. 

Mr. George T. Deni^an, aged about 35 years, employed in 
driving a wagon for a tobacconist, and living at No. 40 Morris 
and Essex Railroad avenue, Newark, N. J., called on me in 
August last to show me a tumor, situated on the upper part of 
the thigh, which the medical examiners for the district (Drs. 
Cross and Hunt) of applicants for exemption from military ser- 
vice had pronounced to be aneurism, but which an irregular 
practitioner had previously been poulticing as an abscess. At 
the time I first saw it, the tumor was about the size of a goose 
©gg> pulsation and the characteristic aneurismal bruit being 
very distinct. Upon being questioned, he recollected that 
sometime before, while engaged in the act of lifting a barrel, 
he felt, as he thought, something give way in that vicinity, but 
the circumstance had nearly passed from his mind. Having 
explained to him the nature and probable issue of the case, he 



118 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW-JERSEY, 

was told that there were two principal modes of treatment open 
to him, viz., compression, and tying of the artery. It was deemed 
best that the first should receive a fair trial, before recourse 
was had to the latter expedient; and compression of the Vessel 
at the point of exit from the pelvis was accordingly commenced 
on 19th August, and continued without interruption for a month 
or more — ^first, by a pad made of adhesive plaster, bound down 
by strips of the same, assisted by a superimposed weight of 
shot or sand; which device was subsequently superseded by a 
common tourniquet, the band attached being lengthened so as 
to admit of its being passed around the hip; and this again was, 
after a time, made to give place to a contrivance, coYisisting of 
an iron band, properly bent so as to pass half round the body, 
with pads fitted at either extremity, the one in front being 
made movable so that, by means of a screw, any amount of 
pressure desired could be brought to bear upon a given point. 
No difficulty was found by any of these methods in keeping up 
a duly regulated pressure, so as to control the circulation, but 
the inconvenience occasioned, made it necessary to lighten the 
pressure at intervals, so that much of the time the arrest of the 
current was only partial. Despite the means employed, the 
tumor continued to increase in volume. Eventually, the tumor 
had attained such a magnitude, extending up to Poupart's Liga- 
ment, that it was thought best not to defer an operation any 
longer; and accordingly, on the 2lst of September, assisted by 
several medical gentleman, I tied the external iliac. An inci- 
sion was made, about four inches long, a little above and nearly 
parallel to Poupart's Ligament, through the abdominal parie- 
ties down to the peritoneum, when, pushing this up and behind 
it, a ligature was passed around the artery and secured; the 
wound closed with sutures and adhesive strips; and directions 
were left to keep up the temperature of the limb, should it 
show a tendency to fall. The loss of blood was trifling, not to 
exceed probably half an ounce, no arteries whatever having 
been cut. The blowing sound in the tumor ceased entirely 
after the operation, and never returned. On the following day, 
the circumference of the limb over the tumor had diminished 



BEPOBT OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 119 

about an inch; the temperature of the limb had undergone no 
sensible change, and the general condition of the patient was 
favorable. The tumor, on the tenth day after the operation, 
presented an appearance as if it were on the point of bursting, 
and there being unequivocal signs of its containing fluid, I made 
a small puncture with my thumb lancet, whence flowed half a 
teacupful or more of bloody serum, but no blood. I had just 
returned to my office when a messenger came, saying that the 
patient was bleeding. I found, upon my arrival, that some 
blood had been lost, but that the bleeding had ceased. Lint 
was applied to the opening and allowed to remain, until four 
days afterwards, when, upon removing the mass of lint which 
covered and concealed the aperture, a large clot was seen pro- 
truding through it, and so dilating it that it was easy to intro- 
duce one or more fingers; whereupon, having ascertained that 
there was an extensive cavity filled with black and putrid coa- 
gula, distending the skin, and diffused below the fascia among 
the dissected muscles, with indications of threatening gangrene, 
I proceeded at once to make a free incision through the skin 
along its whole extent, with the view of removing these offen- 
sive accumulations, which were beginning obviously to affect 
the general system. Cautiously scooping out with my hand 
the coagula to the extent of a pint and more, all at once I felt 
welling up from the bottom, what at first I mistook for bloody 
serum, but very soon discovered to be blood; and, looking at 
my patient, and feeling his pulse, I saw that he was fainting 
and in extreme danger. Not stopping to ascertain the precise 
source of the haemorrhage, I, without a moment's delay, stuffed 
in pieces of sponge, which completely controlled the bleeding, 
at the same time that I plied my patient strongly with stimu- 
lants. These were continued for several days. He rallied so 
slowly, and the weakness was so extreme, that I did not deem 
it prudent to remove the sponges, which were kept in situ and 
constantly watched by a relay of attendants until some three 
days had elapsed, when I proceeded — it being now the eight- 
eenth daj" — ^to complete the work of removing the remaining 
clots. Upon raising the last sponge, all at once a stream of 



120 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NBW-JEBSEY. 

blood as thick as a goose-quill spouted out several feet — ^not, 
however, so far as I could judge, per aaUum; but almost before 
there was time for a second heart-beat, I had stanched the flow 
by means of a bit of sponge smeared with the liquor pro-sul- 
phate of iron. Not daring to run the risk of an accidental dis- 
placement of the sponge, I directed light pressure to be kept 
up by the finger with incessant watching as before. While 
this was being done, means were used to counteract the ten- 
dency to sloughing in the surrounding parts. For this purpose 
I used an ointment composed of equal parts of simple and Ba- 
silicon ointments with creosote added in the proportion of 
twenty drops to two ounces, in connection with finely powdered 
cinchona and extract of logwood. I had employed the same 
ointment with excellent results before to a sloughing st^mp, 
and I found it to answer equally well in the present case, act- 
ing both as an antiseptic and deodorizer. Later, the same oint- 
ment was used with the cinchona, and the logwood left out. !^(o 
haBmorrhage occurred after this. At the end of a few days, the 
sponge was finally removed, and, notwithstanding we had free 
access to the old site of the artery for several inches, both up 
and down the thigh, not the slightest pulsation could any where 
be felt. The sloughing character of the parts soon passed away, 
and was succeeded by healthy granulations over the whole sur- 
face. The wound made in tying the artery had healed, for the 
most part, by the first intention, and the ligature had come 
away spontaneously, without accident, on the eighteenth day 
from the operation. 

For several days after the 20th day the patient's state was 
quite satisfactory, and little doubt was entertained of his 
recovery. He had successfully surmounted a complication 
which I omitted to mention, occurring about the tenth day, 
which consisted in an obstinate closure of the bowels, unat- 
tended Avith pain or tenderness, but great tympanitic dis- 
tension, also hiccup. Cathartics and injections were tried in 
vain for nearly a week. At length I concluded not to vex the 
bowels further with active medicines, using only a mild per- 
istaltic persuader in the form of a single pill taken at night, 



SEPOBT OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 121 

and 80 leave the rest to nature. In a day or two more the 
bowels acteH regularly and there was no farther trouble. 
Suddenly, however, during the night of October 16th, being 
the 25th day after the operation, the patient upon waking 
up out of sleep found his jaws stiflF* This stiffness remained 
for several days the only symptom ; when the tetanic symptoms 
became more general. Opium, cannabis indica, tonics and 
stimulants were all faithfully used, but the disease steadily 
progressed, ending in death, October 23d, being the 33d day 
from the operation. It is, important in this connection to 
mention that three or four days prior to the accession of the 
lockjaw, a circular slough nearly as large as the palm of the 
hand was discovered situated over the middle and upper part 
of the sacrum. At the time, however, of the tetanic symptoms, 
the slough had separated and granulations had begun to 
spring up, with discharges of healthy pus from the whole 
surface of the sore ; and it is remarkable, that after the tetanus 
neither this sore nor the one in front failed to present a good 
suppurative surface. Usually the secretion is suppressed or 
changed. The sore on the back being in immediate proximity 
with the nerves at their origin, would seem to be the chief 
exciting cause of the lockjaw, and if due care had not been 
observed to guard against the occurrence of bed-sores I should 
feel that there was room for censure. Evidentl}-, however, 
there existed a low state of vitality of the skin, as indicated 
by the fact that the weight of the limb itself, for a single 
night onl}'^, on one of the ankles caused a discoloration threat- 
ening gangrene. How far this state may have been due to 
an original defect of vital vigor, derived from his mother who 
was always an invalid, or how far to the general weakness 
superinduced by the loss of blood mentioned as happening on 
the 15th day, it is difficult to say, The father maintained that 
at the seat of the slough there had been for many years a dis- 
eased appearance, and that pressure had not caused the slough. 
However caused, it was a most unfortunate accident, as having 
been almost certainly the principal cause of failure in an 
operation which would otherwise have been crowned with 



122 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NBW-JEBSBT. 

success. I regret exceedingly that my engagements were 
such as to prevent my making a post mortem examination, in- 
asmuch as it would have served most likely among other 
things to have settled the source of the haemorrhage. So large 
a stream could only have come from a large vessel. Was it 
from the femoral, artery ? If so, as there was no pulsation 
discernable along the course of the artery, and no per saUum 
movement of the jet, it would go to prove that the recurrent 
circulation when it does take place is sometime, at least in the 
first instance, quasi venous and. passive. 
Newark, January 1, 1865. 

CASE OP FACE PRESENTATION, 

Which coniradida the Teachings of some of the Ablest Obstetri- 
cians of the Modern French School^ touching the Practioabitr 
ity of Delivery in certain Positions of the Head. 

BT B. L. DODD, M. D. 

April 9. — Mrs. James Conerty, native of Ireland, residence 
No. 12 South Market Street, aged 26 years. Primipara. 

I was first called on Monday evening, April 6th, 10 p. M. ; 
found my patient in bed, suffering with slight pains, which she 
stated had troubled her more or less for two or three weeks 
previous. Upon making an examination, I found the os uteri 
but little dilated, scarcely admitting the end of the finger. 
About 10 o'clock the next morning, I was recalled, and found it 
dilated about two-thirds; membranes entire; presentation, ver- 
tex, as I supposed, but pains being slight, I, after remaining 
for some time, left for about an hour. Returning, I found the 
condition of things much the same, whereupon I ruptured the 
membranes, and now, for the first time, upon making a minute 
examination in order to determine the position more definitely, 
I found it was a case of face presentation, the forehead being 
the most prominent part presenting. Speaking more precisely, 
I diagnosed it to be the first position, second variety (accord- 
ing to M. Naegele's classification), being the right transverse 
mefrdo iliac, the more common of the two varieties of face pre- 



SEPOBT OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 123 

sentation. Gazeanx's description of the mechanism of natnral 
labor in the right transverse mento-iliac position is as follows : 

" Before the amniotic pouch is ruptured, the head, as a gen- 
eral rule, is but moderately extended, whence the forehead is 
nearly always placed at the centre of the superior strait, and 
the chin corresponds to the right, and the bregma to the left ex- 
tremity of the transverse diameter. Consequently the diame- 
ters of the head hold the following relations to those of the 
pelvis: the mento-bregmatic corresponds to the transverse dia- 
meter of the basin; the bi-temporal to the antero-posterior one, 
and the mento-bregmatic circumference is parallel to the peri- 
phery of the sxiperior strait, and, therefore, the pelvis axis tra- 
verses the heftd in the direction of the occipito-frontal diameter. 

The child's posterior plane looks directly to the mother's 
left, and its anterior plane to the right; its right side is in front, 
and the left one is behind. 

As soon as the membranes are ruptured, the mechanism of 
the expulsion begins, and Itere, as in the case of the vertex, it is 
composed of five stages, t. e.: 1. The forced extension; 2. The 
descent; 3. The rotation; 4. The flexion or disengagement; 6. 
The exterior rotation; and these comprise the movements which 
the head undergoes in face positions. 

1. For(^ Eoctension, — ^The head being already moderately 
extended on the back, its extension will be completed during 
the first uterine contractions that take place after the discharge 
of the waters, owing to the resistance it will then meet with; 
but this forced extension changes but very little the relations 
of its diameters to those of the pelvis; for instance, the fronto- 
mental has taken the place of the mento-bregmatic, and is now 
parallel to the transverse diameter of the strait; the bi-tempo- 
ral has not changed at all; the facial, or fronto-mental circum- 
ference corresponds with the periphery of the superior strait, 
and the pelvic axis traverses the head in the direction of a line 
passing from the posterior fontanelle to the child's upper lip. 

2. Descent. — ^As soon as the head is freely extended, it en- 
gages in the excavation, and descends as far as the length of 
the neck will permit. This last sentence requires a short ex- 

8 



124 KSDIGAL SOOIBTT OF NEW JiSBSEY. 

planation ; for, in the vertex positions, we bave already seen 
that the head descended to the floor of the pelvis in such a 
way as to traverse all the space between the superior and in- 
ferior straits, without changing its position. But in the trans- 
verse position before us, it is clearly evident that the face can 
only reach the pelvic floor under one of the following condi- 
tions : that is, either the chest will engage along with the 
head in the excavation, or else it will remain above the supe- 
rior strait ; the face descending alone as far as the inferior 
one ; that is to say, the forehead reaching the level of the 
left, and the chin that o£ the right tuber ischii ; but then the 
neck must necessarily elongate enough to measure the whde 
length of the pelvis at its lateral portion, which is three in- 
ches and three-quarters. But neither of these two conditions 
can be realized, and therefore the head will not be able to 
reach the pelvic floor ; and it is for this rea»oa that we say 
the fiice only descends as far aa the Imgih of ike neck mU per- 
mit ; whereby the descent is interrupted, 

3. Botation. — ^The head then undergoes a movement of ro- 
tation, 4uring which the chin rolls from right to left, so as to 
get behind the symphysis pubis, while the forehead rotates from 
left to right, and before backwards, in order to place itself in the 
cavity of the sacrum. When the execution of this movement 
is effected, the descent becomes completed ; fcH* the shortness 
of the neck, or the too great extent <^ the ischium, formed 
heretofore the sole obstacle ; for if, by the process of rotation, 
the neck, which can be no further stretched, is brought into 
apposition with a part of the pelvic wall short enough for it 
to span its whole .length, the descent may evidently be com- 
pleted ; that is, the breast still remaining above the superior 
strait, the chin may descend as low as the inferior one, and 
this is precisely what does take place ; for, as the trunk par- 
ticipates in the head's movement of rotation, the neck gets be- 
hind the symphysis pubis at the same time that the chin 
reacUes the inferior termination of this symphysis, which is 
short enough to allow the child's neck to subt^id its whole 
lei^th. 



tkOKOUKj i)6VQrtbriQ88, romarke that the HieefaAiiioKi of the 
face positi^Qs «GcamoDa>lly ^fiers uame aDoiualies, that require 
a more 9pectal ttotioe* For example, the prooeas ef rotation 
just Kleaeribed, ivboae clbjeet is to bring the ohin eonstaotly 
towards the ^ynapbysis pubis, tad which has been spoken «f 
us beisig absolulely ^essential to the spontaneous terminarfioQ 
of the labor, ttaj oot ^be ««ee«ted« Bat such very race 
«zoeptioDStdo notm tiie least disoredit the general prinoiple 
before laid down, for ibey may ail be referred to jiiose iostanoes 
where the head^s dimeBsims are -small relatively to those of 
the pelvis ; or else te those cases wbere ;the portion of the 
&ce has been converted mto one «f the vertex* True Madame 
La Chiqoeile has knotpra the £ioe to eseape Erom the vulva in 
a transverse direction, or neariy so, in two or three instanoas, 
b«t sbe carefoUy adds "that they iv«re rare exoeptieiis." 
Ha^^iog the desoription of Cazeanx is my ttiud, I determkiad 
to remain with my patient, and oarofiilly watch iiie ^progress 
of the case^ I did so nearly the whole day, L e. Tuesd^, 
April T« There was only a sligiii descent during the day. 
Rotation ao far as any was eflfected, consisted ia the chin's 
paasii^ backward rather than flwwavd, as was expected ; the 
ibcehead became much tumefied, aad tbe features cf the child 
sinch compressed. Os uteri more dilated. I remained all of 
inneaday night, but very little ehaxige took plaee. On Wed- 
nesday, April 9th, I saw her several times daring tbe day^ 
but as the pains were slight, and descent hardly peroeptible^ 
t left for several hours^ and was recalled at 6 P« K^ when I 
found the pains much more expulsive and the forehead reacb* 
ing the perineum^-^the mento4)regmat]c diameter oorrespond^ 
ing to the trausverse diameter of tbe pelvisw Having now 
Ifraited' for 48 hours and the rotation forward of the chin not 
havii^ taken place, I wrote a note to my partner, Dr. Coles, 
to see the case with me% He made a ciitical exaaDdaatioii and 
after having weighed carefully the chances and probabilities 
of waiting still longer and trusting the case to nature, he 
advised a further exercise of patience, in the hope that fexioa 
or rotation would -eventtiaUy take place. Morning nflme, and 
delivery was still not effected^ 



126 MEDICAL soonrrr of new jebset. 

Whereupon it was determined to attempt delivery by an 
application of the forceps, although it was foreseen that the 
mode of applying and the nature of the manoeuvre to be prac- 
ticed, would need to be of our own devising, inasmuch as the 
manipulations suited to ordinary cases were inadmissible or 
impracticable. The instrument was adapted in the following 
manner : I first introduced the curved female blade in the 
hollow of the sacrum with the convex edge looking' toward 
the right thigh. This was easily effected, but how to intro- 
duce the male blade was the question. This was done by 
passing it above, under the pubis, with the convex edge 
turned to the right in the same manner as the female blade, 
while the handle was strongly depressed behind the left thigh. 
In this way little difficulty was experienced in making the two 
blades come together and lock. Traction was now commenced 
and with the parts sufficiently exposed for inspection, we both 
watched with much interest to see how the emergence took 
place. In consonance with the views of Cazeaux and others, 
that it was an indispensable condition of delivery that the 
position should be rectified so as to bring the chin under the 
symphysis pubis, our first efforts were directed to this, but 
not meeting with success, we concluded to make direct trac- 
tion with the face in its transverse position, that is to say, 
with the mento-bregmatic diameter of the infant occupying 
the transverse axis of the pelvis. The force applied was, to 
be sure, quite severe, but not unjustifiably so ; and the head 
was brought down with all the diameters preserving the same 
relations to each other. At the moment of birth the occiput 
looking toward the left, emerged a little before the chin on 
the opposite side, thereby lessening the diameter, which thing 
was facilitated by an act of flexion performed by the forceps. 
As there was some haomorrhage and a fetid yellowish discharge 
we had some apprehension that there was a rent in the recto- 
vaginal wall, but fortunately our fears turned out to be 
groundless. 

The child when born gave no signs of life. Pulsation in 
the cord had ceased we knew not how long before, and the 



BEPOBTS OF BISTBIGT 80GIBTIBB. 127 

prospect of restoring the child was not very encouraging. I 
being occupied with the mother, Dr. Coles took the child, and 
employed himself most assiduously in attempts at resuscitation 
hy all the usual methods of inflating the lungs by blowing^ 
Dr. Marshall HalFs method, aspersions of cold water, cutting 
the cord, warm bath, slapping, <&c., and it wais not until these 
means had been continued for an unusually long time, that his 
perseverance was rewarded by indications of success* The 
breathing, feeble at first and interrupted, became gradually 
stronger and more regular, until, at the end of an hour, respi- 
ration was fully established and the child did well. The case 
to me was an instructive one, and one by which since then, I 
have profited more than once, to the saving, if I mistake not, 
of the life of the infant, when otherwise I should probably have 
desisted in my attempts under the idea that they were useless. 
In the meantime I delivered the placenta after some delay 
and difficulty, owing to deficient contractUe power in the 
uterus. Soon after, profuse haBmorrage taking place, I intro- 
duced my hand at once into the uterus, to excite contractions, 
at the same time that I directed a stream of cold water to be 
poured upon the lower part of the abdomen, which speedily 
caused an arrest of the haemorrhage. There was no further 
tronble and she had a good getting up. 
Neioark, January 1, 1866« 

CASE OF CALCULI. 

BY KnGEHB JOBS, M. ]>. 

A BBMABEABLE caso of procidentia uteri affecting a married 
lady of about forty-five years, the mother of several children, 
came under my observation in May last. The uterus was found 
between the thighs, completely extruded from the vagina, and 
presenting as its outer covering the mucous lining of this canal. 
The organ had been in this position about seven years, and 
had become greatly enlarged. It was necessarily a source of 
indescribable distress to her. The sufiering was increased by 
the urine, when evacuated, flowing over the tumor, irritatiiig 



138 MBMCAL flocBssnF or ifBw jsBsirr* 

and excoriating it. The womb wa» enlarged snterioriy saaer 
<o change the position o£ the meatus imnarrius, and interfere 
with the attempted introduction of a catheter for the purpose 
of exploration. She voided her urine with difficnltyy remark- 
ing that it caused her "much straining/' This " straining^ ifl 
urination she represented as characterizing her difficulty? 
throughout. This was, howoTer — and naturally too — attributed 
to the dragging of the uterus, the change in iht coarse of the 
urethra, and the abnormal angle at which the urine made its 
eadt. This was the opinion of the medics^ gentlemaa who had 
charge of the case prior to my attendance upon her* As the 
uterus )¥a8 so mueh enlarged and apparently fixed by adhesions 
in its new position, an un&voraUe prognosis was made, and 
nothing more than palliative treatment attempted. Conse- 
quently my visits were not very frequent* Being summoned to 
her, one mornings I was greatly surprised to' find her passing 
urinary calculi, varying in siae from two inches by one and a- 
half inches to the size of a pea. She voided some fifty or more 
of these stones. The tissues in tlleir course had been removed 
by an absorbent or ulcerative proces8,>saa8 to allow them to 
fiaJl down — as it were — by gravitation smiply. The point of 
their exit looked like a greatly enlarged meatus with an.' ulcer- 
ated margin. A few days after this, she sank, and it is matter 
of regret that no post mortem e^OBbmination could be made* 
The inference naturally is that a calculous formation in the 
bladder preexisted, and may have been the canse of the pro- 
lapsus uteri. The experience of the patient and this largo 
evacuation of calculi seem to warrant such a conclusion. 



Commumoation bjf Thomas Byerson^ HL D. 

Thb territory wherein I practice oonfiains abou1> flyrty-eigh^ 
square miles, containing not far from Kmit tiiousand inhabit* 
ants, of whom two thousand reside in the town of Newton. 



VaSPOhTQ OP DIBTBIOT sooicmKB. 129 

Tbis territory is rery hilly, being bounded by two ranges of 
primitive rocks, between which are parallel and alternating 
ridges of blae limestone and clay slate, in some places with 
very little interval between them, and at others separated by 
considerable plains. The valleys are thickly studded with 
lakes, some of which have bold shores of rock or drift, and 
others are bordered by marshes made up of silt and vegetable 
accumulations, sometimes overflowed and at others laid bare 
to the son. This region is drained by the Paulinas Kill and 
the Pequest, which rise near each other, but run, at first, in 
opposite directions, until the Paulin's Kill breaks through one 
of the date ridges and turns southwest, when both follow par- 
allel valleys to the Delaware, into which they empty, twelve 
miles apart. Both streams, at their origin, run through very 
low lands. The Paulin's Kill, especially, at first drains over 
two thouscmd acres of bog meadow, with a fall of only two 
feet to the mile, This extensive tract is now in process of 
drainage. 

The village of Newton is on the west border of this bog, 
built on ground rising rapidly out of it, so that the highest 
houses are two hundred feet above it. The village stands 
partly on two adjacent limestone and slate ridges, (the slate 
being the highest,) but mainly on the interspace, which is a 
slope down to the meadow. The part of the slope overlying 
the limestone has a porous subsoil, and is well drained, while 
the other and larger part rests on an almost impervious clay. 
As usual, the dwellings of the poor are built upon the lowest 
and least drained portions, and are closely built and over- 
crowded. The situation of the village accounts for the fact 
that we have both malarious and typhoid fevers. And my ob- 
servatioo convinces me that the typhoid fever, during the last 
twenty years, has been clearly traceable to animal putrefao- ' 
tion, the result of the vicinity of slat^hter-houses or obstructed 
drains. The partisd drainage of the marsh above spoken of 
has not yet produced any perceptible effect on the health of 
vilic^e or country. 

The amount of sickness in my practice during the past year 



180 MEDICAL SOOIETT OF NEW JEB8EY. 

has been large. In furnishing a partial statistical report of it, 
I can only approximate the truth, as I can not tell, within at 
least 150 persons, how large a portion of the population has 
been under my care. I suppose, however, I may say that my 
practice is based upon a population of 1500 persons. These 
have furnished me with a practice of 16.4 patients weekly, in- 
cluding my office practice, or 853 cases of disease of all kinds 
— ^medical and surgical. 

This sickness has been distributed through the year as fol- 
lows, viz : In January, .074 per cent. ; in February, .066 per 
cent. ; in March, .109 per cent. ; in April, .123 per cent. ; in 
May, .087 per cent. ; in June, .073 per cent. ; in July, 099 per 
cent. ; in August, .104 percent. ; in September, .076 percent.; 
in October, .042 per cent. ; in November, .081 per cent. ; in 
December, .067 per cent. My impression is (though not based 
on comparative statistics) that the last winter and spring sick- 
ness was postponed nearly a month, and that the summer and 
fall sickness both commenced and ended a month earlier than 
usual. In connection with this distribution, I remark that Jan- 
nary and February had a rcynatkably equable temperature, the 
thermometer never rising high, nor falling below — 30 ; and 
they exhibited less sickness than usual. Their shar^ was 
thrown on March and April, when .we had a chilling atmos> 
phere from the aqueous saturation of air and earth. Ordina- 
rily, in the spring, the moisture which rises from the cold 
earth is warmed in the atmosphere, and precipitated in the 
April showers to the earth again, which is thereby thermally 
raised. The result, contrary to what might be supposed, is 
the more rapid drying and warming of the ground in a warm 
and rainy than in a dry spring atmosphere. Another reason, 
perhaps, is that in a spring without rain the air is saturated, 
and the earth does not dry deeply. But when there are fre- 
quent precipitations in heavy showers, the air is freed from 
moisture, and the surface of the earth sheds the water into the 
streams, to be carried away, and evaporation is therefore more 
continuous. Be the explanation what it may, our spring was 
cold, our ponds did not fill up until June, and we had more 



BEPOBTB OF DISTRICT SOGIBTIES. 181 

than the usual sickness at this time. Afler the filling of the 
ponds, we had a very hot and dry period, until the latter part 
of July. The probable eflfect of this heat and drought on the 
earth was the earUer ushering in of the diseases of this sea- 
son. But while the malarious influences were earUer at work, 
they were checked earlier, and, as I suppose, by earlier and 
more copious fall rains. 

The specific, acute diseases followed the usual order of dis- 
tribution, viz : rheumatism, diseases of the respiratory organs 
and enteric fever in the winter and spring, and intermittent, 
and remittent, fevers, diarrhoea, and dysentery in the sum- 
mer and fall. The other diseases did not seem to be ioflu- 
enced by season. Among these were three cases of puerperal 
peritonitis occurring within twenty days of each other, sepa- 
rated three miles, and interspersed with three other uncom- 
plicated childbed cases. These cases were all severe, one 
especially so, but all recovered. It is impossible for me, this 
year, to give a complete list of the number and nature of the 
various diseases encountered, but only of the fatal ones. Of 
chronic diseases, those of the brain and heart, and non-spe- 
cific diseases of the urino-genital apparatus have been the 
principal. In females, the latter are either more frequent or 
ofltener revealed than formerly. I believe this fact is every- 
where admitted. The problem for the profession relative to 
these diseases, therefore, is whether they arise from moral 
causes through educational and social errors ; or from hygi- 
enic faults operating on the mucous tissues generally. In 
this connection, I may state that I have often observed the 
coincidence of leucorrhoea and tubercular phthisis. In chil- 
dren hydrocephalus, and in adults insanity, sometimes so 
alight and transient as to be overlooked by friends, have sev- 
eral times occurred. Though these cases had no apparent 
special causation, I may add my testimony in silpport of the 
growing professional sentiment that the increasing tendency 
of our whole social system is in this direction. Doubtless 
our present .political condition will manifest itself in this 
direction and in that of cardiac 'disease. 



132 wBiicja 80C1R7 or inm-jmBmr. 

The number of deaths among the 858 oases of disease be* 
loBgiDg excIoBively to the past year (exclosire of eases seen 
in ccmsultatioBX has been twenty. But in order to show 
the mortality among the 1500 people whom I suppose to 
have been under my cave, I shall add to this number two 
deaths from long staiMiiDg disease of the heart one from 
chronic bronchitis in a patient over eighty years old, and 
one from phthisis* This shows the death rate in my last 
year's practice to hate been about one in forty-two and a 
half, of the cases. Or, taking the whole number of twenty-four 
deaths, it shows a rate of one in 62^ of the population, or about 
IS per cent; This is larger than the average rate in NeW 
Jersey for 1860, which was 1.82 per cent, of the population. 
But it is far below the rate of Massachusetts for the same 
year, viz. : 1.95 per cent. 

The causes of death were, gastric fever, one ; typhoid fever, 
one ; diphtheria, one ; measles^ one ; infantile erysipelas, one; 
hydrocephalus, three ; phthisis pulmonalis, one ; chronic brov>- 
chitis, one ; diphtheritic croup, two ; pneumonia, four ; valvu- 
lar disease of the heart, two ; cyanosis, one ; cholera infaniun^ 
three ; paralysis of bladder and cystitis, one ; bum, one. 

It witt be perceived that the greatest number of deaths was 
from pneumonia, which is oidinarily as amenable to treatment 
as any other. One of these cases was complicated with peri* 
tonitis and supervened on the diarrhoaa of dentition, one was 
in a painter who had long suffered from colica piotonum, and 
two wei^e in adult» over sixty, and broken down by hard labor. 
I ordinarily expect to save cases of single paeumoniih and when 
I do not, think I can distinctly trace the death to accidental 
causes^ I used formerly to see them sometimes result iti phthi- 
sis, but I think the practice of the present day is less apt to be 
followed by that result. The hydrocephalus all occurred in 
the foul apartments and scanty fare of the poor.. One of these 
was attended, at frst, with considerable opisthotonos, and was 
probably a sporadic case of oerebro-spinal meningitis. The 
fatal cases of cholera infantum occurred dhiring the prevalence 
of infantile diarrhoea, and were complicated with difficult den» 



09 Dfinwcr socnanss.- 188' 

titioB. Diarrkoda' was uBOBually prevalent and ebattntate* 
Tbe citeeB, hewever, jrielcled kr aoet* piimbi emd d&uefrp&wd^, 
nrkeA other remedies failed. This, be it said bar not been a 
onstomcury prescripticm in former yearsu I bave reported two 
deaUke from croHp. Ohe of these, wbtcb wae undoubtedly 
diphtberia, was preceded and accompanied by very severe 
ecthyma. The other was attended by a dipfatbmritie exuda- 
tion which covered the tonsils also^ In another siatkilar oase, 
wkieh recovered, tbe exudation had covered the tonsilB for 
ten days before the croup supervened*. la this ease emeiica 
were used oniy once, but calomel was given largely ; the 
patient ( two years old,) taking two gpaima— at fiarst,^ every hour 
—without any unpleasant effect on the bowefe. As this- did 
Dot seem to check the disease, blistera to eaebside of the neck 
were applied, and, in the latter stages beef esseiice was freely 
gi^en. In addition the air was kept very moist aad impregna^ 
tod ooo8tan% with the fumes of buming^ cotton and 8alt:petre, 
which 80 often relieve the breathing in spasmodic asthma. In- 
flammatory croup is also attended with spaem, but whether 
tfaeae fuenes acted by relaxing this,^ or by increasing the amount 
of oxygen entering the lung, it certainly seemed to produce a 
happy effect. 

Aft' I have s»id, I had three' favorably ending eases of pner* 
peraA peritonitis; where the pulse rose to t50 and 180, and t6e 
breathiiig to thirty and thirty-five. Opium alone ivas the 
medicine wed in two of the eases, together with fomentation 
Md tepid lavementS'to the rectum and vagina. In the third, 
in which suppuration of the left ovary was threatened, calomel 
was also ueed.r 

On the surgical side, I report two or three practical matters* 
which-may be thought important* Twb relate t6 the treatment 
oJfi-acturesof the l^igh. And first, in the fractttree of tiie neck 
w^in the oapcrutej (those cases where an a^empt to prociire 
ftony unie» is seldom made), it is important to maintain extent 
^oA for ^ few days, until the tissues are consolidated by 
ff[>|(ixie. M the capsule is not lacerated, so as to release ib^ 
Iflie trochanter, t^s fibrinous exudation will prevent some of the 



134 MEDICAL SOOIETT OF NEW-JEBSET. 

shortening and give some chance for a ligamentous nnion. If 
the capsule is lacerated, so that the fractured end of the bone 
lies in the muscular tissue, fixation by extension will prevent 
a great deal of constitutional disturbance arising from spas- 
modic action of the muscles produced by the jagged end of 
the bone. 

In applying extension in case of fracture of the shaft of the 
femur, of course everybody uses adhesive straps. But I sug- 
gest as an extending force, an apparatus which can be at any 
time made with a gimlet, a pocket knife, two sheaves taken 
out of common screw pulleys and a spring 'balance, such as 
can be found in almost any house. The balance is fastened 
to the side of the long splint with a strap and buckle, or a 
screw hook for altering the tension, or even with a cord which 
can be tied more or less tightly. I have used simply a cord* 
The power of the spring is applied to the cotton flannel adhe- 
sive plaster^extending straps through a cord passing over the 
two pulleyi^ mortised into a horizontal cross-bar, which again 
is mortised, at its middle, on to the end of the splint, which 
bar serves, at the same time, to prevent rotation of the splint 
and the limb. In graduating the application of the power, 
allowance must be made, of course, for the loss by the friction 
of the apparatus. The spring balance at once indicates any 
relaxation of the apparatus, or of the muscles; the discrimina- 
tion of the cause leading to the proper readjustment. The 
index also shows at once any shortening of the limb, unless 
the apparatus slips. And to indicate whether the straptf 
maintain their adhesion, it is well to put a mark on them and 
a corresponding one on the foot. Another advantage per- 
taining to the system is, that thereby the power is steadily 
applied even during movements of the bed or of the patient. 

In treating these fractures, another difficulty besides the 
shortening is the displacement forwards and outwards of the 
upper fragment. I suggest to obviate this, (what, however, I 
have not yet used,) an. anterior splint to be fastened to the 
long side splint by two light iron bars bent at right -angles, 
and each perforated by two holes for the reception of wood 



fiEPOBT OF DIStBIOT BOCIBnEB. 185 

screws. I fasten the upper end of the long splint fcy a cjf&ter- iT^ 
extending band and pad over the pnbis and tnber ischii, and, 
in addition, by straps secured to a broad piece of adhesive 
plaster, applied to the lumbar region. I hope to devise an 
apparatns for counter extension, which shall relieve the per- 
ineum, not interfere with the proper position of the upper 
fragment of the femur, and, at the same time, permit motion 
of the spine upon the sacrum. 

I use a modified fracture bed. There afe several objec- 
tions to the ordinary fracture bed. It is cumbrous, requiring 
at least three persons to lift it and block it up. It is also 
very hard and unalterable, producing almost certain excoria- 
tion of prominent points, or at least is very wearisome. It 
interferes with access to the patient's body or lower limbs. 
I, therefore, have discarded the duck or ticking, and use inde- 
pendent straps of saddle girting, which is fastened crosswise 
by buckles , so as to be anywhere relaxed or removed at plea- 
sure. At the pelvis two straps are omitted, and the next two 
adjacent ones are connected by longitudinal pieces running 
under the tuberosities. Two ropes of the same length, fas- 
tened respectively to the two sides of the frame, at the comers, 
serve for attaching the dislocating pulleys which are fixed to 
a trestle that strides the bed, and by which any nurse can 
easily elevate the patient. Instead of leaving the bed to 
swing in the air, or of blocking it up with boxes or stools, 
feet are attached to the frame, which fold up against it, when 
it is on the bed but when it is raised, fall down and fastenihg 
themselves in that position receive its weight. 

In this position the nurse c€m at his or her leisure perform 
all those offices which the health and comfort of the patient 
demand. I use a feather bed under this apparatus, and can 
at any time raise the patient without ajar, adjust the feathers 
BO as to relieve prominent parts, and at the game time keep 
him perfectly horizontal. When the fracture bed is lowered, 
I relax the saddle girting, so that the patient can obtain the 
benefit of the feathers. 

Having occasion this summer to extirpate a large fungus 



136 WKDHCIlL WCSSIHf OF IflSW'MHinr* 

which sprang up upon the ^emi-ixteaiibriknoaiis muscle at the 
former seat of what was said to haii^e been an encysted timiior» 
and being told that the. hsMnorrhage at the first operation 
was very profiofie, I applied a roller, ftxmi the toes up, to com* 
press the superficial vessels^ which I oKpacted to cut in giving 
a wide margin to the svispicious looking fungns. The result 
was « very trilBing hnmorrhage. I now suggest this prelimi' 
nary in amputations where it may foe very desirable to save 
blood, and wh^re of course there should be no risk to the 
systejDi from emptjdng the vessels «of a limb into the ciroulation 
^elsewhere. Afiber^the patient is etherized, a very €rm roller 
may be applied to a limb, however diseased and previously 
painfttL 

THOMAS RYEB80N. 
iftttipkm, Jommy 6, 1S65* 



Cfmrmm Standk^ OwrmiUee : 

Dear SiB<^There is certainly no part of our eotmty more 
exempt from severe forms of disease than this. Typhoid fever, 
with which physicians in the upper portions are so familiar, 
is here conq)aratively rare. Malarial fevers, together with 
that numerous dema of affections dependent upon this same 
oause, are almost wholly unknown. Diptibteria^^^^at scourge 
no universally known and feared^*-has never prevailed to any 
considerable extent in the valley of the Pequest. Of dysentery 
we have had no epidemic for many years ^ a few sporadic cases, 
mild in character constituting our yearly experience with this 
disease* Other enteric affections are beeoming yearly less fre* 
quent and less severe, tt is plain therefore that from the 
health atatisties of tUs portion of the county, no inferenoe ean 
be drawn regarding the others. So far, however, as I have 
been able to learn in an indirect way, the past year has not 
been characterized by any Unusual prevalence or severity of 
disease m any section. 



BSPOBf OF DiaiBtCf 60081098. 18t 

In the earlj months pubnonary affections, especially pneu- 
monia, were most frequently obaerved ; severe acnite bronchi- 
tis, plenriBy and membranous cronp nnmbering together less 
than the cases of pneumonia. If I have read rightly the dis- 
trict reports for the past few yeaifs, asthma has been repre- 
sented as characterizing forms of acate diseased, even those 
heretofore considered as types of high inflammatory actioD. 
My own observations confirm to a considerable extent this 
opinion. In tiie pnemnonia of the past year, in most cases 
at least, the type has miquestionably been asthenic. 

Sthenic action assuredly does not express itself in a frequent, 
undeveloped pulse ; slight increase of heat and relaxaticm of 
skin ; eaj-ly prostration of the muscular powers ; marked ente- 
ric vitiation or unusual susceptibility thereto ; perversion of 
mind rather than true delirium. Nor with such symptoms 
oould I persuade myself that salvaticm lay in bleedings, purg- 
nagsand vomitings. . Yeratram-*-that invaluable remedy where 
we have vascular and nervous excitement coexisting-^was, in 
most cases, the only depressant ventured upon, and even this 
was not unfrequently found to have been misapplied. 

Another featare^though not a strange one when we con- 
sider the irregular and depressed nervous action present in 
these cases— was the gradual rather than the nsual ra^d de- 
velepmeat of the diaease. Occasionally so ill defined were 
rational symptoms^ so slow of expresmon the disease that care- 
ful and repeated auscultation idBferded the only means of its 
early detection. 

To what extent typhoid fever and diptheria have elsewhere 
prevailed I am unable to state. I may mention that at our 
semiannual meeting at Hope, in October last, the subject of 
croupal diptheria was one of the subjects of discussion. The 
experience of members had been such as to consider its treait- 
ment by calomel and emetics the most satis&ctory. > 

In closing this very imperfect report I may be aUowed to 
mwely mention one of those *^ remarkable cases'^ which seem 
rather to astonish than enlighten. 

Mias --^^^j &god 45, has within the past few dn^ sobmitted 



138 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JEBSEY. 

for the ninetieth time to the operation of paracentesis abdomi- 
nio. Abont eighteen months ago she suffered excision of the 
mamma for cancerous disease. Six months ago — ^twelve from 
the date of the first operation — ^three secondary tumors one 
the size of a walnut — ^were removed. 

At present there is a very small " lump" near the sterno- 
clavicular articulation, in a quiescent state. She is in good 
general health, hardly considering herself an invalid. 

E. BYINGTON. 
Belvidbbe, January Uh^ 1865. 

P. S. — I enclose the accompanying from Dr. Johnson, of 
Blairstown: . 

In the north western portion of this county, the district 
under my immediate observation, there has been no epidemic 
disease prevalent during the past year. The first four months 
were busily passed in attention to the numerous details of 
general practice without an unusual number of cases of any one 
disease, the rest of the year was a period of good general 
health. Typhoid fever might be worthy of mention as a type 
of fever most prevalent, the intermittent forms having been 
unusually rare — ^the cases mostly were mild. When unusual 
attention was required the entire symptoms were prominent — 
the tendency to exhaustive diarrhoea and intestinal hssmor- 
rhage was the greatest obstacle to recovery. Febrile symp- 
toms generally did not persist for more than two or three 
weeks, but convalesence was slow especially in cases where 
the tongue instead of dryness, showed moisture with curdy 
exudation, rawness, a condition in which the tone of the gastro- 
intestinal mucous membrane was restored very gradually. 
Gases of this fever were far more numerous in Knowlton 
Township, but as they were not under my observation I can 
not remark upon their characteristics. 

I find that I made note of cerebro-spinal complications with 
the diseases of the first months of the year. It did not then 
occur to me, whether these resulted from any morbific influ- 



REPORT OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 139 

ence like that which caused spotted fever in Peon, at the same 
period, and of which disease some of my friends think they 
have seen cases quite in our immediate vicinity ; nor do 
I entertain that idea now. I mention the fact because I, not 
infrequently, have had to combat similar difficulties in previous 
years and am led by recollection of a case to remark upon a 
point of general treatment now much discussed — ^The thera- 
peutic application of Digitalis. A robust young man ill with 
pleuro-pneumonia, in whom the chest symptoms hed been 
treated for three days, upon a sudden subsidence of these 
symptoms, had many of the indications of acute mania, first 
wakefulness and wandering, then active delirium, tendency to 
violence etc. To' allay the excitement twenty-four hours were 
passed in the use of Tart : Ant : and Morph : with a blister to 
the back of the neck ; at the end of that period finding the vio- 
lence still uncontrolled, I substituted for the previous treatment 
Tinct, Dig. (J drachm) with an equal quantity of Tinct. Op : in 
two hour doses until their effect was apparent, which was 
pleasantly seen in the course of twelve hours, when, the vio- 
lence of symptoms giving way and sleep coming on, the use of 
the prescription was abruptly discontinued, the specific effect 
of the Dig. — slowness of the pulse, remaining for several days. 
This case only confirmed the experience of former years in the 
use of this remedy to procure sleep and which led me to quite 
a confident application of the same treatment in cases of deli- 
rium tremens, in which I have given it a frequent and fair 
trial. Let me remark that its administration as a specific for 
the last mentioned disease, will prove fallacious unless pre- 
scribed in a proper condition of the system. To pour it into 
the stomach of an inebriate whose portal vessels are in a state 
of congestion from a prolonged use of stimulants is only to in- 
sure its rejection and disappointment as to its effect; but when 
an emetic or mercurial cathartic has relieved that condition 
and made the absorption of the medicine an easier matter, 
then good effect will most siirely follow, and the indication of 
procuring sleep be satisfactorily met. 
As a cardiac tonic I have carefully watched the effect in 

9 



140 MEDICAL 80CIETT OF NEW JEBSET. 

chronic complications of the heart in elderly people. In three 
cases in persons between the ages of sixty-five and eighty-four 
years. I have observed a regular steady pulse take the place 
of an irregular hobbling one, after a persistent use of the 
Digitalis in small doses long continued. In two of these cases 
there were no evidences of effiision as a bar to free circulation. 
The irregularity was certainly owing to deficient action of the 
central organ of the circulation. So too in haemorrhages. I 
like its use in hemoptysis, and, in that chronic menorrhagia 
which debilitates females so long after miscarriages, especially 
when it is combined with Mur : Tinct r Iron. 

I might also incidently mention that our experience in using 
sub-cutaneous injections, shows them to be best adapted to 
acute disease where relief from violent pain being anxiously 
desired can not be accomplished by internal administration of 
anodynes — ^in nephralgia and gastralgia where opiates are 
steadily rejected relief may soon be obtained from their use. 
But in chronic neuralgia their benefit seems to be confitied to 
each individual administration, and permanent good rarely 
follows. 

WM. JOHNSON. 

Blairstown, January, 1865. 



lODDIiESEX COUirTT. 

The reporter remarks upon the want of interest on the part 
of medical men in the welfare of the Medical Society of his 
district. He says that for the last three years it has almost 
ceased to exist except in name, although there are more physi- 
cians in the county now than there were three years since. 

In regard to the diseases of the year in his vicinity he 
reports as follows : 

In South Amboy and vicinity, during the spring months, 
there was an epidemic of measles and scarlet rash ; the former 
in unfavorable localities, proving both troublesome and fatal 



REPORT OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 141 

and frequently most difficult of diagnosis, so coalescent were 
they, in their tendencies. 

Daring three of the first summer months, we were sorely 
troubled with an epidemical child-bed fever. I do not recol- 
lect a single case which came under my notice in this time, 
that was not, more or less, interfered with by this scourge. 
This was the case also in the practice of others in this neigh- 
borhood. Many deaths occurred ; but these were mainly 
among women who were under the care of irregular practi- 
tioners. 

In my own practice I met with no fatal cases. This cir- 
cumstance, I am inclined to believe, resulted from an antidpa- 
five or prophyldcHc course of treatment that was pursued, 
before the travail of the patient, and untiring watchfulness 
after the labor was accomplished, during the ordinary conva- 
lescent period. 

In this condition of things, parturient women were exceed- 
ingly troubled and apprehensive, and hence increased their 
danger. 

If I found, any tendency to fever ; in any way a depressed 
condition of the vital powers, either from nervous agitation 
and forebodings, or any other evidence of unbalanced organic 
function, I commenced with the treatment, a few days before, 
and ceased only upon the first pains of labor. The basis of 
this treatment was quinia, compounded with hyoscyamus 
and serpentaria. 

The usual period of attack was after the accouchement; 
on and between the third and seventh days. 

Should there be no indication of the approach of the fever 
before the fourth day, and no reasonable fecal evacuation 
within this time, I administered a mild aperient of castor oil 
and calomel. 

Should the patient be attacked with violent and sudden pain, 
with an eructation of gas from the stomach (or coUiquitive 
diarrhoea without pain), I at once administered small, and fre- 
quent doses of calomel and opium ; with the constant application 
of hot poultices of tobacco and turpentine to the abdomen. 



142 ICEDICAL SOCIETT OF NEW-JEBSET. 

In conjunction with this treatment, I employed frequent 
injections, per vaginam, of a warm decoction of coffee (grains 
roughly bruised), in order to preserve the lochia! discharge, 
re-establish it if suspended, and as a purifier if the flow is 
offensive and irritating. This treatment was persevered in 
until the urgency of the case was over. 

If the mammary apparatus was inoperative during this time, 
the child was excluded from the breasts until their healthy 
functions were established. In some cases good resulted, I 
thought, from the application of bags of dry hot salt to the 
breasts. 

If the bowels were so irritable as not to retain the necessary 
amount of mercurial, I substituted the ointment by applying 
it over the bowels and other glandular parts of the body — 
especially the thighs. 

During the existence of peritonitis, or its treatment, a gen- 
erous diet was recommended. 

I would respectfully say, that I ignore and condemn tight ban- 
daging of the patient after confinement, as not only pernicious, 
but frequently the exciting cause of puerpund peritonitis. 

During, and for many days subsequent to labor, there is not 
only a very exalted vascularity, in the abdominal organs and 
tissues, but there is an immense increase of capacity — red 
blood-particles permeating where they did not before ; this is 
particularly the case in the peritoneum. In proportion to this 
increased capacity, or distension, is their power of elasticity 
interfered with, during which infraction of function, the initia- 
tory step in erysipelatous phlegmasia is taken, (or the partisd 
suspension of the minute sanguineous system,) allowing sep- 
aration in the blood to ensue. This constitutes the ** suscepti- 
bility " of the parts. 

Presently, nature feels the impediment, and marshals her 
energies for the overthrow of the difficulty. She sends, in 
feverish haste, reinforcements to the spot — but, lof the chan- 
nels are blocked by officious science in a constricting bandage. 
The life-giving red globules of the blood are excluded, and an 
additional infiltration of serum or fibrine is the restdt* 



KEPOBT OF DI8TBICT SOCIBl^BS. 148 

Now starts up in the neighboring organs, especially the 
stomach and intestines, a degree of true phlegmon, while in 
those regions and tissues where the original abnormity existed, 
commences the erysipelatous phlegmasia, which is the begin- 
ning of gangrene in the part, and deith to the patient. The 
pathological appearance of those cases, after death, goes far 
to substantiate the above views. 

I am convinced that the whole system of bandaging, as now 
practised^ is unnecessary and unscientific. The bandaging em- 
ployed after the enormous evacuations of fluid from some parts 
of the organism, upon surgical operations, are not admissible 
in the cases in question. 

I would here start the inquiry : May not tight bandaging 
be in many cases, the cause of phlegmasia dclens, and that, too, 
upon the same laws as the producing agent in puerpural peri- 
Umitis ? After the expulsion of the foetus, the uterus contracts 
itfielf into a hard, unyielding tumour, weighing from 3 to 5 
pounds; this mass is so placed as to be directly over the 
great abdominal blood-vessels ; the woman has been quite 
plethoric for the last few i^onths ; the blood has not only suf- 
fered an alteration in its constituent parts, but shows a deci- 
dedly increased organizable tendency ; the functions of the 
capillary and absorbent systems are, for a while, partially sus- 
pended ; the general circulation is sluggish, because of the 
previous great eflforts, &c. Now, draw a hawser-like bandage 
over this encased uterine mass, and it is plain that not a single 
blood-vessel can escape compression! Under these circum- 
stances, may we not expect to find, in the course of a few days^ 
milk leg in one or .both of the lower extremities. 

I am of the belief that the profession at large have yielded 
their assent to this practice, simply because it is an old adopted 
custom. It had its origin, no doubt, in the desire to preserve 
the symmetry and beauty of the female figure, rather than the . 
accomplishment of any medical advantage. 

In connection with the prophylactic treatment of child-bed 
fever, mentioned above, I omitted to say that my reasons for 
making Quin. Sulph. the basis of the treatment, was that all 



144 MEDICAL BOCIETT OF NEW JERSEY. 

our diseases, during the sumroer and fall months, were of a 
decided periodic and malarial character. Chill-and-fever pre- 
vailed to an unprecedented degree. There were a few csbses 
of distinct small pox during the summer. 

• AMBROSE TREGANOWAN, 

Beporter. 
South Amhoy, Dec. 21, 1864. 



UUAITJfSRDOK COUNTY. 

White House, December Ist^ 1864. 

My chronicle of the diseases of 1864 in my circuit of prac- 
tice presents little of special interest. 

The winter was open, and the variations of atmospheric 
temperature were sudden and great, but the mercury in the 
thermometer never sank lower than four degrees above zero. 
The winter and early spring months were unusually sickly, 
and the ratio of mortality was great, but the remaining eight 
months of the year were healthy. Diseases of the respiratory 
organs were prominent during the winter. Acute bronchitis 
often complicated in its sequel with pneumonia and pleuro- . 
pneumonia proved fatal to a number of the aged and infirm, 
and to a feio whose constitutions were not broken down. 
There was nothing special in the management of these cases, 
they were treated upon general principles. The lancet was 
not resorted to in a single instance. I regret, however, that 
in one case only it was withheld. Perhaps we are running 
into an extreme in our abnegation of a remedial resource once 
considered so essential. The late venerated Dr. Rush in his 
lectures on the Practice of Medicine almost invariably pre- 
faced his treatment by saying : " Gentleman the first remedy 
is blood-letting." He no doubt went to extremes ; and I some- 
times think we are going to the opposite extreme in suffering 
our lancets to rust in their cases. I know that diseases ar9 
more asthenic in their type than when I commenced practice ;^ 



BEPOBIB OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 145 

but I think the more frequent use of the lancet would be use- 
ful and judicious. It is true that the abstraction of blood by 
cupping, may in very many, cases, obtain the preference oyer 
general blood-letting. The treatment, I stated, was conducted 
on general principles. Cupping, blistering, and occasional 
dose of calomel or blue mass, Sp. minder., T. verat. virid. 
Syrup, scil. comp. were the remedies principally employed. 
In a few instances julep of ammonia was clearly indicated. 
In most cases confinement to the bed and a regulated diet 
were enjoined. 

Infantile pneumonia was of frequent occurrence, but pre- 
sented nothing remarkable either in its manifestations or 
treatment. . 

A number of cases of rheumatism occurred during the 
winter and spring months. . They were treated successfully 
by Sod. Et. Tartras. Potass.,* T. Oolch. and lod. Potas. 

Measles were epidemic, but were not so widely spread as in 
former years. The disease in many instances was character? 
ized by marked severity. Pneumonia^ not unfrequently super- 
vened. 

Sporadic scarlatina occurred in several months of the year.' 
Some of the cases were attended with great severity, and two 
of the cases proved fatal. Many, however, were so mild as to 
require little medicsJ interference. 

Some oases of diphtheria occurred, in all about thirty, since 
my report of last year, none of these cases proved fatal. They 
were of a milder type than those of the last year and ran an 
abbreviated course. They were seen early, and treated 
promptly. Perhaps it was owing to these circumstances that 
these cases bore so mild a character. Two oases, however, 
of diphtheria occurred which were of unusual severity. In 
one of these the whole of the fauces were covered with diph- 
therite deposit, and the trachea so invaded by the disease as 
to threaten immediate dissolution : the respiration was loud 
and very labored, and for several days the child vibrated be- 
tween life and death, but happily recovered. The convales- 
cence was tedious. A remarkable feature in the case was, 



146 HSDicjiL socnrrr of new-jebset. 

the great insensibility of the stomach to the action of emetics. 
Although the child was bat four months old, it took ten grains 
of 8i;ilphate of zinc, five grains of ipecac, and one drachm of 
pulverized sulphate of alum, to produce moderate emesis. 
Th^ doses which I exhibited of chlorate of potass were un- 
neually large. The sulphate of zinc was applied topically to 
the fauces. The treatment which I pursued in diphtheria 
during the current year was, with very little variation the 
same as th^t reported by me last year. 

Typhoid fever has prevailed to a limited extent in the neigh- 
borhood. The cases were generally of a mild character, with 
a less degree of enteric derangement than is usual. They ran 
their course in about thirty days. They were treated on the 
expectant plan ; and upon acknowledged principles. All these 
cases terminated favorably with a single exception. This oc- 
curred in the person of a young mian who contracted the dis- 
ease in the army and rode home whilst he was laboring* under 
it, and upon his arrival at home was treated by the family 
with too active purgation. It proved fatal in a few days. In 
but two instances was active stimulation resorted to. In one 
of these cases, where there was delirium, much muscular pros- 
tration, great subsultus tendinum, and dry streak in the middle 
of the tongue, I gave milk punch every hour, with julep of am- 
monia every three hours, with the most decided benefit. Re- 
covery took place in about thirty or thirty-five days. The 
subsultus tendinum ceased very shortly after resorting to 
stimulation. Four of these cases which fell under treatment 
might be termed walking fever, as the patients kept their feet 
nearly all the time of their sickness. The disease was pro- 
tracted about thirty days, and was attended with anorexia, 
furred tongue, pulse somewhat. accelerated, considerable ema- 
ciation, and much -less of muscular power. They were treated 
with Sp. Nit. Dul. and carefully watched so as to meet contin- 
gencies. 

Four cases of intermittent fever have occurred during the 
past year. X^r®^ of these cases were in a family who 
had removed from a malarious district this season into this 



REPOBT OF DISTRICT SOCIEnSS. 147 

neighborhood ; the fourth case was in a young man, a native, 
who resides on a low piece of ground, and in the vicinity of a 
small stream of water. Intermittents were formerly very rife 
here, but have now become exotics. Ever since the draining 
of the two mill ponds alluded to in a former communication, 
the native population have had complete immunity from in- 
termittent fevers. 

An unusual number of cases of jaundice have occurred du* 
ring winter and spring. We have had less diseases of the ali* 
mentary canal, such as cholera morbus, diarrhoea and dysentery » 
than usual. All these cases were treated by opium, per orem 
et anum. 

A case of diabetes, which fell under my care a few months 
ago, deserves a passing notice. It occurred in the person of a 
lad twelve years of age. The renal secretion amounted to two 
gallons in twenty-four hours. The disease ran its course in a 
few months. It was arrested in its course for about forty-eight 
hours, during which time the quantity of the urine and the 
appetite were perfectly normal. The disease, however, grad- 
ually returned, whether from the imprudence of the patient 
indulging in the use of ripe cherries at the time, I will not pre- 
tend to decide. The disease triumphed over every expedient 
suggested by myself and the recorded experiences of others , 
and the counsels of eminent practioners whom I consulted. 
The emaciation of the patient was very great,,but his muscu- 
lar pWers so little impaired that he visited me a few days 
previous to his death. The manner of death was sudden — by 
coma and apnoea. 

WM. JOHNSON. 

PerrysviUej December 21, 1864. 

The past year has been one of comparative health, no wide 
spread epidemic has prevailed among us. 

The diseases incident to the several seasons of the year 
have prevailed, generally mild, and in a manageable form. 

In June and July scarlatina prevailed in a small district, with 
here and there a case that either in addition to the regular 



148 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Bymptoms of the disease afterwards, in a few days, took on 
all the symptoms of regular meningitis, or, without the rash 
60 well marked in scarlatina, put on that of " spotted fever," 
with its other symptoms more or less plainly marked from the 
beginning. The disease, whether of scarlatina or meningitisr 
was more manageable than might have been supposed from 
the severity of the attacks and symptoms. This district is 
situated on the south side of a low mountain range, drained by 
streams of pure water, in which trout thrive ; above this and 
below this level of this range, we had very little of these 
diseases. In this district I attended an obstetrical case on 
13th May, mother and child doing remarkably well. On 2l8t ' 
June, was culled and found the mother laboring under well 
marked meningitis ; she had been exposed to the vicissitudes 
of weather, and had been working beyond her ability. The 
case might truly be called a severe one, but as I said before, 
was more manageable than might have been supposed, she re- 
covered, though but slowly, and for a long time had to feed 
the babe artificially, but of late her milk is gradually return- 
ing, and her health, considering the violent shock it sustained, 
is doing well. Another case was that of a boy about eight 
. years old— not living in this district, but in a small valley on 
tie east side of the mountain, in about the same altitude — 
puny, not well cared for either in diet or clothing, put on the 
symptoms of this disease, well marked, so much so that all who 
saw him recognized the disease. 

He recovered in less than two weeks, and is now well. 
These cases I suppose may be called sporadic, and may in 
some measure account for their being manageable. 

Dysentery prevailed with us in August and September, con- 
fined, like scarlatina, to certain localities rather than as an epi- 
demic. This has been the case here occasionally for the last ^ 
forty years. It prevailed this year as it has frequently biefore 
along a line where the different soils meet. For instance 
where the limestone soil ceases and red shale or other soil 
commences, about a mile wide on either side of such line the 
disease has prevailed and continued itself at that altitude 



• BEPOBT OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 149 

around and on our side hills. Above and below this line there 
is little of this disease, and that of a mild character. 

I have nothing new to offer in the treatment of these diseases. 

JOHN BLANE. 

SingoeSj N. «/., November 12, 1864. 

The early part of the year 1864 has been quite unhealthy. 
During the months of January and February Enteric Fever 
prevailed quite largely. Several of the cases assumed a very 
lev form ; all recovered but one. About the middle of Febru- 
ary Rubeola set in, the number of cases of which gradually in- 
creased till about the third week in March, when it began to 
subside, and by the second week in April it had altogether 
disappeared. There was but little complication with it. In 
the majority of cases, in the latter stages of the disease, Diar- 
rhoea was an attendant, but commonly subsided of its own ac- 
cord, or yielded readily to simple remedies. There was but 
one d^ath of this malady which occurred in the case of a lady 
sixty-five years of age. There seemed to be no complication 
in the case whatever. She died on the eighkh day of the dis- 
ease. During the months of May, June and July, we were 
quite free from any epidemic. But during the month of August 
Diphtheria set in and lasted some six weeks. The form of the 
disease was much more malignant than during the year '63. 
Out of forty-four cases that fell to my charge five died. The 
remedies that I rely on most in this disease are the Chlorate 
of Potassa, Carbonate of Iron, and Sulphate of Quinia. We 
have had very little Dysentery, and that in a very mild form. 

On the 27th of August my attention was called to Mrs. 

S H , a lady of about fifty-five years of age. I found 

her quite emaciated, with dry husky skin, furred tongue, fre- 
quent, weak* pulse, an irritable stomach, a much distended ab- 
domen and a oedematous limbs. On inquiry, I was informed 
that she had been complaining some thirteen months, and that 
at first her ailment was diarrhoea, and although it did not yield 
to domestic remedies she did not think it worth w^hile to •call 



150 MEDICAL 80CIETT OF NEW JERSEY. 

a physician ; she allowed it to run on about three weeks, when 
she was taken with severe pain : she now called a physician 
who pronounced her ailment Cramp Colic. In a very few 
days she so far recovered that she went about her work as 
usual — but with a slight pain in the stomach, and occasional 
eructations of wind, which after a while began to grow worse, 
and accordingly she recalled the physician. Under his treat- 
ment the symptoms quickly ameliorated, and he ceased at- 
tending her. But in a few weeks she was troubled somewhat 
as before with pain in the epigastrium and the eructation of 
wind, when she called to her aid one of the notorious quacks 
with which our country is disgraced, who informed her that 
she was laboring under Dyspepsia. After this deceiver had 
attended her some time she observed that the abdomen was 
gradually becoming distended. He attended her a succession 
of weeks longer, until the patient resolved on a change of 
physician. 

About the middle of April a regularly educated physician 
was called, but he did not succeed in relieving the^ distension. 
The woman kept upon her feet pretty much all the time, until 
about the seventeenth of September ; but from this date until 
the twenty-seventh she was obliged to keep her bed nearly 
all the time, while her sufferings were sometimes extreme. 
The stomach was then very irritable, ejecting almost every- 
thing taken into it. I prescribed aqua creosota, which seemed 
to calm the stomach. On visiting her the next day I found 
the same dryness of skin, furred tongue, and weak but fre- 
quent pulse, but the stomach was retaining, without pain, a 
small quantity of food and drink, which the patient said was 
unusual. I now put her upon prescription : 

Digital. Pulv. 

Soil. Pnlv. a. a. gr, X. 

Hyd. Chlorid. Mit. gr. VUI. , 

Pulv. Potes. Nit. }4 oz. 

Fiat pulvis, in chartulas decern dividendns. 

8. One to be taken every four hours through the day. 

On the twenty-ninth, I found her without pain, pulse fre- 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIBS- 151 

quent, furred tongne, skin moist, very slight increase in the 
flow of urine, and slight difficulty of respiration. I continued 
the above treatment, with the addition of an infusion of bucha. 
On the thirtieth, symptoms were about the same, excepting 
the breathing. Treatment the same, except the withdrawal 
of the Hyd. Chlorid. Mit. Thirty-first, symptoms hardly as 
favorable. Less flow of urine, and more irritability of stom- 
ach. I now proposed paracentesis, to which the patient as* 
sented, and the second of October was named as the day on 
which it should be practised; Dr. Crammer was engaged to 
assist in the operation. On the morning of the second, we 
found her with moist skin, furred tongue, stomach quiet, and 
respiration rather hurried. She was put in position for the 
operation, and I plunged in the Trocar, about two inches be- 
low the umbilicus, and a little to the left of it; but not a drop 
of water followed the withdrawal of the stylet- The stylet 
was again introduced to clear the Ganula, if any thing should 
be contained in it. But no liquid followed its removal. A 
small probe somewhat longer than the stylet of the Trocar 
was then introduced, which came in contact with a body which 
felt very jelly-like. By maneuvering the probe we succeeded 
in getting a small quantity of it through the Ganula which 
very much resembled light grape jelly, (more dense and adhe^ 
aive than the white eggs) in consiutency and general appearance. 
We supposed there might be a layer of this jelly-like material, 
not very thick along the anterior wall of the abdomen, and 
after working through this, we should reach the water. But 
after busying ourselves about two hours trying to break up 
the mass by means of the probe through the Ganula and get- 
ting about two quarts of the jelly-like material, we concluded 
nothing could be done without a larger Trocar. Accordingly 
it was agreed that the work should be adjourned until five 
o'clock that afternoon. With a larger Trocar we succeeded 
rather better than with the first one ; but not at all to our 
satisfaction. We drew off in the course of an hour and a half 
about five quarts — nothing yet' but the jelly with very little 
water. The day being now far spent and being dissatisfied 



152 HEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW-JEBSET. 

with the caliber of our instruments, the wound was dressed 
. and the patient put upon Quinia and Iron- and left for the day. 
/We concluded but little could be done without a very large 
Trocar, and had one made, the caliber of whose Canula should 
be three tenths of an inch. The following day I found the 
woman doing very well — said she had spent the night more 
comfortably than she had any night in a long while — breath- 
ing was better — had a better appetite and was free from pain. 
No change in the treatment. Saw her the following day — 
she continued to improve. Third day about the same. Fourth 
day hardly so well — agreater sensation of fullness which grad- 
ually increased until the thirteenth when we met to try our 
new instrument. With this we succeeded in drawing off about 
three gallon^ of the gelatinoid material which as it passed 
through the the Canula was formed into strings from five to 
fifteen inches in length, any one of which strings being pier- 
ced by a probe in one end could be lifted and suspended en- ' 
tire for a number of seconds clear of the receiving vessel. 

When this quantity had been taken the flow ceased, although 
the abdomen was yet much distended. On examination, we 
found all the matter anterior to the intestines had been drawn 
off: but the appearance was that posterior to the intestines a 
considerable quantity remained but was too thick and tenacious 
to make its way through the orifice of the Canula. Conse- 
quently the wound was dressed and the patient being put up- 
on the Carbonate of Iron, was left for the day. 

Qn the fourteenth I found her much relieved — had passed 
a comfortable night — appetite was good and respiration free. 
The following day I found her improving, and by the nine- 
teenth was on her feet, more comfortable, as she said, than she 
had been in three months. But by the second of October I 
found she was filling up, and advised in connection with Iron 
the use of diuretics — but with these failed in producing an in- 
crease in the fiow of urine. She continued to fill until the 
sixth of November on which day we again convened to with- 
draw whatever might have acfcumulated. 

The product of this tapping was principally water ; yet 



BEFOBTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 153 

there was mixed with it a considerable quantity of such ma- 
terial as was obtained by the first and second operations, but . 
not so tenacious. The patient is now doing as well as could 
be expected. The treatment is tonic. 

C. W. LAEISON. 

Dtt. G. H. Larison's Communication. 

LambertviUe, Dec. 20^/i, 1864. 

Pneumonia has prevailed a greater part of the year, 
more particularly during the autumn and winter months, both 
among children and adults of which the majority of cases have 
been lobar pneumonia among children between the ages of one 
and six years ; usually commencing with catarrhal symptoms 
which continue for from three to five days before the pneu- 
monia becomes manifest, during which time there is a general 
tmeasiness, lassitude, loss of appetite with more or less fever, 
v«ry little cough or pain in the chest, with moderate expecto- 
ration, breathing quickened with the number of respirations 
as high as even forty or fifty per minute in some cases. By 
percussion and auscultation the affected parts could be detect- 
ed, which I found mostly in the middle and lower part of the 
right lung, occasionally in the upper part, and in some cases 
seemed to be generally through both. The pulse usually 
running as high as from 120 to 170, and even higher, but regu- 
lar. The course of the attack would run about three weeks 
when favJrable, and two weeks when fatal. 

My plan of treatment in cases free from gastro-intestinal 
irritation, has been antimonials in small doses increased even 
to vomiting, with varatrum viride and some calomel, I have 
used acetate of lead, muriate of ammonia, alkalies and their car- 
bonates with other remedies, but my former plan of treatment 
proved the best. Quinia was used with iron in sinking cases 
with good results generally. Externally I used iritation by 
mustard or blistered freely with cantharides with better re- 
sults. - 

Of the adult cases I found nothing peculiar^ most cases re- 



154 MEDICAL SOCIETT OP NKW-JEHSEY. 

covering in the usual time when prompt treatment was brought 
to bear in the early stages. The mortality in eighty-five cat^ea 
of children was nine, of the adults three out of forty-seven. 

While this epidemic of pneumonia was raging seemingly at 
its height, about the early part of February last, measles which 
had not prevailed for years before appeared, which gave rise 
to many cases, in fact to almost all under nine years old, about 
one third of which pneumonia set in with the measles, and 
about one fourth of which was fatal ; followed by death in 
from one to three days after the development of the two dis. 
eases combined. One town and vicinity lost over seventy 
cases in about six weeks, when the measles had generally 
overrun the young population, and subsided while the pneu* 
monia less frequent and milder continues. 

In the months of August and September last, I found more 
cases of intermittent fever among those living in the miasma- 
tic districts than in three years before ; all of which gave way 
to calomel and sulphate of quinia, though some were accom- 
panied with severe chills. Isolated cases of scarlatina ap- 
peared among us early the past year, continuing more fre- 
quent till the pre8*3nt in all its forms, though I would not 
designate it as an epidemic, but would state that I have pre- 
scribed for forty-six cases only, one of which was fatal, being 
an adult thirty-three years old. Out of this number four 
were adults, all females, two of which were mothers of a fami* 
ly. The average age which it attacked was children from 
two to six years old, though almost invariably* ifewould go 
through a family of children and those exposed — showing its 
contagion. It was mainly confined to the simple, and anginose 
forms with much eruption and soreness of throat. The 
sequ'ela was dropsy in one fifth of their cases, showing itself 
about two weeks from the period of the attack of fever. The 
most effectual treatment was Ipecac, Chlorate of Potassa with 
saline laxatives. My treatment for the sequela Tr. Perri 
Chlord, in full doses, with gamboge as cathartic freely evacu- 
ating the bowels, which in every case had its desired and 
prompt effect. 



J 



BBPORT OF DISTRICT SOCISnEB. 155 

Dysentery appeared in August and September more particu- 
larly among the young ; nearly all the cases resulted favorably 
after an illness of about two weeks. Castor oil, JniBcac and 
Opium were found to be the best remedies. Quinia was im- 
portant in miasmatic cases. 

Since the 15th of January last till the present, I have pre- 
scribed for not a few cases of variola, or small-poz, many of 
which were confluent with the graver symptoms of the disease. 
Most of the cases were manageable on the refrigerant plan. 
In the worst confluent cases during the secondary fever, Sul- 
phate of Morphia was borne with good results to overcome 
restlessness. Olive oil and cream with the white of an egg 
beat together made a good coating to prevent marking. 

Out of ninety-one cases, forty-two were genuine small-pox^ 
twenty-one of which were confluent, and three malignant, and 
the remaining forty-nine were modified or varioloid from the 
influence of previous vaccination. Of the whole number there 
were three deaths, two of which occurred on the seventh day, 
and one on the tenth day. 

In many families where new cases occurred, I at once vac- 
cinated the remaining members, even those that had been 
vaccinated years previous, and in every instance where it was 
done before the maturation of the pox proved a preventive. 

Out of 200 cases previously vaccinated on trial the second 
time I found eighty-two again took the vaccine disease. 

I was called to attend a case of obstetrics in which the pa- 
tient being about thirty-six years of age, had given birth to 
four children previous without difficulty. Usually in good 
health until within six weeks of this time, when from accident 
she fell, which resulted in a bruise in the left side of the ute- 
rus which was painful till the time of her delivery. Labor 
commenced in the usual way ; pains intecse, os well dilated, 
child in first position, ordinary in size ; all passed on with 
much regularity till well in the second stage, when in the bear- 
ing down efforts of intense pain, a rupture of the uterus took 
place when at once the pain subsided with all bearing down 
effort, and in thirty minutes the woman died without a strug- 

10 



It6 lOBDiOAL flocngnr of VBw-iBHunr. 

gle. On examinfttion I found the rent in the place of the pre- 
Tums wound, following the course of the longitudinal fibers 
of the uterus* The child being dead was soon remored with- 
eat dilBGicultj* 



BUJUjXVGTON OilUMTV. 

Chairnum of Staaiding Committee. 

The past year, without having presented any well marked 
epidemic, seems to have been attended with about the usual 
fatality that we have to record during the prevalence of such 
scourges as they generally appear among us* The great l&w 
of compensation would seem to prevail here as over other 
physical subjects. 

Epidemics which are not pathologically new to the profes- 
sion or exceedingly malignant, are soon understood and be- 
come amenable to treatment, whereas sporadic oases of in- 
tensity are frequently sprung upon us unawares, and baffle 
our efforts. Familiar epidemics appear to be substituted for 
sporadic malignancy. In New Orleans, where for many years 
the yellow fever was an annual destroyer, nearly all other 
diseases were unknown ; since it has become less frequent, all 
other diseases, even croup, are comprised in their morbid 
nomenclature, making their obituary record nearly equal to 
that of former years. 

Pneumoses. — ^During the winter and first spring months of 
this year an unusual number, and great variety of attacks on 
the respiratory organs occurred. They were general through- 
out the county, and with me particularly severe. Tonsillitis, 
bronchitis, pneumonitis and pleuritis prevailed singly, and in 
all modes of combination, and in all degrees of intensity, in- 
volving the gastric, hepatic ^nd renal functions, to such an 
extent as to threaten lesion of one or more of the latter or- 
gans. Although the cases were so urgent, requiring much 
close attention, they generally recovered, excepting the aged, 
those subject to a chronic cough, and those in whom aa ift^ 



OP mfftsm fkxnoEm, W 

. eipient tuben^om existed. Four cmos of Hie former elRsaee 
^d. Id two of the latter, tubereleB were a^tiTelj developed, 
and they have already saccambed. Two oases of totiBilliti^ 
rah on to suppuration, and three cases of extensive congestrfe 
paetunonia recoYored by resolution. In all others expectora- 
tion was an imporlant process in the recovery. In mai^ 
sases the inflammatory symptoms were of to active ohaFactel*, 
qndck, hard pulse, delirivm, dyspnoea, and when the pleura wOs 
navolved, much acute pungent pain* Being govtdriied by tbe 
prevailing atonic theory, the lancet was used in two cusito 
Qtily, plethoric and robust subjects, high fevef, hard pulse 
and violent pleuritic psdn. Both were much relieved, and I 
diougbt the recovery facilitated by the practice. But when 
compared with other oases of apparently equaJ severity, whei^ 
the lancet was not used, and commanding doses of opium fiA- 
lowing an emetic and cathartic produced equal relief and ds 
mpid recovery, some doubt may be entertained' in relation 
to the superior value ol bleeding as a curative means. The 
treatment of course was in accordance witii the varied com- 
pltcations of the individual eases. 

Simple cases of pleurisy freqnently recovered in a few days 
by the free use of opiates and counter irritants, as sinapisttis 
and blistenu Acute bronchitis and pneumonia were healed 
generally by an emetic of Tart Ant. or Ipec. followed by an 
active cathartic, and to maintain the impression made by 
those agents, diluted doses of Ant. or Ipecac, with demulcents 
according to the tolerance of the stomach, were persevered 
in until expectoration was established, when the patient was 
let alone on an improved diet, or possibly assisted by an acrid 
expectorant, as Squills Seneg, Sanguin, <&c. The irritative 
oough and insomnolency were relieved by appmpriate doses 
of sul. morph. In a few cases of greater obstinacy, when flie 
expectoration continued to be tough and adhesive, the Iodide 
of Pota^, ingr. doses three or four times a day appeared 
to change Hie quality of the sputa, making' it more muco purti- 
lent^ and mors easily raised witii great relief to tiie patient. 
Dr. Pugh of Burlington says, there was a more gttneral 



188 MXDiOAL aooisrr of newiJebset. 

prevalence of pneumonia daring the Qionths of Jannarj, 
February and March, than had been experienced in that 
community for many years, as it is a disea^ quite rare in that 
city. 

Scarlatina has made its annual visit in this district, without 
presenting any features of peculiar interest, excepting in the 
neighborhood of Columbus, where Dr. Page says there have 
not been three consecutive weeks without such caces during 
the past year. Dr. Thornton of Moorestown says it prevailed 
in that locality as an epidemic in February, March and April, 
was of a low grade, rash dark, capillary circulation slowly re. 
turning after having been removed by pressure treatment, 
Watson's chlorine treatment, Iodine ointment to the 'throat 
externally, aconite and digitalis as fever demanded. The 
throat was cleansed by the chlorine mixture which he prefers 
to the Arg. Nit. 

Dr. Thornton is of the opinion that beginning early with 
Lugols solution internally has prevented the formation of ab- 
Bcesses in the neck. 

Anasarca was a frequent sequlea, and in one family wheie 
(three children had had the exanthem, the fourth without hav- 
ing been the least sick or taken any medicine became very 
dropsical. He asks whether it was merely a coincidence 7 

In my practice three children died in one family from 
putrid throat. Two were in articulo mortis when called, 
throat black and sloughing with offensive muco purulent sa- 
nies discharging from the nostrils. Neither of these children 
«had the least appearance of scarlet eruption, but it was well 
.xleveloped in the children of an adjacent family. These were 
sporadic cases. 

* Diphtheria has also been met with ^more or less, bat 
of a less malignant character than it presented a few years 
past. In Moorestown there were cases in May, June and 
July. Dr. Thornton's treatment in some cases was Tr. Ferri. 
Chlo. in fifteen drop doses on sugar, every three or four 
hours, which appeared to do good, but he prefers the chlorine 
' treatment for all cases. 



BSP0BT8 or DI8TBTCT socnmBB. 159 

Spotted fever. — ^Daring the prevalence of this malady id 
distant places, and even while it was raging in Trenton on 
one side and Camden on the other, Burlington County enjoyed 
an entire immunity from it. But it has at length invaded 
the northern section of this district, and elicited a very excel- 
lent report which has been rend before our society, and pub- 
lished in the Medical and Surgical Reporter, No. 408, to which 
I respectfully refer the committee. 

IrdermiUen^. — Dr. Young of Bordentown says: "with us there 
has been a great and unaccountable increase of intermittent 
fever. Beginning as early as January, and gradually increase 
ing until August, then remaining stationary for two months* 
and then rapidly falling off. Dr. Pugh reports that in the 
early part of the season intermittent fever prevailed in Bur- 
lington to a considerable extent, but since September there 
has been comparatively little of it. Dr. Thornton says in 
August and September, intermittent fever was (he epidemic. 

In Pemberton about twenty cases of well developed inters 
mittent fever of quotidian type occurred, a circumstance 
unknown for the last thirty years. 

Last year we had occasion to report an unusually wet 
spring and summer with a decided tendency to intermittent 
fever, this year the very opposite hygrometrical condition has 
prevailed. The spring and summer months were unusually 
dry, the rains not falling until September, and then only 
moderately, when the fever subsided almost instantly. This 
has happened over a considerable extent of country where 
there' have been no corresponding changes of sur&ce to ac. 
count for the phenomena. 

Daring the year 1863, there was an almost imperceptible 
blending of the various types of malarial fevers. Intermittentt 
remittent and the continued typhoid fevers so insidiously 
merged as not always to be identified at first. The year 1864 
has been marked by a more positive intermittent type, and 
much less of the typhoid. I have not seen one case. At 
Moorestown there were a few cases, but from the silence ofi 
physicians on the subject we infer there must have been: 
much less than usual in this district. 



140 mDiOAL aocniT or vmr-mBem* 

Jaaodioe has bean substituted somewhat as a GcmntervaUtiig 
feature in our autumnal maladies. More cases have occurred 
than I have seen in the preceeding decade. M^ij were 
quite profound, others lighter. All have recovered ; some i& 
a- few days, others requiring two or three weeks for completa 
ooiQvalescence. A mild aperient course with diuretic drink, 
as decoction of oemicidugadiosma etc., was Y&ry satisfac^ry. 
A paroxymal tendency appearing in some, quinia &cilitated 
ike recovery. My friend Dr. S— — a retired physician, hav- 
ing too much respect for medicine to swallow it» obeyed bis 
instinct, or the language of the stomach and cleared up a da- 
ptressing icterus by the use of moderately fermented cider. 

Dr. Thornton reports a case in which he was unable to re- 
move the placenta until it had been retained five days and be- 
Qpme putrid. The patient died on the eighth day after de* 
livery. In my own practice a similar case has occurred wider 
circumstan^ea involving practical considerations of pecvilaf 
interest. A person aged forty-five, having given birth to six 
or seven living children, and aborted two or three times pre- 
viously, again aborted between the fifth and sixth months* 
According to her st'Jitement the foetus had been dead at least 
tSBFo weeks before its e^pulsion^ which took place under ihm 
oare of a woman quite expert in such cases. The placenta 
QOt feUowing I was sent for at the expinrtion of another week.- 
Fouad her. up and in good condition, but uneasy about the re* 
iained after-birth. Placental cord protruding about six or 
•even inckes,^ very tender^ and easily parted at the vulva. 
Vagi*nal e&trance rigid aad resisting, os uteri closed and verjF 
firm. There having been no hasmorrhi^e at the time of de- 
livery, nor since^ and an entire absence of fetid discharge^ or 
edor, and in consideration of the little damage the retained 
placenta appeared to be doing, I concluded not to foreiUf 
interfere. Advised her to keep quiet as possible, hoping thatt 
expulsion might take place without haemorrhage. I saw her 
en the third, fifth and seventh days, no physical change, paart9 
atili rigid. Tenth day hastily summoned, very great h»moiw 
fhage had takes place, much coa^la had been expdtted, with 



nPOBT OF DISTStCV MCVttOlk 141 

uterine pain. Tha saftie midwife was i^ain present who pro- 
tested that she had seen a mass with a portion of the nmbili* 
cal oord attached, which she knew was not coagvlum. Rely- 
ing on this statement I made no iraginal ezaminatioii, bnt gare 
an opiate and alnm, introduced the tampon, and staid all night. 
Prom this time there was very little haemorrhage but great 
prostration, and the odor of putrid blood soon began to be 
very offensive, she gradually sank and died on the seventh 
day after the hsdmorrhage, but a few hours previously to dissolu- 
tion, a shrunken, diminutive undecomposed placenta was ex- 
pelled, the blood having contributed the offensive and putrid 
discharge. The practical inquiry is, whether I should have 
persevered in overcoming the resistance to the cavity of the' 
uterus, and extracted that placenta by the crotchet ; or whether 
three weeks harmless tenure of the dead fostus and placental 
warranted the conclusion that a spontaneous and harmless ex* 
pulsicm might take place. 

SquanuB. — ^A stout athletic man «^ed forty-five, after hard 
labor and exposure in the water on a hot day in August 1863, 
soon became anasarcous, which was removed by appropriate 
treatment. Coincidently with t^e abatement of the dropsy 
scales began to form, increasing in size, and extending ovet 
ike surface until there was not a point from the cervix to the 
soles of the feet, but what was entirely encrusted with desquar 
mating cuticle. The squamsd were irregular in figure and 
size, some so large that scales one inch by one and a half could 
eamly be detached, and wore rapidly reproduced. 

He was admitted into the Burlington County Poorhouse in 
February, 1864. Digestive function well performed, but great 
muscular prostration and subject to vertigo upon rising. 
Treatment, Comp. Syr. Sarsa, and Fowler's solution for six 
weeks, then Comp. Syr. Sarsa and Potas. Iodide four weeks, 
somewhat stronger, and less vertigo, but no perceptible iae 
provement in skin* At this time meeting with Prof. Jackson's 
Essay on Per. Mang. Potas, in the April number of the Amer. 
Jour, of Med. Science, I substituted it for all other medicine, 
but an occasional dose of Sol. Mag. for which he had a penchant. 



1(12 MEDICAL SOCIBTT OF HBW JEBSET. 

PermaDganate of potash, 1 gr., water 1 oz., dose a teaspoon- 
full three or four times a day. A lotion of the Permaoganate 
in the same proportion was i|^ade in large quantity, and used 
Cap-a-pie once or twice a day. [n three weeks an evident im- 
provement. August 1st almost entirely cleared up ; skin be- 
coming soil and flexible and partially assuming the natural 
color, having been thickened by capillary engorgment and as 
florid as scarlatina. October and November discontinued the 
medicine. December Ist, small scales reappearing on one leg 
and arm, resumed the treatment Internally and externally. 
January 10, 1865, has been perspiring easily for the last month, 
and thinks he is wdL. I am inclined to think the permanganate 
v^as the curative agent in this case. I forgot to mention that 
while he was taking the Comp. Syr. Sar. etc., he also used 
various alkaline lotions. In this case there was not the least 
vesicular or pustular exudation. 

A case of recto vaginal fistula of ten year's standing, 
throagh which feces and air constantly passed, rendering the 
person unfit for her vocation as waiter, has been operated on 
by the clamp suture with entire success. The fissure was 
transverse, and about three quarters of an inch in length. The 
first application of the suture reduced the fissure one half. 
After the second operation a fistula still remained through 
which a probe could be passed, and small bubbles of air occa- 
sionally escaped. Dr. A. E. Budd of Mount Holly proposed 
the introduction of a hollow bougie into the rectum for the com- 
bined purpose of venting air and feces, and keeping the sur- 
fietces of the fistula in close contact, after having been slightly 
cauterised. The result is a complete closure of the fistula, and 
entire relief from all distress in that part which had hereto- 
fore rendered her life a torment. A common fistula in ano of 
two year's standing was also closed by the pressure of the 
bougie. 

J. P. COLEMAN. 

Pbmbbrtok, January' \2^ 1866. 



SEPOBT OP DISTRICT SOGIKmB. 168 

OAHDBN OOUIMTY. 

Chairman of Standing Committee. 

Diseases of all kinds, whether epidemic or sporadic, have 
generally been of the mildest and most tractable form. 

A few cases of " Spotted Fever" have been reported. Pour 
or five children died very suddenly in one family, near Black- 
woodtown, from this disease. 

A remarkable change has recently taken place in the char- 
acter of the fevers prevalent in the lower part of this county. 
The writer has practised in this locality nineteen years, and 
previously to the last two years never knew a case of inter- 
mittent fever to originate here. When persons laboring under 
intermittent fever came here from miasmatic districts, they 
usually got well with little or no medical treatment. During 
the fall and latter part of summer of the last two years, in- 
termittent fever has been the prevailing fever, and typhoid 
fever, which used to be so prevalent, has been very rare. The 
only reason which can be assigned for this change, is the gen- 
eral cutting oflF of the timber in what was formerly a heavily 
wooded district. The soil is sandy. The springs are usually 
wet, and in the early summer vegetation is luxuriant. About 
mid-summer we generally have a severe drought, and the rains 
which follow may produce miasma by favoring the decompo- 
sition of the luxuriant vegetation killed by the drought and 
exposed to the sun by the removal of the timber. There are 
no tidal streams in this vicinity. 

I send herewith an interesting case reported by Dr. O. fl. 
Taylor of Camden. 

JNO. W. SNOWDEN 
Rep. for Camden District Society. 

Waierford Works, Camden Co. 



164 MEDiOAL fiocnsnr op jsvw-JmBBT. 



CASE OF ABSCESS IN THE LUICBAB BEOION FOLLOWED BT ACUTE 

CYSTITIS. 
Bt Otku H. Tatlob H. D. 

On the 27th September 1864, 1 was called upon to visit Mr. 
C. W, who had been suffering for several days, from excrucia- 
ting pains in the lumbar region, which were attributed bj 
the patient and his family to lumbago, as they resembled in 
every particular the pains of rheumatism. The patient was 
unable to walk, because, to use his own mode of expression^ 
his extremities seem to give way uniierneath him, whenever 
he attempted to support himself in the erect position. 

The suffering was so exclusively confined to the loins, that af- 
ter an attendance of three or four days, I became fully con- 
vinced that the diseased action was limited to the lumbar re- 
gion. Seven or eight days elapsed before any perceptible tu- 
mefaction of the part occurred, and on this account, I was un- 
able clearly to diagnose the case until a decided tumor pre- 
sented itself externally, and convinced me that an extensive 
abscess was about to form in the cellular tissue of the region. 
At this time there was considerable induration of the infla- 
med mass, and much oedema in the surrounding free cellular 
tissue. 

From this period, the tumefaction rapidly increased, and 
when fully circumscribed, it occupied the entire space of the 
lumbar region and both flanks, from the lower margin of the 
ribs, to the sacrum and crista illii. It was accompanied by 
severe throbbing pains and evident pulsation ; in diameter th» 
tumor was at least ten inches. 

Influenced by the doubt that involved the character of the 
disease in its incipient stage, and the consideration that lumbar 
abscesses are very frequently connected with disease of the ad- 
jacent vertebr®, which may be either a cause or consequence 
of the collection of pus, I was induced to defer the opening of 
the abscess until the suppurating cavity approached the sur- 
face, and it became evident that it would evacuate itself ex* 



or mnsiOT wciBr». 165 

teniaUy by olceratiou, if left to pursue its nataral course. 
This being at length obvious, I no longer hesitated to interfere, 
and proceeded at once to make avalwlar opening at the point 
indicated as the place where the pus would soon discharge it- 
self. I made the orifice sufficiently large to admit of a free 
flow to the contents of the cavity, while retaining the power 
to check the discharge, if the patient, should manifest symp* 
tomsc^'too much prostration, and the precaution proved a 
wise one. The amount of pus was enormous ; and before the 
cavity was completely evacuated the strength of the patient 
was almost exhausted, so that I was conatrained to close the 
orifice, temporarily, with adhesive strips. On the succeeding 
day I removed the strips, and drew from the cavity more than 
a pint of pus, and from this time the patient improved. 

Ten days subsequently, and after I had dismissed from my 
nund all anxiety in relation to the case, I was again called to 
see the patient, and found him suffering from intense pain in 
the hypogastric region, and violent cramps of the abdominal 
muscles, with firequent, ineffectual and distressing attempts at 
laieturation. These symptoms were accompanied with much 
fever, attended and preceded by irregular rigors. There was 
likewise present a burning sensation in the bladder, extending 
from thence along the course of the urethra and frcemrai of 
tke penis, with tenesmus and a constant desire to void urine, 
which could only be discharged in trifling quantities. 

In this condition the patient retaaained during several hours, 
only relieved partially by large doses of opium, and other 
palliative remedies, until the bladder becoming excessively 
distended, I was compelled to resort to the catheter for his ro> 
lief. The operation was repeated twice daily for five or six 
days, the urine becoming more and more mingled with pQ% 
ind on the last introduction of the catheter, a large amount of 
p«s accompanied the discharge of urine. 

It is very remarkable that, on three or four occasions there* 
oeourred regular emissions of pure pus, at periods following 
soon after the complete evacuation of the bladder. This phe» 
Bomeoon would seem to show that the inflammation existing 



166 MEDICAL SOOISnr OF KBW JEBSET. 

in the anterior portion of the bladder may have been extended 
to the vesicula seminales, calling into spasmodic action the 
ejaculatores muscles ; but there were no observable symptoms 
of irritation of the testes. 

. I have not considered it important to enter into the thera- 
peutic details of the case, having carried out the treatment of 
the varioas symptoms, as they occurred, on principles too 
obvious to need enunciation here ; and concisely as I have re» 
ported its striking features, I trust that the history is suffi* 
ciently comprehensive to communicate all its essential and pro- 
minent characteristics. 

Perhaps it may be worthy the consideration of the patholo- 
gist, whether there was a translation of morbific matter 
from the original to the consecutive seat of the inflammation 
in this case, agreeably to the doctrine of the humerists. Are we 
to regard the case as an example of. Metastasis, or of regular 
extension of the disease from the lumbar region to the blad* 
der, or as the result of two distinct attacks affecting consecu- 
tively two distinct and dissimilar portions of the organization ? 

In reference to metastasis, the phenomena of many affections, 
and especially those of gout and rheumatism strongly favor the 
theory, nor are there wanting certain features in each of the 
attacks described, which might render it plausible to associate 
them both with a rheumatic or arthritic tendency in the con- 
stitution of the patient, even if we should refuse to attribute 
the lumbar inflammation directly to a rheumatic exciting 
oause. 

I can scarcely recognize the pathological propriety of attri- 
buting to matastasis the consecutive occurrence of disease in 
tissues so widely different in structure and function, as the 
muscular and mucous tissues ; but perhaps the muscular tissue 
of the bladder may have been the primary seat of the second- 
ary attack in this case, the mucous coat becoming consecutive- 
ly involved by regular eaatenjsion and the abdominal cramps 
and pain which the patient suffered seem strongly to favor 
this idea. 

Still more important in this connection, were the spasmodic 



BBPOBTB OF DIBfRIOT flOOISneS. 167 

oontractions of the ejacalatores seminis. Yet, it should not be 
forgotten that all these symptotDS may naturally occur sympa- 
thetically in acute cystitis from other causes. Again, as to 
the extension of the disease from the primary to the secondary 
seat, I am unable to account, on that hypothesis, for the long 
interval of ten days between the termination of the lumbar 
abscess and the advent of acute cystitis. Moreover, the prooJb 
of continuity of the inflammation between the two sites of 
the inflammation are entirely wanting. None of the symp- 
toms of Psoas or iliac abscess were at any time presented. 
There was neither tenderness about Poupart's ligament, nor 
uneasiness extending down the thigh, in the direction of the 
Psoas muscles. In fact, the only symptom which led me to 
suspect any affiliation between the two diseases, was the com- 
plaint made by the patient in the incipient stage of the first 
attack, that he labored under inability to extend his legs, and 
suffered much pain in the attempt to walk even a few steps. 
We have no reason to suppose that the vertebra were at any 
time, or in any degree, implicated in the afiection ; for after 
the abscess in the back had fully discharged itself, and the ' 
surrounding structure had resumed its normal condition, a 
close examination of the spine, with firm pressure over each 
vertebra failed to produce any evidence of tenderness of the 
parts. The lower extremities, also, became sufficiently firm 
to enable the patient to walk a reasonable distance two or 
three days before the occurrence of the attack on the bladder. 



cnicBBBiiAin> ooxjiranr. 

Obdarvillb, Cumberland Co., N. Y. 
Dr. Wickes, Chairman (f Standing Committee: 

The year '63 was remarkable for its exemption from disease. 
The one now fast passing away has been characterized by an 
unusual amount of sickness ; especially the winter and spring 
months. Disease in almost every imaginable form has visited 



168 MBDIO&L COaiSIT OF NEW JEKSET. 

UB. Old friends have returned, bringing with them new facet ; 
and many diseases that we onee regarded with a certain degree 
of favor, because we understood their characteristics, have 
come back to us ubder a changed physiognomy, and their mod- 
esty and reserve are such, that it seemed difficult to make their 
acquaintance. Even our old diseases seemed to " put on airs," 
and repudiate the remedies which they once coveted. Whether 
lilis strange feature has extended to other localities, I am una- 
ble to say, but it has been remarked by more than one in this 
section. 

Among the diseases which prevailed in this county in the 
early part of the year was Erysipelas. In some localities it 
amounted to an epidemic, and the disease in its progress through 
a neighborhood, displayed every variety treated of by medical 
writers. The usual external remedies seemed to exert but 
little influenoe toward arresting the disease, and our physicians 
had to rely principally upon internal remedies, among . which 
was iron and quinine. The basis of treatment, and the one 
which appeared to succeed the best, was a persistent tonic 
course. 

Measles were likewise quite prevalent, and although they 
did not amount to an epidemic, were very generally di£Fused 
Aroughout the county. A noticeable feature in this disease 
W€W the size and extent of the eruption — they made their ap- 
pearance in large blotches, resembling the hives-— several cases 
were reported of this variety, which subsequently broke out 
with a small rash, resembling the original disease. This second 
eruption did not always follow this blotchy appearance, but was 
noticed in several cases. 

One section was visited with the usual affections incident to 
the winter months, but there was nothing remarkable about 
the several varieties, and they generally yielded to the usual 
remedies. In one locality Typhoid Fever prevailed to an Un- 
usual extent, and the disease, though fully marked, was char- 
acterized by a strong typhus tendenby. There was in nearty 
every case a strong disposition to extreme prostration, and the 
moBt active stimulating treatment was necessary in ordttr to 



BSFOSTB OF DisfBioT flooomn. 169 

BQpport the patient, and rally the system. A few of the cases 
were complicated with Pneumonia, thereby aggravating the 
symptoms, and renderiog the case more critical. In one family 
in my practice there were nine cases of this feyer. That there 
existed in that section, some strong exciting canse, I am led to 
believe, from the fact that adjoining families had this fever 
during the entire winter, and this was the only sickness in that 
neighborhood. The miasmatic influence, caused probably by 
decomposed vegetable matter, had the effect, not only to prop- 
agate this fever, but to feed and keep it alive. The sitaation 
of the place was in a low basin, surrounded by, and adjacent 
to the swamp and marsh bordering the creek. 

Old citizens inform me, that fifty years ago, this same locality 
was visited by an epidemic Typhus Fever, and the place almost 
entirely depopulated. Bhould this time-table hold good in the 
Aiture, the present inhabitants of the place need have no fears 
of witnessing a return of this epidemic. Before another half 
century rolls around, they will be beyond the reach of all feb- 
rile agents. 

At our annual meeting in April last, several cases of a singu* 
lor disease were reported, the exact classification of which, 
seemed enveloped in doubt. To what species it belonged was 
a mystery. It was known among us as spotted fever, putrid 
fisver, malignant typhus fever, cerebro^spinal meningitis, tfce. 
This disease was particularly alarming, from the fact that few 
recovered. For a more full account of this disease, as it pre- 
sented itself in my practice, please see the inclosed report. 

Through the summer we had to contend with the usual com- 
fdaints common to that season. Nothing of especial interest 
was elicited by the diseases of this section. Dysentery pre- 
vailed to some extent, but did not amount to an epidemic. 

We are now being visited by variola, which in most cases is 
greatly modified by vaccination, and the terror that once at- 
tended this disease* has greatly diminished by this powerful 
ago&t. Bespectfttlly, 

EPHBAIM BATSMAN. 



17D ICBDICAL BOCIBTT OF KBW JBB8BT. 



BISTORT OF THBEE CASES OF STRANGE DISEASE BT E. BATEMAK. 

I was called in the evening of February 9th to visit the son 
of Captain Grassmen aged six years. He was taken ill the af- 
ternoon of that day about two o'clock, was well and lively da- 
ring the forenoon and up to the time of his indisposition. It 
was ten o'clock when I saw him ; he complained of pain in his 
head and left side, there was great irritability of the stomach 
and vomiting. I found him with a high fever, full quick pulse, 
heart's action strong and bounding, thumping against the walls 
of the chest with great force, as if struggling to free itself 
from the grasp of some one ; there was excessive thirst, which 
water could not satisfy, trembling of the muscles, at times very 
rigid, at others entirely relaxed, the patient would start and 
spring as if frightened, then become more composed and drop 
into a comparatively quiet sleep — pupils not dilated, but a 
dull heavy expression about the eyes ; when not vomiting, or 
asking for drink, the little boy would settle away into a sort of 
stupid drowsy slumber ; congestion of the brain not indicated ; 
mental faculties, when awake, unimpaired ; swallowed well, 
and without any difficulty ; no swelling of the throat, the 
breathing very laborious and tiresome ; the heart seemed to 
act without any regard or deference to the other organs ; 
tongue clean and natural ; matter ejected from the stomach 
was simply food, drink and white mucous : no biliary matter 
whatever. The child died that night : fifteen hours from the 
time it was taken. There was toward the close a great dis- 
position to sleep ; death easy, and without a straggle ; no 
spasms or convulsions, but a peculiar trembling at intervals 
during the night ; the pulse was/t(S at the time of dissolution, 
and only ceased to beat with the cessation of the lungs to act ; 
the bowels were open, and the discharge natural. After death 
the ears and side of the neck turned purple ; no other spots, 
or characteristic signs to indicate any secret or malignant mal- 
ady. Whai toaa it? The symptoms corresponded almost 
exactly with a case of poisoning, which I had attended pre- 
vious to having seen this child, and could it have been possi- 



BBPOBT OF DISIBIGT B0CIETIB8. 171 

ble for this child to have had access to any poisonous sub- 
stance ? I should have no hesitation in deciding the case as 
such, but this was not the case. 

This little boy was buried on Thursdaj^ afternoon ; they left 
at home a little girl about four years old ; she was well when 
they left ; when they returned at five o'clock they found her 
complaining much in the same manner as the little boy ; they 
sent for me, but being engaged I did not see her until eight 
o'clock that evening ; the symptoms as they presented them- 
selves were somewhat different from the other case ; the same 
pain in the head and side, with great nausea and vomiting ; 
very little fever ; heart comparatively quiet ; great thirst as in 
the other case ; perspiration very profuse ; matter thrown off 
thick, tough mucus and drink ; no dark or biliary matter eject- 
ed ; child died that night ; appeared to have inward spasmn 
during the last six hours ; no convulsions ; the same trembling 
of the muscles, and rigidity that characterised the other case ; 
perfectly sensible between the intervals of the spasms ; bowels 
open, and discharges dark ; died .easy after twelve hours sick- 
ness ; after death she turned purple nearly all over, and the 
lips and mouth were Uack ; no spots sa^e this diffused purple 
hue; which speedily followed death, and continued until the 
interment. After examining these cases, and comparing the 
symptoms ; watching the action of the different organs both 
separately, and in their connection, I came to the conclusion 
that these cases were caused by some active poison, (either 
animal or vegetable) entering the blood, and so vitiating it, as 
to deprive it of its life giving influence ; the blood so thorough- 
ly impregnated with this^ poison, was incapable of furnishing 
sufficient vitality to the different organs to support life ; they 
seemed to stop their normal action solely from want of nour- 
ishment. This theory may be wrong, but I believe that it is 
plausible if not correct. 

I next began to enquire what was the safest and best course 
to pursue, in order to neutralize this poison, and if possible to 
counteract this depressing tendency. Ordinary remedies 
failed to make any impression ; before they could act, the pa 

11 



172 MOOICAL BOOTBEY OT KEWmBBSST. 

tieat was dead. Ajfter giving this matter mneh carefol study, 
I concluded, should I be called to another case, to throw into 
the system the strongest tonics, and neutreJizing agents that 
we possess. I had made up mj mind to give Quinine and Iron 
in large and repeated doses, regardless of any and all other 
symptoms. I did not have long to wait. On the Monday fol- 
lowing another son of this man was taken sick ; he was ten 
years old ; symptoms headache, nausea and vomiting ; pain in 
the stomach ; drowsy and stupid ; layed with his eyes part 
open, with a dull, leaden expression ; fever not very high f 
trembling slight ; thirsty ; threw up great quantities of bile ; 
disposition to sleep ; ordered mustard applied to every part of 
the body, and put him upon large doses of Quinine and Iron ; 
that afternoon be broke out in pink or purple spots all over ; 
from the size of a pea, down to tha;t of a fine rash. Continued 
out but a short time. I saw a few of them the next morning 
about the size of the end of my little finger. Oave him a mild 
cathartic, and continued the Quinine and Iron day and night, 
without any regard to the fever or the head. He recovered 
rapidly, and the fourth day I discharged the case. What would 
have been the termination of this case under a difierent treat- 
ment I can not say : it might have recovered. Had the Qui- 
nine any effect tO' cause this eruption? This spotted appear- 
ance of the skin was different from any thing that I had ever 
seen. These purple or reddish spots, upon examination, ap* 
peared to be made up of a number of small spots, but each 
separate and distinct, but so closely connected that they seemed 
but one. 

Shortly after I was called to see a man of fifty years pf age*^ 
He went to bed as well as usual ; was a stout, healthy person 
and never had occasion to consult the physician. I found him 
suffering with his head and neck. Extreme pain in his head ; 
neck stiff and disposed to draw j face and eyes much swollen 
and the same dull, heavy expression that characterized the 
eases just reported. Upon asking him how he felt, his answer 
was, " I can't tell you, I feel so bad all over ; I am so weak ; 
such a strange feeling." Notwithstanding the pain in his head 



RKPOM OF Difinaci? sociimBd. 178 

iraiB db devere, he wo«tld lie ftt timeU tts if asleep, and niilem 
amused, wol^Id appeal ad if under the influence of some strong 
nsrcdtic ; pnlse high ; tongue dry and slightly coated ; some 
tremblii^. Ordered a warm bath, and strong mustard c^plica- 
tibns to^fche extremities, breast aftd back. Oold c^plied to the 
head. Commenced immediately to give Quinine an& Iron in 
large doses, repeated every hour ; saw him again that evening, 
symptoms much the same ; paitf slightly better, but suffering 
very much. Gave a dose of Jal. et C. Tartar, and continued 
the tonics without reference to sjnnptome or medidne. In the 
morning found him much improved ; treatanent the same. 
Case continued to improve until the fifth day when I dis^ 
charged it. This cafse following so soon after the others, with 
nmch the saihe symptoms, led me to believe that it migfit be 
sdmethiiig of the same character. I had about this time quite 
a number of cases, mostly among children, the symptoms of 
which were rather strange and unnatural, yet I did not class 
them as being of the same spediea as those described. 



OLOnCBSTSB OOuxvTX. 

A portion of the report is embodied in that of the Standing 
Committee. The following cases are communicated by the 
reporter : 

The following case has just passed through my hands : A 
lady at her full time was delivered of a fine healthy child. AU 
went well for a few days, when she was taken with excessive 
haemorrhage. Upon examination I found the os uteri soft, 
flabby and uncontracted ; I took a silver spoon handle and 
passed it into the cavity of the uterus, but did not discover 
anything wrong. I ordered cold cloths over the pubic region 
with ergot; this for a ^ile appeared to check the discharge, 
but it returned repeatedly. I determined to introduce the 
tampon ; upon making a further examination I found a firmer 
mbstanoe blocking the os than a clot of blood, about four by 
three inches in size. Upon extracting it I discovered a blighted 



174 MEDICAL 80CIETT OF NEW JEBSET. 

ovnni. There was no further trouble. I relate this case, not 
because of anything extraordinary, but to introduce to your 
notice the spoon handle, which I have been for years in the 
habit of using in miscarriages where we find considerable diffi- 
culty in bringing down the placenta, and till it is removed the 
bleeding will continue. I prefer it to any other instrument I 
have tried, and it is generally at hand. 

Another case came under my care. A lady from the city 
removed to our neighborhood. She was an object of distress 
and exhaustion. She nad borne a child, and had been under 
the charge of one of the most celebrated physicians of Phila- 
delphia. The prominent symptom was a copious and foetid 
discharge from the vulva. Upon examination I discovered 
what appeared to be a convoluted tumor that I supposed was 
cauliflower cancer filling the whole cavity. Passing my finger 
around it, I was enabled gradually to extract the tumor, which 
proved to be an ordinary sized towel, that had been left for 
weeks, I suppose, to act as a tampon. 

Yours truly, JOS. FITHIAN. 



The report from ATLANTIC COUNTY is embodied in the 
report of the Standing Committee. 



MEBCEB COUNTY— No Beport. 



MONMOXTTH CX)UNTY— No Beport 



80MBSBSBT OOUNTY— No Beport 



HEMBEB8 OF DISTfilOT MEDIOAL SOOIETIE& 





nrmnmnT.Aim noTrwniv 




B. R. Batemaa, 


CtdarvOU. 


8. C. CatteU, 


DeerftM. 


Eli E. Bateman, 


H 


Wm. 8. Bowen, 


Bridgton, 


Ephm. Bateman, 


it 


J. B. Potter, 


li 


Robt. M. Bateman, 


it 


Robt. W. Bhner, 


it 


Geo. Tomlinson, 




N. R. Newkirk, 


(( 


ThoB. H. Tomlinflon 


, ShMi. 


William Elmer, 


(( 


C. C. PhilHpe, 


Deerfidd. 








WABKEN COUNTY. 




P. P. Brakeley, 


Bdvidere. 


Jas. C. Fitch, 


Hope. 


R. Bjdngton, 


It 


Geo. D. Pitch, 


it 


Edwin Bjington, 


It 


Jno.'C. Johnson, 


Blairstown. 


8. 8. Gark, 


ti 


L. C. Osmum, 


Ddaware Sta. 




SUSSEX COUNTY. 




John R. 8tuart, 


Newton. 


Jno. Miller, 


Andover. 


D. M. 8a7TO, Madiaon, Mor.Cc 


. Wm. H. Linn, 


Hambwrgk. 


Thos. Roe, 


Dingman's F. Isaac 8. Hunt, 


Layton'sP.O 


John Titsworih, 


Deckerton, 


Levi D. Miller, 


U.S.r. Sur. 


Alex. Ijinn, 


11 


Wm. J. Roe, 


Newton. 


F. Smith, 


Newton, 


Elijah W. Maines, 


FUUbrookmriUi. 


C. V. Moore, 


Stillwater. 


Jonathan Havens, 


Sparta. 


C. A. Cooper, 


Colemlie. 


Joseph Hedges, 


Branek9ilU. 


Thos. Ryerson, 


Newton. 


Theoph. H. Andrewc 


I. 


J. Linn Allen, 


La Fayette. 


Eugene Schumo. 




Oarlos Allen, 


Vertion. 


H. Hulshizer. 






MONMOUTH COUNTY. 




Robert Conover, 


Red Bank. 


T. J. Thdmason, 




Edward Taylor, 


Middletown. 


Wm. A. Newell, 


JUeniown. 


Robert Cook, 


Holmdd. 


Wm. D. Newell, 


XfllMiViBMnVfv. 


Henry Cook, 


(< 


A. A. Howell, 


Mentown. 


J. E. Arrowsmith, 


Keyport. 


J. B. Goodenough, 


BluehaU. 


A. B. Dayton, 


Middletown PuB. M. Disbrow, 


Squankum. 


J. Vought, 


Freehold. 


Robert Laird, 


Squan Village. 


J. R. Conover, 


(1 


A. A. Higgins, 


n 


J. 8. English, 


Manalapan. 







176 



MEMBERS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 



MXBCJfiB COUNTY. 



John H. Phmipe, 




Thos. J. Corson, 




James B. Coleman, 




Charles Skelton, 




John McEelway, 




Charles Hodge, Jr., 




John L. Taylor, 




0. H. Bartine, 




John Woolverton, 




U.Q.Jhm^Vf 




Wm. W. L. Phillips 


t 


C. Shepherd, 




Jacob Quick, 




R. R. Rogers. 




Edward I. Grant, 


BBSBB 


:coxnarTT. 




S. £. Arms, 


EiizabOh. 


L.,W. Oakley, 


EHaabeih. 


Milton Baldwin, 


' N^ewark, 


8. H. Pennington, 


Newark. 


P. N. Bennett, 


Orange, 


Stephen Personette, 


Venma. 


J. D. Bmmlej, 


U.S.A. 


Williavi Pifrson, 


Orange. 


J. Henry Clark, 


Newark. 


William Pierson, Jr. 


• 4 


Abrm. Coles, 


it 


William H. Pierson, 


U.S.N. 


Joseph A. Co^win, 


It 


J. C. gelden. 


Neteark. 


J. 8. Crane, 


. Elizabeth.' 


D. M. Skinner, 


U.S.N 


L. M. Crane, 


Orange. 


D. S. Smith, 


IrvingUm. 


J. A. Cross, 


Newark. 


D. W. Smith, 


NeteaHk. 


B. L. Dodd, 


n 


E. D. G. Smith, 


U.S.N. 


A. N. I>o^glierty, . 


U.S.A. 


J. 0. Stemes, 




Jam^s miiott^ 


Newqrk. 


G. W. Stickney, 


U.S.A. 


Ohmtopher liyrich. 


n 


L. Soutiiard, 


Nt)tii»ri. 


G. Grant, 


U.S.A. 


Wm. Taylor, 


4. 


p.ni, 


Newart.. 






Eugene Jobs, 


SpringMd. 


H. H. Xlchonor, 


Neuxpi. 


Max. SL^echlefT, 


Nmmi. 


R. Van Gieson, 


U.S.N. 


Charles Lehlbaob, 


U.S. A. 


Arthur Wwd, 


Nmtrii. 


J. H. H. Love, 


ffoauhir. > 


John p. Ward, 


(4 


A. M. Mills, 


Nwari, 


Robert Westpott, 


Elmketh. 


B. P. Niehols, 


(( 


— Whittingham, 


MUUmm. 


J. A. Nichols, 


^« 


SfteplumWitfkes, 


Orange. 


Wm. O'GomMin, 


(( 


Addison W.WoodhuU, U. S.A. 


£. A. Q»]ti<me, 


it 


Ch»rV» M. ?eh. 


Neieteri. 


J. D. Osborw, 


U.S,A. 








QAJiwfSBi oauwfz. 




Isaae. 6. Mnlford, 


Camden. 


K. B. Jennings, 


Ha4donfm. 


Othairfel H.Taylor, 


^ 44 


Henry Addey, 


Camim. 


Bichard M. Cooper, 


44 


H. Genet Taylor, 


44 


A. D. Woodruff, 




Henry fi. BEumin, 


JWadHMwiTn. 



WmBKRH OF DI8TBICT 80CIKTIKS. 



177 



J. V. Bchenck, 


Camden, 


John R. Stevenson, 


Camden. 


Thomas F. Gullen, 


it 


J. Gilbert Young, 


Ghueester. 


John W. Snowdon, 


Waterfard. 


Alexander Marcy, 


Camden. 




BUBUNGTON CWUUTY. 




H. H. Longstreet, 


Bordentoum. 


J. J. Spencer, 


Moorestoum, 


L. P. Jemison, 


' II 


S. Thornton, 


11 


J. D. Toang, 


II 


A. Elwell, 


Vineentown, 


J. Howard Pagh, 


Burlington. 


T. T. Price, 


Tuckerton. 


F. Ganntt, 


II 


George Goodell, 


Pkatdmrgh. 


B. H. Stratton, 


Mount HoOy. 


George Haines, 


mdfard. 


Z. Read, ^ 


II 


Richard Page, 


Oolwmbus. 


A.B.Bndd, 


II 


Wm. Martin, 


Rancocas. 


J. P. Goleinan, 


Pembtrton, 


— Townsend, 


Beoerly. 


A. Reid, 


II 




. 




HUDSOH oouirnr. 




Theodore B. Vaiick, 


Jersey City. 


T. KudUch, 


Hoboken. 


J. B. Culver, 


Sudaan CUy. 


F. G. Payne, 


Bergen Point, 


Joe. H. Vondy, 


Jersey City. 


John W. Hunt, 


Jersey City. * 


Z. S. Booth, 


Bergen. 


Alex. Rhoades, 


U. S. N. 


Giarles Taggart, 


Jersey City. 


W..J. Hadden, 


Jersey City. 


Romeo F. Ghahert, 


Hoboken. 


J. F. Finn, 


Greenville, 


B. W. Buck, 


Newbem,N.C. James Craig, 


Jersey City. 


8. R. Forman, 


U. 8. N. 


James Wilkinson, 


Bergen. 


P. M. Senderling, 


U. S. A. 


Geo. W. Talson^^ 


West Hoboken 


T. F. Morris, 


Jersey City. 


— Noble, 


Hudson City. 



TRAlSrSACTIOISrS 



OF THE 



MEDICAL SOCIETY 



OP 



NEW JERSEY. 



1866. 



CENTENNIAL MEETING. 



NEWARK, N. J.: 

PKlHTIt P AT THB DiJLT ADVSRTISEK OFFICB. 
1866. 



0I^:FI0EI?/S, 1866. 

prk8idbnt. 

B. R. BATEMAN CEDARvfLLK. 

VIOB PRK8IDINT8. 

l8T. JOHN C. JOHNSON .Blairstown. 

2d. THOS. J. CORSON Tbenton. 

8d. WTTJJAM PIERSON Orange. 

OORRISPONDINO SICRBTARY. 

C. HODGE, Jr Trentok. 

RRCOROINO 8IGRITARY. 

WILLIAM PIERSON, Jr. Orange. 

TREA8URKR. 

H. R. BALDWIN New Brunswick. 

8TANDINO OOMMITTH. 

STEPHEN WICKES, Chairman Orange. 

CHARLES HASBftOUCK Hackensack. 

P. GAUNTT Burlington. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



tixtnA f flridg 0f ^m §tm^. 



« »w<^/^#<»#/^»*« "- •- 



TEffi One Hundredtli Annual Meeting was held at New 
Brunswick, Jan. 23d, 1866, in the Chapel of Rutgers 
College. 
The President, Dr. A. Coles, in the Chair. 
Dr. Read was appointed on the Committee of Organization, 
which Committee reported by the Recording Secretary, the 
following list of members : 

OFFICERS. 

President — Abraham Coles. 

1st Vice President — ^B. R. Bateman. 

2d Vice President — John C. Johnson. 

3d Vice President — ^T. J. Corson. 

Corresponding Secretary — C. Hodge, Jr. 

Becording Secretary — ^Wm. Pierson. 

Treasurer — J. S. English. 

Standing Chmmittee — ^Drs. Wickes, Hasbrouck and Gauntt. 



4 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

DELEGATES. 

Essex — S. Personett, Wm. Pierson, Jr., D. S. Smith, R M. 
Skinner. Total number of members, 48. 

Middlesex — A. Traganowan, R J. Brumagin, Joseph Martin, 
J. McKnight Smith. No. of members, 

SoTnersei — Martin, F. H. Vanderveer, Berg, Mattison. No. 
of members, 15. 
. SudsoTi'-J. W. Hunt, Theo. F. Morris, Flynn, Payna No. 
of members, 20. 

Sussex— J. B. Stuart, C. V. Moore, H. Hulshizer, C. R. Wel- 
den. No. of members, 19. 

ifcrccr— S. B. Conover, W. W. L. Phillips, D. Warman, D. 
P. Vail. No. of members, 15. 

Burlingion—J. H. Pugh, E. P. Townsend, J. D. Young, T. 
R Price. No. of members, 18. 

Oamdm—A. D. Woodruff, T. F. CuUen, A. Marcy, J. V. 
Schenck. No. of members, 14. 

Hunterdon — Q-. H. Larison, J. T. Cramer, J. F. Schenck, J. 
A. Gray. No. of members, 20. 

Monmouth — A. B. Dayton, Arrowsmith. No. of members, 
17. 

Oamberland—S. G. Cattell, R W. Elmer, T. H. Tomlinson, 
J. Barron Potter. No. of members, 14. 

Warren — ^No. of members, 9. 

Passaic — Robert J. Whitely, C. S. Van Riper. No. of mem- 
bers, 14. 

FELLOWS PRESENT. 

Drs. C. Read, J. H. Phillips, J. B. Coleman, B R Stratton, 
0. H. Taylor, J. Woolverton, W. Elmer, R M. Cooper, A. B. 
Dayton, T. Varick, R. S. Smith, J. W. Craig, J. Blane, S. H. 
Pennington. 

Certificates of Delegates were received from the following 
corresponding Societies: 



MINUTES. 6 

From Connecticut, G. A. Moody, Ashbel Woodward, and 

A. W. Barrows. 

From Pennsylvania, Wm. Maybury, Winthrop Sargent, and 
John Schrack. 

From New York, John Swinburne, and Geo. J. Fisher. 

Prayer was offered by Eev. Dr. Campbell, of Rutgers Col- 
lege. 

On motion, Dr. Wm. Pierson, Jr., was appointed Assistant 
Secretary. 

The roll was called and absentees noticed. 

The minutes of the last meeting were corrected and ac- 
^cepted. 

The report of the Standing Committee was deferred until 
after dinner. 

The following were appointed on Committees, viz : 

On Treasurer's Accounts — 0. H. Taylor, J. Woolverton, and 
W. Elmer. 

On Unfinished Business — J. H. Phillips, J. B. Coleman, and 

B. H. Stratton. 

*0n Ncminaiions — Skinner, Morris, Lawson, Cattell, J. B. 
Coleman, Townsend, Marcy, Martin, Arrowsmith, Hulshizer, 
and Treganowan. 

Dr. Wickes, of the Committee on Invitations to the Centen- 
nial, reported the following gentleman, who were present, viz : 

Drs. E. Wallace, S. W. Butler, W. B. Atkinson, T. Green, 
J. W. Sargent, J. Schrack, of Pennsylvania; Swinburne, 
Fisher, Eliot, Raphael, of New York ; Woodward, Moody, 
Barrow, Hooker, Butler, of Connecticut; Dr. C. C. Cox, 
Lieut. Gov. of Maryland ; Rev. Dr. Campbell, Rev. Dr. Berg, 
Prof. Riley, Prof Cook, of Rutgers College ; Dr. Simpson, U. 
S. Army ; Mr. Vail, Rev. Dr. Terhune, Rev. J. H. English, 
Dr. Gilbert, Judge Naar, Hon. W. B. Kinney, T. T. Kinney, 
of New jersey. 

The report was accepted and the bills of expenses ordered 
to be paid. 



6 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

The Standing Committee's bills of expenses for publication 
were ordered to be paid. 

Beports of Delegates to corresponding societies were made 
and accepted, viz : 

To Massachusetts, by Dr. Cooper. 

To Pennsylvania, by Dr. T. J. Corson. 

To New York, by J, W. Hunt. 

To Connecticut, by 

To American Medical Association, by Dr. E. M. Hunt. 

Owing to some misunderstanding, a difference of opinion 
prevailed among the District Societies relative to the amount 
of assessment for each member, it was 

Besolved^ That the amount to be assessed be $2.60 for each 
regular member. 

On motion, 

Besolvedy That the amount of money ($172) in the hands of 
Dr. Hunt, Treasurer of Committee on Centenary Celebration, 
be paid over to the Treasurer of the Society. 

Dr. Hodge, Corresponding Secretary, made a report, which 
was accepted, and his bill of expenses ($8.10) was ordered to 
be paid. 

Dr. J. B. Coleman, Chairman of Scientific Committee, sub- 
mitted a report on Malaria, for which the thanks of the So- 
ciety were voted, and the report referred to Standing Com- 
mittee for publication. 

On motion of Dr. Varick, 

Itesdved^ That in order to meet the expenses of the current 
year, a subscription be opened by a Committee consisting of 
Drs. Hodge and W. W. L. Phillips. 

Society adjourned for dinner to 2.30 o'clock, P.M. 

2.80 o'clock, P.M. Society convened. 

The Standing Committee by their Chairman, Dr. Wickes, 
submitted their annual report The thanks of the Society 
were voted, and the Committee instructed to publish such 



MINUTES. 7 

portions of the materials in their possession as they may deem 
expedient. 

On motion of Dr. E. M. Hunt, 

Besolved, That whereas there are matters relating to sanita- 
ry, hygienic, and charitable provision for the citizens of the 
State, which in the opinion of the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, merit the attention of our State authorities ; therefore, 

Besolvedj That a Committee of five be appointed to present 
on behalf of this Society, in such form as they deem proper, 
the subject to Executive and Legislative consideration. 

The following were appointed : Drs. Hunt, Blane, Stratton, 
Woolverton, and J. B. Coleman. 

On motion of Dr. Dayton, 

Besolved, That so much of the report of the Standing Com- 
mittee as refers to the obtaining of the record of the medical 
gentiemen of this State, who have served in the Army or 
Navy of the country, be adopted, and a Committee be appoint- 
ed to carry out the object. 

The following were appointed : Drs. W. W. L. Phillips, A. 
B. Dayton and S. Conover. 

On motion of Eecording Secretary, the following resolutions 
were adopted : 

Besolved, That the District Societies be instructed to revise 
their respective by-laws, so as to correspond with the recently 
adopted laws of this Society, and report the same to the 
Standing Committee. 

Besolved, That the next annual meeting of the Society be 
held in Newark, at 7.80 o'clock, P.M., on the fourth Tuesday 
of May, 1867. 

The Treasurer submitted his report, and the Committee on 
Treasurer's Accounts reported the same to be correct, and no 
money in his hands up to the opening of the present meeting. 
Both of which were accepted. 

Bill of Newark Daily Advertiser, for printing, ($51.50) was 
ordered to be paid. 



8 HEDICAL SOCIETY O^ NEW JEttSElT. 

Dr. Stephen Personett was nominated for the honorary de- 
gree of M.D. 

The Recording Secretary and Treasurer tendered their 
declination for re-nomination. 

The Nominating Committee reported a list of nominations 
for the ensuing year, and the following resolution, which was 
adopted : 

Resolved^ That in the retirement of Drs. Wm. Pierson and 
J. T. English, from the offices respectively of Recording Sec- 
retary and Treasurer, the sincere and hearty thanks of the 
Society are due to them, for their long untiring devotion to, 
and faithful discharge of their duties ; and that the Society 
manifest their further respect for the gentlemen named, by 
rising during the passage of this resolution. 

The following were elected officers, Drs. Hodge and Schenck 
acting as tellers : 

President — B. R. Bateman. 

1st Vice President — John C. Johnson. 

2d Vice President — T. J. Corson. 

3c? Vice President — Wm. Pierson. 

Corresponding Secretary — C. Hodge, Jr. 

Becording Secretary — Wm. Pierson, Jr. 

Treasurer — H. R. Baldwin. 

Standing CbmrnA/ec— Stephen Wickes, Chas. Hasbrouck, F. 
Qauntt. 

The following were appointed Delegates : 

To the American Medical Association — Drs, Lilly, S. S. Clark, 
Dayton, Chabert, J. P. Coleman, Stratton, Bateman, A. Ward, 
Varick, Vought, Goodell, J. Miller, CuUen, Hasbrouck, By- 
ington, and Woolverton. 

To the Sanitary Commission— Dis. W. Elmer, A. Coles, and 
C. Hodge, Jr. 

To the Medical Society of Qmnectiout—Drs. R. M. Cooper, H. 
Pugh, and J. D. Young. 



MINUTES. 9 

To the Medical Society of New T&rhS. W. Hunt, B. M. 
Hunt, and J. McKnight Smith. 

To the Medical Society of Ohio — S. M. Disbrow, H. H. Long- 
street, and W. W. L. Phillips. 

To the Medical Society of Massachusetts — C. B. Moore, P. F. 
Hulshizer, and J. Blane. 

To the Medical Society of Pennsylvania — T, R Variok, H. 
Treganowan, and H. B. Nightingale. 

J. V. Schenck was appointed Essayist. 

The Society adjourned to 11 o'clock, A.M., to morrow, for 
the appointed Centennial exercises. 

In the evening a number of members being present at Wil- 
liams' Hotel, an improvised meeting was held. The President 
was called to the Chair, when, in consequence of want of time, 
it was proposed that the Delegates from corresponding So- 
cieties be heard. Drs. Woodward, Moody and Barrows, of 
Connecticut, Dr. Sargent, of Pennsylvania, and Dr. Fisher, 
of New York, responded. The latter gentleman gave an 
interesting account of a treatise he was preparing for publi- 
cation, relative to the laws governing monstrosities in all 
animals. 

January 24, 11 o'clock, A.M. The Society convened for 
the Centennial exercises. 

On motion of Dr. Hunt, 

Besolved, That all invited guests and the faculty of Rutgers 
College be invited to sit as Corresponding members. 

On motion of Dr. Townsend, 

Besolved, That the assessment on each member of District 
Societies be one dollar instead of fifty cents. 

Dr. J. S. English was nominated as an Honorary member. 

The President reported the following licenses granted by 
him: 



10 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

Wm. Elmer, Jr,, of Bridgeton, N. J. 
Levi Farrow, of Perryville, N. J. 
David Warman, of Trenton, N. J. 
Samuel B. Oonover, of Trenton, N. J. 
Anthony Zehnder, Essex District certificate. 
James M. Eidge, Camden, N. J. 

Prayer by Rev. Dr. Berg, of Theological Seminary of New 
Brunswick. 

Address by the President, Dr. Coles, on " The Microcosm." 

Historical Narrative of the Society by Dr. W. Pierson. 

Thanks of Society voted to them, and copies requested for 
publication. 

The Society marched in procession to Greer's Hall for din- 
ner in the following order : Invited Guests, Corresponding 
Members, the Retiring Officers, newly elected Officers, and 
Members of Society. 

At the Dinner a blessing was asked by Rev. Dr. Campbell. 

During the sitting at the table Dr. E. M. Hunt submitted 
the following : 

As the Chairman of the Joint Committee of Invitation and 
Arrangements, it is made my duty, Mr. President, to express 
on behalf of the fellows and members of the State Medical 
Society of New Jersey, welcoming congratulations to those 
invited guests who to day honor us and our profession by 
their presence. 

This is no ordinary occasion. A hundred years is in itself 
a venerable thing. It is ever decorous to make obeisance to 
age. But when you come to attach such a succession of past 
epochs of time to a scientific and professional association, re- 
spectful consideration is more becoming than ever before. A 
Society which thus begins and lives and lasts, has the attrac- 
tions of age without its decrepitude. For a whole century 
have the Physicians of this State thus met to maintain the 
true ethics of the profession, and to promote the progress of 



I 



• MINUTES. 11 

their science in order to secure the success of their art Many 
of these have passed away, and now in respect to their mem- 
ories we joyfully greet the members of kindred Societies, 
whose delegates have often added to our interest, and whose 
genial correspondence has aided to sustain our efforts. We re- 
joice in the presence of members of other professions, to whom 
we are bound by the strong ties of cultivated sympathy. We 
welcome from our colleges many to whom it has been our 
honor once to look as faithful preceptors, and ever since as 
cherished aids and firiends. 

To one and all, Physician and Statesman, Professor and 
Divine, Jurist and Editor, we extend the greetings of an ap- 
preciative welcome. If we treat you with free doses to-day, 
you must pardon us, for we hope you will find our prescrip- 
tions palatable. We intend to satisfy you all that the unso- 
phisticated Greek was in error when he ran away from the 
Doctor, and that it is not dangerous to be surrounded by a 
multitude in consultation. The only fee required to-day will 
be in response to a few suggestive toasts. 

Letters were read by Dr. Wickes from invited guests — ^Dr. 
A. N. Davis of Chicago, D. P. Bissell of New York, Wm. A. 
Whitehead of Newark, and Augustus A. Gould of Mass. 

The following Sentiments and Toasts were offered, and re- 
sponses given as follows : 

1. The American Medical Association. 

Dr. Atkinson, of Philadelphia, Corresponding Secretary of 
the American Medical Association, being called upon, ex- 
pressed his interest in all that relates to medical improvement, 
and in a few earnest remarks worthily represented the Asso- 
ciation. 

2. Our Sister Societies in correspondence with us : Kindred 
tastes, kindred pursuits, and kindred sympathies are the natu- 
ral bonds of our felt unity. 

Dr. Woodward, of Connecticut, was called upon to respond. 



12 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

but as the Connectieut delegation had been heard the day 
before, as also Drs. Swinburne of New York, and Dr. Fisher 
of Sing Sing, the next sentiment was read, and Dr. Worthing- 
ton Hooker, also of Connecticut, called upon to respond. 

8. The Medical OoUeges of our Country : The repositories 
of sound medical literature, and the dispensaries of successful 
medical practice. Our profession may well be proud of such 
"Ahna Maters." 

Dr. Hooker responded with earnest eloquence, and fitly set 
forth the advantages of such thorough training. 

4« The Medical Corps of the Army and Navy : They are 
an honor to our profession no less than to our country, and in 
recent events have illustrated earnest patriotism and profes- 
sional faithfulness in effective union exercise. 

Dr. Josiah Simpson, a native of New Jersey, but long in 
the United States Medical service, and during the whole war 
the efficient Medical Director of the Middle Department, being 
called upon, in a few felicitous remarks acknowledged the 
honor, and called upon his friend. Lieutenant Governor C. C. 
Cox, of Maryland, and formerly Surgeon of Yolunteers, to 
speak in behalf of the Medical Army service, both of regulars 
and volunteers. 

Dr. Cox replied in a characteristic speech, in which he glow- 
ingly described the self-sacrificing devotion of the profession 
to their country's need, and in terms alike honorable to his 
patriotism, his profession and his State, paid graceful tribute 
to the memories of the past, while he referred to the present 
occasion as one of the most interesting of his life, and to the 
poem of the President, and the other Centenary exercises, as 
living memorials to the honor of the New Jersey Doctors. He 
also very appropriately spoke in behalf of the Navy, since, 
through his active exertion and co-operation, a bill was passed 
in Congress, giving to the Navy Surgeons a more appreciative 



MINUTES. 13 

rank. His encomiums upon the services rendered by Colonel 
Simpson, as Medical Director at Baltimore, was a well deserved 
tribute to the officer, a native of New Brunswick, and a great 
nephew of one of the founders of the Society. On taking his 
seat three hearty cheers were given for Dr. Simpson, Dr. Cox, 
and for all those from New Jersey who had been recently in 
the country's service. We noticed a large number of such 
present. 

5. The Learned Professions : " Facies non omnibus una nee 
diversa tamen qualem decet esse sororum." 

Eev. Dr. Campbell, President of Eutgers College, being call- 
ed upon to respopd, made a short but felicitous speech, in 
which he showed his high appreciation of all the professions, 
and next to his own the Medical. 

6. The Colleges of our Country : They ajssist to lay the 
foundations on which the professions build. 

Dr. Traill Green, Professor in Lafayette College, responded 
in earnest defence of thorough elementary and collegiate 
training, as the true foundation for successful practice in any 
profession. 

7. The Memory of the Founders and Deceased Fellows of 
this Society : We will embalm them by sustaining the Society 
they loved, and by preserving the record of their deeds. 

Dr. Craig of Plainfield, the oldest Fellow present, was called 
upon and responded with great feeling and effect. 

Hon. Wm. B. Kinney, of Newark, a grandson of Dr. Wm. 
Burnet, one of the founders of the Society, followed in strains 
of fervid eloquence, and when he had finished the entire aud- 
dience arose in expression of their regard for the memory of 
Dr. Burnet and the other founders of the Society. 

8. The Professional and Newspaper Press : The one aids 
us by the dissemination of medical knowledge, and the other, 
although it advertises nostrums and quacks generally, takes 
the regular physic kindly. 



14 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

In response to the first part, Dr. Buder, of Philadelphia, 
Editor of the " Reporter," and although young in years the 
Nestor of the Medical press, replied in fitting tenns. 

Judge Naar, of Trenton, spoke in behalf of the Press gen- 
erally, and gave as an apology for such advertisements, that 
he believed Doctors were for making people live, and if ever 
he thus advertised it was for a living. 

At the close of the sitting, thanks were voted to the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements, and officers of Eutgers College for the 
use of their hall. 

The following were appointed a Committee of Arrangements 
for the next annual meeting: Drs. I. A. Nichols, WoodhuU, 
and Cross. 
Society adjourned. 

WM. PIERSON, 

Becording Secretary. 



PRESIDENTS ADDRESS. 



fT^HE Medical Society of New Jersey, hoary with the 
JL frosts of a hundred winters, and mindful of its just 
honors as the oldest organization of the kind on the Continent, 
has here met in a place not &r from the spot where it was 
first cradled, to celebrate by special and festal observances, 
this its first Centenary Anniversary. 

It certainly affords remarkable proof of original vigor, and 
reflects infinite credit upon its earlier and later membership, 
that, except for a brief space during the Eevolutionary War, 
the Society has never &iled to hold regular meetings. In the 
midst of a thousand changes, the throes of revolution, and 
the fall of empires, it has stood unmoved. Nations have been 
bom since it came into being. It is older than the Bepublic. 
At the time of its formation, its founders were living under 
British rule, not dreaming of revolt. If they shared in the 
popular ferment caused by the passage of the odious Stamp 
Act by Parliament a few months before, they probably had no 
expectation of seeing matters pushed to the point of open 
rupture, and forcible separation fix)m the mother country. 

The first stone of the Temple erected to Freedom had not 

yet been laid. The Society was some years old when the first 

blow for Independence was struck. Lexington and Concord, 

'* Where once the embatUed fiurmen stood, 
And fired the shot heard rennd the world." 

were insignificant villages unknown to fame* The brain that 
conceived the Declaration of Independence was probably re- 



16 MEDICAL SOClEmr OF NEW JERSEY. 

volving far other ideas. On the dazzled mind of no seer or 
statesman had dawned the unparalled splendors of the Nation 
that was to be — the constellar glories of that imperial Com- 
monwealth, composed of a resplendent sisterhood of States, 
mighty and populous and ever increasing, joined indissplubly 
together so as to form one vital organic whole, E pluribus 
unum, such as is witnessed to-day. 

Those fourteen physicians and surgeons, (let their names be 
always mentioned with honor,) who, foremost in an enlighten- 
ed appreciation of the advantages accruing to science and 
humanity from such an organization, on the 28d of July, A.D. 
1766, laid the foundations of this Society — ^have long since 
passed away. " After they had served their own generation 
by the will of God they fell on sleep, and were laid unto their 
fathera" How inspiring the vision, could they have been 
permitted to penetrate the future and foresee all that has since 
happened ; the mighty changes which have taken place ; the 
struggles and triumphs by means of which this divinely fa- 
vored and foreordained Nation has been gloriously carried 
forward to the culminating felicity of the present time, when 
Peace once more smiles through all the land — a glad and 
righteous Peace — and Slavery, its deadliest foe, the inextin- 
guishable cause of strife and hatred, ever at work to mar 

»< The unity and married calm of States," 
has, albeit at an immense cost of treasures and blood, by a 
perpetual and unalterable constitutional enactment, been ban- 
ished and driven out of every part of the national domain. 
How amazing the contrast between now and then I Then there 
were no railroads, no steamships, no telegraphs, no Hoe's 
lightning printing presses, no photography, no chloroform. 
In like manner who can tell what new and startling discove- 
ries will be made in the centuries to come. Methinks 

** it were a pleaiant thing 
To fkU asleep with all ohe's fHenda, 
To pass With aU onr social tiesi 



pbesidbnt's addbess. 17 

To Bileikce ttom the paibs of men, 
And eyery bnndred yean to rise 

And learn the world, and sleep again, 
To sleep throogli terms of mighty wars. 

And wake on science grown to more, 
On secrets of the brain, the start. 

As wild as angbt of fldiy lore, 
And all thai else the years will show, 

The Poet-forms of stronger bonrs. 
The Tsst Bepnblics that may grow, 

The Federations and tiie Powers. * 



80 sleeping, so aroused brom sleep. 
Through snnny decades new and strange. 

Or gay qninquenniads, wonld we reap 
The flower and qnintessence of change.** 
«< The unity and married calm of Statea,*' 

Members of the Society ! called to addiress you in the char- 
acter of President on an occasion so extraordinary, I can say 
with all sincerity, that however grateful it may be to my feel- 
ings to be the recipient of so distinguished an honor, the 
gratification is' largely tempered with the fear that I may not 
be jible to justify the partiality of your selection. My mis- 
givings, I confess, are greater, because of my having ventured 
upon untrodden paths, and attempted the novelty of a poetical 
excursion into the arduous fields of human physiology, where 
few flowers are supposed to bloom. The poetical form, how- 
ever, may fiurly claim this advantage in justification of its 
adoption, that it allows a more fervid expression of those 
feelings of devout awe and amazement which the study of the 
wonders of the human economy is so well fitted to excite. 

I offer no apology for mixing up my Eeligion with my 
Science ; and make no concealment of the fact, but glory in 
avowing it, that these are Christian, both one and the other. 
Nor do I regard it as a just matter of reproach that I make 
my creed so dominant and positive. Believing firmly that the 
Christ that redeemed me is the God that made me ; not know 
ing nor desiring to know any other Qod but Him, I am ac- 
customed to make Him an essential part of all knowledge, 
discover Him in every discovery of Science, and count all 
8 



18 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

truth dead until He vitalizes it. Any Science of Life, which 
is not based on the recognition of the fact that '' in Him we 
live and move and have our being," I reckon essentially 
defective. 

A Physiology which has to do witb decomposing coq^ses, 
rather than living men and women ; that puts these into re 
torts and distils them ; or peeps and peers at the minutest 
shreds and specks of dead tissue through a microscope, and 
determines a cell to be the ultimate fact of structure, however 
tru6, has no right, I conceive, to be supercilious towards those, 
who, without rejecting what is thus discovered, find room for 
other things, things that pertain to the spiritual side of hu- 
manity, the indubitable facts of consciousness, a soul that soars 
and delights in freedom, and is not so in love with smallness, 
as willingly to be cooped up forever into so minute and mi- 
croscopic a circle, corresponding to a cypher, the symbol of 
nothingness, to which indeed it closely approximates. So 
that if it comes to pishing and poohing, others for aught we 
can see have as good a right to pish and pooh as those who 
arrogate so much, the Sadducees of science, who believe in 
neither angel nor spirit, and are able to find nowhere any- 
thing worthy of worship, in this respect showing themselves 
to be more heathenish than the heathen. 

The great Galen, albeit an unbaptized pagan, who lived 
about 181 years before the Christian era, after reviewing the 
structure of the hand and foot, and their adaptation to their 
respective functions, treats us to the following eloquent out- 
burst of pious feeling, breathing a spirit not unworthy of 
Christianity itself: "I esteem myself as composing a solemn 
hymn to the Author of our bodily frame, and in this I think 
there is more true piety than in sacrificing to Him hecatombs 
of oxen, or burnt offerings of the most costly perfumes, for I 
first endeavor to know Him myself, and afterwards to show 
Him to others, to inform them how great is His wisdom, His 
virtue. His goodness." 



president's ADDERSa 19 

This noble utterance, so honorable to the head and heart of 
one, who, for 1400 years, ruled from his urn in the great 
schools of medicine throughout the civilized world with an 
authority so absolute, that it was reckoned a crime to question 
it in the smallest particular — sets forth so truly the design I 
had in view in the following Poem, that I have chosen it as a 
motto, in connection with that other apothegm of Greek wis- 
dom, " Know Thyself." I style my Poem, " The Microcosm," 
and in order that I may be more easily followed in the read- 
ing of it, I beg to premise an outline of its plan in the following 

ANALYSIS. 

The Poem begins with speaking of Man as the Archetype or ideal 
exemplar of all animals, whose coming was foretold in a long series of 
Geologic prophecies from the creation of the paleozoic fishes ; and then 
passes to notice a remarkable anticipation of this accepted doctrine of 
modem science in the 139th Psalm — Owen, Agassiz and other great 
lights of Comparatiye and Philosophical Anatomy agreeing in this — 
that while man was the last made he was the first planned of all ani- 
mals — it being easy to trace even in the fins of the fish, a marked re- 
semblance in structure to the bones composing the human arms of 
which they are homologues — ^fins, in other words, being imperfect 
arms, arms in their most rudimentary condition. 

After animadyerting upon the atheistic tendency of certain ma- 
terialistic teachings, the component parts of the Human Body are 
taken up in detail, beginning with — ^I. the Sxm, as its outermost 
coyering and face, (expressing the passions, &c.,) composed of three 
layers. Below the Skin lie — ^n. the Muscles, the Organs of Motion, 
directed by the Will, acting through neryous channels of communi- 
cation with — ^m. the Brain, as the Common Sensory, and seat of 
this, and the other Faculties of the Mind, such as the Understanding, 
the Religious Sense, Memory, Imagination and Uonscience. A secre- 
tory function is attributed to the great Ganglions of the Brain (the 
Gray Substance) of a hypothetical Neryous Fluid which fills the 
whole body. 

The Mind being dependent for its perceiying power on the Organs 
of the Senses, leads to a consideration of— IV. the Eye in its relation 
to light, also to Tears and Sleep. After glancing at the analagous 
relations subsisting between the Soul and Truth, mention is made 



1 



20 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

of the Founders of Asylums for the Blind ; also of Asylums for the 
Deaf and Dumb. Next comes— Y. the Eab in its relations to Sound 
and Music ; and then by a natural transition-- YI. the Human Vcice, 
as being the most perfect of musical instruments. The Mouth and 
Nose, being concerned in Articulation, bring up— Vn. Taste, and — 
VUL Smell. The final cause of Taste being the repair of the Waste 
the body is constantly, undergoing, there follows a description of— IX. 
Ingestion, Digestion and Assimilation. The Chyle received into 
the Blood is conveyed to the right side of the Heart, which, besides 
being the grand Organ of— X. the Circulation and indirectly of Nu- 
trition, is the reputed seat of— XL the Affections, and stand in 
general speech as a synonym of Love under its manifold manifestations. 
Having noticed the coloring or modifying power of the Viscera in 
giving Love its distinctive character, as exemplified in Maternal Love 
and the Love of the Sexes, occasion is taken to speak of— XH. Woman, 
as distinguished from Man. Of Charity, which is Love in action, or 
Love viewed in its practical aspect, an apt illustration is found in the 
devotion and self-denying labors of— XIH. the Conscientious Physician. 
Heference is made to— XIV. Christ as the Great Physician of Souls ; 
and while contemplating Death in that aspect of brightness which it 
bears to the believer, allusion is made to the recent departure of a 
venerable member of the Society, Dr. L. A. Smith. The Poem con- 
cludes with — XV. a triumphant anticipation of the Resurrection, 
when the dead in Christ shall rise with new roddes made like unto 
His glorious Body. 



THE MICROCOSM. 



VvoBi oeavToif, 



eJMLOOIG PBOPHBOT OF JIAH*8 OOMIVQ. 

OWHAT a solemn and divine delight 
To pierce the darkness of primeval night — 
Through countless generations upward climb 
To the first epochs of beginning time : 
Back, through the solitude of ages gone, 
To the dim twilight of Creation^s dawn ; 
To the dread genesis of heaven and earth, 
When pregnant Deity gave Nature birth ; 
Borne on swift pinions, till our feet we place 
Upon the undermost granitic base 
Of the round world ; and, awe-struck, standing there, 
Where all is lifeless, desolate and bare, 
Behold the forming of earth^s upper crust, 
Built up of atoms of once living dust ; 
Layer on layer rising, rock on rock. 
Through lapse of years that numeration mock ; 
Where lie, in stony sepulchres forgot. 
Gigantic organisms that now are not ; 
And all the various forms of life prevail. 
From low to high, in an ascending scale, 
MoUusk and fish, then reptile and then bird. 
So on to mammal, each o'er each interred — 

Sntered aocoidiiig to Act of Congrees, ia the year 1866, by Abbabax Colbs, M.D., in the 
Cierk's Offloe of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey. 



22 HEDICi^L SOCIETY OF KEW JERSEY. 

All pointmg forward, in the eternal plan, 
To the ideal, archetypal MAN ! 



How oft, whaf s plain and patent in the Word, 
Is by slow Science, painAilly inferred 1 
The truth she took long oeaturies to unfold, 
Had she but known it, was already told. 
See, with what ease the Psalmist now unlocks 
The secret of the paleozoic rocks : 
Inspiring insight given him, to see 
The drift and meaning of the mystery ; 
His, the discoveries of modem boast. 
By revelation of the Holy Ghost : 
In correspondence, literally exact 
With geologic inference and fact. 
Overwhelmed with fear and wonder, hear him speak I* 

" O Omnipresent One ! in vain I seek 
To bound Thy being, get beyond Thee, go 
Where Thou, the In^iite, art not, Oh, no ! 
If I ascend to heaven, I find Thee ; or in hell 
I make my bed, I find Thee there, as well : 
There is no hiding place from Thee ; yea, in the dark 
Thou seest me, nor need^st the sun — that spark 
Which the insufferable splendor of Thine eye 
Did kindle — ^to reveal me or descry : 
Thou hast possessed my reins ; didst give me room, 
Growth and development in my mother^s womb : 
Hy substance was not hid from Thee, when I 
Was made in secret, and was curiously 
In the eartVs lowest parts and strata wrought : 
My perfect whole, was present to Thy thought 
While yet imperfect ; and, in Nature's book, 
My membcn were ppe^ured; each th^g took 
* Pialm czzzuL 



prebidsnt's address. 2S 

My embryonic likeness ; fish's fin, 

By yirtue of reUtionsMp and kin, 

Predicted me ; ages bef<x« I came^ 

The Ichthyoeaorus prophesied the same ; 

Entrails of beast, and wing oi bird, supplied 

Anif^^icy and angury, nor lied. 

Thy works, how marvellous I Thy hands began, 

And fashioned me continually, to make me man : 

In all the grand ascent of Nature's stair, 

O unforgetting Qod ! Ftc been ITiy care : 

How precious are Thy thoughts to me — their count 

Is as the sand, an infinite amount !" 



O thou, made up of every creature's best ! 
The summing up and monarch of the rest ! 
Thy high-raised cranium, vaulted to contain 
The big and billowy and powerful brain ; 
While that a scanty thimbleful, no more. 
Belongs to such as swim or creep or soar ; 
Thy form columnar, sky-ward looking face,* 
Majestic mien, intelligence and grace ; 
Thy foot's firm tread, and gesture of thy hand- 
Proclaim thee ruler, destined to command. 
A little loyret than the aageU made, 
Dominion, glory, worship on thee Udd^ 
I praise not thee^ but honor and applaud 
The handiwork and masterpkoe of Qod : 
Fearful and wonderful, and all divinely 
Where two worlds mingle, and two Uvea eon^^afi, 
A dual body, and a dual soul. 
Touching etoni^ at either pole: 

* " ProDAqiie com tpectant anlmiilia catora tomua, 
Ofl homlni subUme dedit : coelnmqne Tldere 
Jnetlt, oi OTKtaB ad lidna toOue inittM.'^--.0MA 



24 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

The tides of being, circling swift or slow, 
'Tween mystic banks that ever overflow. 
Exist not severed from the Fountain head, 
But whence they rise, eternally are fed : 
Our springs are all in God ; from Him we diink, 
Live, move, and have our being, feel and think. 

animui woibkcm. 
I value Science — none can pcize it more — 
It gives ten thousand motives to adore : 
Be it religious, as it ought to be, 
The heart it humbles, and it bows the knee : 
What time it lays the breast of Nature bare, 
Discerns God's fingers working everywhere ; 
In the vast sweep of all embracing laws. 
Finds Him the real and the only Cause ; 
And, in the light of clearest evidence. 
Perceives Him acting in the present tense ; — 
Not as some claim, once acting but now not. 
The glorious product of His hands forgot — 
Having wound up the grand automaton, 
Leaving it, henceforth, to itself to run. 



If I mistake not, 'tis in this consists 
The common folly of the specialists. 
Bigots of sense, they, with unwearied pains, 
Searching for soul, find something they call brains : 
Happy the mystery of life to tell. 
By help of glasses, they announce a cell : 
And thereupon they would the world persuade 
They know exactly how that man is made : 
'Tween nought and nought, his origin and end, 
A cell is all, and all on this depend : 
They pare his being, make it less and less, . 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 26 

Until they reach the goal of nothingness. 
Their boasted methods failing to find out 
The souFs high essence, they affect to doubt : 
To their own notions obstinately wed, 
They vainly seek the living ^mong the dead. 
By learning mad, these noodles of the schools 
Are but a kind of higher class of fools. 

Who follows matter through its countless shapes. 
While still it vanishes and still escapes ; 
O'er eagerly pursues the flying feet 
Of natural causes farther than is meet, 
Losing all trace, and drawing thence too near, 
Into the bottomless obscure falls sheer : 
With atheistic cant, then God ignores, 
And turns the Maker fairly out of doors : 
Deems certainties of consciousness weigh less 
Than the presumptions of a learned guess. 



Presumptuous though it be, I, with a calm 
Audacity of faith, believe I am : 
Nor venture with a Maker to dispense, 
But trust the sanities of common sense : 
Hold life, despite of failure to extract, 
A thing of firm reality and fact : 
Accept the truth, engraven on my heart, 
I have a spiritual and inunortal part. 
If this great universe is a deceit, 
I am not able to detect the cheat ; 
Nor dare I tell the Author of the skies 
That He has built on rottenness and lies. 

nrrooATioir. 
Dear Qod ! this Body, which, with wondrous art, 
Thou hast contrived, and finished part by part, 
3 



26 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

Itself a uniTerae, a leaser all, 

The greater cosmos crowded in the small — 

I kneel Ijefore it, as a thing divine ; 

For such as this, did actually enshrine 

Tliy gracious Godhead once, when Thou didst make 

Thyself incarnate, for my sinful sake. 

Thou who hast done so very much for me, 

let me do some humble thing for Thee I 

1 would to every Organ give a tongue. 
That Thy high praises may be fitly sung ; 
Appropriate ministries assign to each. 
The least make vocal, eloquent to teach. 

FLMH OAXMSST-HmV, TTB MOSAL GHAXAOm. 

How beautiful, and delicate, and fresh. 
Appear th^ SouVs Habiliments of Flesh ! 
How closely fitting, easy yet, and broad. 
Each Tissue woven in the loom of God ! 
Compared with that magnificence of drees, 
Wherewith is clothed the Spirit's nakedness, 
O how contemptible and mean a thing, 
The purple and fine linen of a king I 

The spotless vesture of the silky Skin, 
Outside of all, and covering all within, 
With what a marvellous and matchless grace, 
Is it disposed and moulded to each place ; 
Bounding and beautifying brow and breast, 
A crowning loveliness to all the rest ! 
Endowed with wondrous properties of soul 
That inteipenetrate and fill the whole ; 
A raiment, moral, maidenly and white, 
Shamed at each breach of decency and right, 
Wliere dwells a charm above the charms of sense, 
Suggestive of the soul's lost innocence. 



president's ADDRESS. 27. 



Who has not seen that Feeling, bom of flame, 
Crimson the cheek at mention of a name ? 
The rapturous touch of some divine surprise, 
Flash deep suffusion of celestial dyes ; 
When hands clasped hands, and lips to lips were pressed, 
And the hearths secret was at once confessed ? 

Lo, that young mother, when her infant first 
Gropes for the fountain whence to quench its thirst ; 
With outstretched tiny hands, to eager lips 
Conveys the nipple, and the nectar sips ; — 
As on her yearning breast, she feels the waim 
Delicious clasp of its embracing arm, 
How thrills the bosom, and how streams the wine I 
How her frame trembles with a joy divine ! 

Not Joy, not Love alone here take their rise, 
The chosen seat of mighty sympathies — 
Electric with all life, Religious Awe, 
Here holds its empire and asserts its law. 

At dead of night when deep sleep falls on men, 
Terror and trembling came upon me ; — then 
A spirit passed before my face : the hair 
Stood up upon my shuddering flesh — and there 
Was silence — all my bones did shake — 
A voice the preternatural stillness brake : 
** Shall mortal man, whose origin is dust. 
Arraign his Maker, claim to be more just V 

Contending Passions jostle and displace 
And tilt and tourney mostly in the Face ; 
Phantasmagoric shapes appear and pass, 
Distinctly pictured in that magic glass ; 
Their several natures, instantly imbued 
With the complexion of the changeful mood — 
Ashes of Grief, and pallor of Afiiight, 



28 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Blackness of Rage, and Hatred's wicked white, 

The immortal radiance of Faith and Hope, 

Like that which streamed on Stephen from the cope — 

The hidden depths of being, stirred below, 

Thoughts, passions, feelings, upward mount for show ; 

Unmatched by Art, upon this wondrous scroll 

Portrayed are all the secrets of the Soul ; 

On this palimpsest, written o'er and o'er, 

Each passing hour is busy penning more ; 

Events, that make the history within, 

There published on the surface of the Skin. 

DITSBIOX TUW-flEZK DISSSOTKD. 

What lies below this beautiful outside ? 
What proo& of power and wisdom does it hide ? 
To eyes instructed and divinely keen. 
The Shekinah, the Cherubim between, 
Was not more visible than the Godhead here, 
Nor spake more audibly to human ear. 
For from the centre to this far extreme 
And corporal shore of being, love supreme 
Its miracles magnificent has wrought, 
Embodying the Maker's perfect thought. 

Would you explore the mysteries of life ? 
Dissect in fear, use reverently the knife — 
All was made sacred to some holy use, 
Whate'er the profanations of abuse — 
Cut not with blundering and careless hand, 
If you the fleshly maze would understand ; 
For that the task is diflicult, it needs 
The skill and knowledge which experience breeds. 

BLDTDIHO or OOVTBABIM-BTBUOTirRAL DBTAILB. 

Now that the Dermal Covering is cut through, 
And its interior structure brought to view, 



. . pbbsidbnt's address. . 29 

Pause, if you will, and let your aided sight 

Perase the wonders of Creatiye Might. 

Admire the skill that can in one combine 

A sensibility and a touch so fine — 

Making the Skin throughout the purpose serve 

Of one ubiquitous great surface nerve, 

That finest needle, would it entrance gain, 

Must pierce the sense and stab the soul with pain ; 

Where camping armies of papilla wait, 

Manning each fortress, guarding every gate. 

Armed at all points, and vigilant as fear, 

To sound th^ alarm when danger hovers near— 

And yet, despite this nicety of sense. 

Formed for coarse uses, and for rough defense : — 

An imbricated Armor, scale on scale,* 

Twelve thousand millions form a coat of mail, 

Flexile and fine, or homy else and hard, 

The trembling nakedness of sense to guard : 

A colored Rete delicately spun. 

Quenching the fiery arrows of the sun, 

Spreads soft above, and undulating dips 

Between the sentient papillary tips, 



* The Skin mi here described includes : 1. the Cut\dA with its Innumemble microscopic 
tiles specially designed for defence; 2. \Xi^Rete Muootwn^ the seat of color ; 8. the Cori- 
urn or True Skin, consisting of two non-separable layers— the upper, papillary and sensi- 
tive, the lower firm and fibrous ; 4. Ftnp^raUiTy tubet, convoluted beneath the true 
skin, their spiral ducts opening obliquely under the scales of the Cuticle, their office 
being to purity and cool the body ; 5. Sebaceotu FoUidety or OU Glands^ seated in the 
substance of the skin, serving to soften and lubricate the surfkce, Aimishing likewise, 
perhaps, 6, that Dittinetiw Odor peculiar to each individual whereby he sows himself on 
all the winds, and perfhmes with every footstep the ground over which he passes ; 7. 
the Sdir, implanted by a bulbous root In the fibrous layer of the Corion, which being 
contractile shrinks under the Influence of great fear or horror, and as the poet says : 
'' Makes each particular hair to stand on end 
Like quills upon the fretful porcupine/' 

<^nill8 in the porcupine, feathers in the bird, wool and hair in the quadruped all be- 
longing to the same category. Hair in man, not being needed for warmth or covering 
as in the lower lives, is gathered to the head and appropriately crovms it. 



30 MEDICAL SOCIBTY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

Part of the duplex Coriam, beneath 

Forming a continent elastic sheath, 

Felted and firm and soitable to bind, 

Muscle and viscus to the place assigned : 

Where nine full leagues of Tubing buried lie. 

All convoluted opening to the sky, 

Transmitting formed impurities within. 

Through doors and windows of the porous skin ; 

Th' exuding moisture tempering inward flame, 

Cooling the fever of the heated frame : 

Foimtlets and Rivulets of Oil below. 

Preserving softness, ever spring and flow ; 

Musk emanations, to the dog defined, 

Snufling his master on the scented wind ; 

Hair, not for warmth or dress, here sparsely spread, 

Reserved to ornament the regal head. 

Thick round the brow of beauty taught to curl 

And crown the Adam monarch of the world. 

TOLUXTABT MUaOI— TH»I» OFTIOB AVD WQIC. 

Lifting this threefold Veil, we find — beneath 
A dense, enclosing, universal sheath — 
The subject Muscles,* girded to fulfil 
The lightning mandates of the sovereign Will, 
Th^ abounding means of motion, wherein lurk 
Man^s infinite capacity for work : 
By which, as taste or restless nature bids. 
He rears the Parthenon or Pyramids ; 
In high achievements of the plastic art, 



* Some autbors reckon the number of Masdes In the Haman Body as high aa ■ 5S7. 
They have been divided into Volunt<try (forming the red flesh, or the main bnlk of the 
body ;) Involuntary, ench as the heart, fleshy fibres of the stomach, &c. ; and Mixed, snch 
as the muscles of respiration, Ac. Each Muscle is made up of an indefinite number of 
fibres, which may be considered as so many muscles in miniature, along which straam 
the current of the Will. Tet with all this complex apparatus every thing is in harmony. 



president's address. 31 

Fulfils th^ ambitious purpose of Ms heart ; 
Creates a grace outrivaling his own, 
Charming all eyes — ^the poetry of stone : 
Symbols his faith, as in Cathedrals — vast 
Religious petrifactions of the Past : 
Covers the land with cities ; makes all seas 
White with the sails of countless argosies : 
Pushes the ocean back with all her waves, 
And from her haughty sway a kingdom saves ; 
Tunnels high mountains, Erebus unbars, 
And through it rolls the thunder of his cars : 
With stalwart arm, defends down-trodden right, 
And, like a whirlwind, sweeps the field of fight ; 
And when, at last, the war is made to cease, 
On firm foundations, stablishes a peace ; 
Then barren wastes with nodding harvests sows, 
And makes the desert blossom as the rose. 

XUSCTULAX DTSJJUOS— SOBOTDrO pown WHXSa? 

Bundles of fleshy fil»-es without end, 
Along the bony Skeleton extend 
In thousand fold directions from fixed points 
To act their several parts upon the Joints ; 
Adjustments nice of means to ends we trace, 
With each dynamic filament in place. 
But Where's the Hand that grasps the million reins. 
Directs and guides them, quickens or restrains ? 
See the musician, at his fingers' call. 
All sweet sounds scatter, fast as rain-drops fall ; 
With flying touch, he weaves the web of song. 
Rhythmic as rapid, intricate as long. 
Whence this precision, delicacy and ease ? 
And Where's the Master that defines the keys ? 

The many jointed Spine, with link and lock 



82 MEDICAL SOCIETr OP NEW JERSEY. 

To make it flexile while secure from shock, 
Is pierced throughout, in order to contain 
The downward prololigation of the brain ; 
From which, by double roots, the nerves* arise — 
One Feeling gives, one Motive Power supplies ; 
In opposite directions, side by side, 
With mighty swiftness there two currents glide ; — 
Winged, head and heel, the Mercuries of Bensef 
Mount to the regions of Intelligence ; 
Instant as light, the nuncios of the throne 
Command the Muscles that command the Bone. 

Each morning after slumber, brave and fresh, 
The Moving Army of the Crimson Flesh, 
From fields of former conquests, marching comes 
To the grand beating of unnumbered drums— J 
Each martial Fibre pushing to the van 
To make "I wiir' the equal of "I can;" 
Testing the possibilities of power 
In deeds of daring suited to the hour ; 
Doing its utmost to build up the health 
And glory of the inner Commonwealth. 

Levers and fulcra every where we find. 
But Where's the great Archimedean mind. 



* For the benefit of the general reader, presamably not familiar with anatomical 
details, we may state that there are 48 palra of nerves in all, i. e. IS Cranial or Enceph- 
alic and 82 Spinal. The first have only one root in the brain, whilst the latter arise 
by two roots from the anterior and posterior halves of the spinal marrow, bat nnft® 
immediately afterwards to form one n^rve. Division of the anterior root causes loss 
of motion-H)f the posterior the loss of sensation. The first transmit volitions /hmt 
the brain, the latter sensitive impressions to the brain. 

t Helmholtshas instituted experiments to determine the rapidity of transmission of 
the nervous actions. For sensation the rate of movement assigned is one hundred and 
eighty to three hundred feet per second. Muscular contraction, or shortening of the 
muscular fibre takes phtce, at times, with extreme velocity ; a single thrill, in the letter 
B., can be pronounced in the l-80,000th part of a minute. There are insects whose 
wings strike the air thousands of times in a second. The force of contimctlon {Myody- 
namU) is most remarkable in some of these. In birds, the absolute power in proportion 
to the weight of the body is as 10,000 to 1. 

X The heart and arteries. 



PBEStDSM'^B ADHBIESS. SB 

That on some poo sto,* outside and above, 
Plants its finn foot this living world to move X 

0BAX117X— tOVL'S riBMAllXHT— BSADI. 

Find it we shall, if anywhere we can, 
Doubtless, in that high Capitol of man, 
Whose Spheric Walls, concentric to the cope, 
Were built to match the nature of his Hope. 
What seems the low vault of a narrow tomb, 
Is the SouFs sky, where it has ample room ; 
As apt through this, its crystalline, to pass, 
As though it were di^hanous as glass. 
When Sense is dark, it is not dark, but light. 
Itself a sun. that banishes the night. 
Shedding a morning, beauteous to see, 
On the horizon of Eternity. 
Strange, a frail link, and manacle of Bbaik 
So long below suffices to detain 
A principle, so radiant and high. 
So restless, strong, and fitted for the sky. 

uiXD*m cmoAX^-arrr or tbs dxad. 

Here mounted, standing on the topmost towers. 
Up to the roof of this high dome of ours, 
With the Hindis Organ in our hands, what new 
Secrets of structure strike th' astonished view ? 
A weird, and wonderful, and fragile mass 
Of white and gray! — deserted now, alas ! 

* AicfalmedM Qaed to say, '^Gfre a place where I may stand, (<'or ?rotr arCj) and I 
can move the worid.*^ 

i The JXerrtmt System evetxwhere consists of two kinds of tiasne— White and Gxay . 
The White fonns the nervet, the exterior of the spinal cord, and the eetUrd parte of the 
baJgi and eerebellnm, (where it is soft, like curdled cream, bat is firmer in the nerree,) 
con^yoaed everywhete of parallel fibres or threads of extreme fineness, which form the 
Chavssu of nerrons power and inflnence to and from the Gbaiouoiao Qxxrmn and 
Sourcen, both great and small, of this inflnence, constituting the Gray substance fonnd 

5 



3;4 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

All knowledge quite razed out; no trace 

Of things which were : now mourns each happy place, 

Where frolicked once the Children of the Mind ; — 

Of all the number, not one left behind : 

No vestige of the battle and the strife ; 

None, of the conquests that ennobled life. 

Hid is the maze where Doubt was wont to grope ; 

Hid the starved fibre of a perished Hope; 

Hid the tough sinews of a wrestling Faith — 

The Christian Athlete matched with Sin and Death : 

Hid all the teeth-prints of the wolves of Grief— 

A savage pack, of which Remorse is chief. 

How strange, of all the wounds our comforts mar, 

That of the fellest we should find no scar! 

None can point out where UNDEitsTANDiNG dwelt : 
None, the high places where Religion knelt : 
The spot where Rbverence, with feet unshod. 
Came to consult the Oracle of Qod : 

The crypts and catacombs, where Memory cast 
The bones of all the dead of all the Past ; 
Shelves, where were stowed all libraries of man, 

In the eentral parts of the spinal cord, at the base of the brain in isolated masses, and the 
exterior of the cerebram and cerebellnm, where to economize space it lies in folds, dip- 
ping down into the interior, and forming the oonvolntions. It is fonnd also In the gan- 
glia of the Gieat Sympathetic. Condensely stated, the gray ganglia originaU nerroas 
power, the white nenrons filaments only tranemU it The Hemispherical Ganglia (the 
plaited or conrolated cortex of the cerebmm) forming abont nine-tenths of the whole 
mass of the brain, although entirely destitute of both sensibility and excitability, are 
beUeved to be on good grounds the special seats, so far as these can be said to have any, 
of the inteUectnal fitcnlties— memory, reason. Judgment and the like. Impresaioitt* 
conveyed to the Spinal Cord, i. e. its ganglionic centre, are there or^anioatfy, not intel- 
lectually perceived, and the movements which follow are such as are dictated by su- 
preme organic wisdom, forming indeed an admirable mimiery of consdoua sensation 
and voluntary action, but mimicry only, for both are really absent. This belongs to 
what is called '' reflex action," and explains automatic fhnction and phenomena, of 
which life is ftiU. It Is not, it is believed, until impressions have reached the gan- 
glion of the Tuber Annulare that they are converted into eonseioia sensations and 
excite voluntary movements. And only when they have mounted to the Bemispheres, 
the ganglia of thought and feeling, that they become the property of the intellect and 
are made the grounds of rational conduct. 



president's address. 35 

All grey traditions, since the world began; 
All literatures, religions, kinds and parts 
Of knowledge, laws, philosophies and arts; 
All actions, all articulated breath— 

The Book of Life, and ah ! the Book of Death,— 
Wherein, whatever fatal leaf it turned, 

Its former self the guilty soul discerned, 
. Mirrored entire — seen outside and within 

In every form and attitude of sin ; 

Th' inevitable reflection, imaged there. 

True to the life, like pictures of Daguerre ; 

The very scene, in which each deed was done, 

Painted in all the colors of the sun ; 

So faithful, fresh, time, circumstance and act, 

The past reality seemed present fact- 
There field, and weapon, and the riven brain 

Of Abel smitten by the hand of Cain, 

And blood, with red moist lips, in Pity's ears 

Crying for vengeance through eternal years, 

Th' unwashed crimson of the guilty sod — 

As in the eye and memory of God. 
Imagination's skyey seat, where came 

For soaring flight the demigods of fame. 

Home of the Muses, fair and forked Mount 

Of high Parnassus, and Castalian Fount, 

Whence issued streams that watered all the earth, 

Then most, when blind Moeonides had birth; 

And Zion's holier Hill, and Siloe's Brook, 

Warbling forever, in blind Milton's book ; 

The topmost peak where Shakespeare took his stand, 

And waved his wand of power o'er sea and land. 

Strange, that so sweet and heavenly a hill. 

Should breed fierce dragons, ravenous beasts of ill, 
"Gorgons, and hydras, and chimeras dire," 



36 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF KKW JERSEY. 

Monsters of hideous shapes, with tongues of fire : 
Have rifted rocks whose entrance leads to hell 
And the damned wizard of the mighty spell, — 
Making its precincts all enchanted ground, 
Turning to horror every sight and sound; 
With grisly terrors, straight from Acheron, 
Peopling each nook, and darkening all the sun. 

None can the judgment seat of Coi^BcifiNCfi show, 
That highest Court and Parliament below, 
Where, sole and sovereign, seated on her throne, 
She recognized th' Infallible alone. 
To her, the keys of heaven and earth were given, 
And what she bound on earth w^aa bound in heaven. 
By the clear light, which her decisions shed, 
Instructed feet in pleasant ways were led. 
Martyrs were pointed to the neighboring sky. 
And Patriots taught how sw^eet it is to die. 

Where these had their high dwelling, we, in vain, 
Seek in this packed and folded pulp of brain : 
Judged, by the ignorant regards of sense, 
How mean ! by heights of function, how immense ! 
To reason and the vision of shut eyes 
Its infinite expandings fill the skies. 
What regions of sublimity once there I 
What mountains soaring in the upper air — 
Not thunder scarred Acroceraunian* peak 
Alpine or Himalayan loftier than the Greek 
So high so hidden — from whose secret tops 
Keener than needles, trickled the first drops 
Of rising rivers, flowing silently 
Into the cerebral deep drainless sea, 
From which, as from a mighty fountain-head, 
Life's crystal watere eveiywherc were spread. 



* A range of very hl^h mountains in Greece, (fh>m dKpoc, extreme, and Keg€afvdc, 
tbnnderbolt,) so called because their peabs are often etmck by llghtnini^. 



PRK8ID£Nt*'S ADDRESS. 37 

Coursing in liquid lapse through Channels White,* 
Swift as the lightning, stainless as the light, 
Conveying to each atom of the whole 
Volitions^ animations, power and soul. 

Once beautiful for situation, gem 
And joy of the whole earth, Jerusalem, 
How sits she solitary ! she that was great 
Among the nations, now left desolate ! 
Th^ adversary hath spread out his hand 
On all her pleasant things and spoiled the land: 
Her gates are sunk into the ground : the rent 
And ruined rampart and the wall lament : 
Her palaces are swallowed up : the Lord * 
His altar hath cast off: He hath abhorred 
His sanctuary even : hath overthrown 
And pitied not, nor cared to spu% his own. 

KTB, AXt> rn OOBISLATIVX. 

The ways of 24ion mourn ; funereal gloom 
Fills every habitation like a tomb ; 
Closed is each port, and window of the mind ; 
And there is none to look — ^the Ete is blind. 
How different once, when in that little Sphere, 
The glorious universe was pictured clear! 



* The Nerves are compoeed of bundles of minute fibres or fllatnents, averaging 
1-3,000 of an inch in diameter. Each filament consists of a colorless, transparent, 
tnbolar membrane, containing a thick, softish, semi-flaid nervous matter which is white 
and glistening by reflected light. Banning through the central part is a longitudinal 
gra3ri8h band, called * the axis of the cylinder." Branches of a nerve are merely sepa- 
rations and new directions of some of the filaments of the bundle, these being always 
continuous from their origin to their point of distribution, which prevents any con- 
fhsion arising from a running together of impressions. The nervous tree, like that of 
the blood Teasels, is so vast, that in its totality, exhibited separately, it would give 
almost an outline of the human form. The circulation of a nervous fluid, though not 
demonstrable, has been hypothetically deduced flrom the tubular structure of the nerves 
and other considentions. Assuming the ihct, the whole body may be said to swim 
in this vital sea, having its analogy in that higher or divine animation, described as 
being '* filled with the Spirit" 



38 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

O what an Organ that ! germane to Light, 
Whose own relations too, are such to sight, 
Twere hard to say, the two so nicely fit, 
Made was the eye for light, or light for it. 
Ne'er were two lovers, separate by space. 
More eager, fond, impatient to embrace. 
Than that sweet splendor — streaming from afai, 
Traveling for ages from some distant star. 
Straight as an arrow speeding from the bow — 
And that dear Eye-ball waiting here below. 

JLIGBT HAS HO XAHITHniHO POWKB WITHOin THX HTH. 

Prime work of God ! upon the bended knee 
The whole creation homage pays to thee : 
From night and chaos countless suns emerge 
That all their beamings may in thee converge ; 
Since wholly vain and useless were, they know, 
Without the Eye to see, their light to show : 
They roll in darkness, quenched their every ray 
Till thy lids opening, change the night to day. 
Placed, for commanding and enjoying these. 
In the dread centre of immensities. 
The depths thou searchest and the heights supreme, 
Ranging at will from this to that extreme. 
Where space is dark to thy unaided sight, 
Tliither thou tum'st thy telescope of might, 
And in the heart of the abysmal gloom 
6ehold'st celestial gardens all abloom — 
Brave starry blossomings and clusters fine 
Loading the branches of the heavenly vine : 
See'st suns, like dust, lie scattered Uong the road 
That leads to that far Paradise of God. 
From this to yonder, who the leagues can tell ? 
One might compute the ocean^s drops as well. 



president's address. 89 

Tom now : the nether infinite explore : 

Extend thy vidon, as thou didst before :* 

Pierce downwards, pierce to the concealed minute, 

The ultimates of things, the germ, the root. 

The atom world, so near— and yet so far 

Not more remote is the remotest star — 

To forms of life to which, O can it be ? 

A drop of water is a shoreless sea. 

So vast thy sweep, it surely were not strange 

If eye angelic had no wider range. 

Even so ! On earth or in the realms of air 

Nothing is fair but as thou mak'st it fair— 

In face or flower or iris braided rain, 

Beauty exists not or exists in vain ; 

Without thy power to paint them or perceive 

There were no gorgeous shows of mom and eve. 

LiesT Loar ui thb m mkaxtmabm is ib^ ooirsaiotrairsas. 

How wonderful, that organs made of clay 
Should drink so long th^ abundance of the day ! 
Receive the constant unretuming tides 
Of sun and moon and all the stars besides ! 
Not lost, is all this mighty wealth of beams : 
Rivers of light, innumerable streams, 
Flow darkling for a space, then spring again 
To join the Arethusasf of the brain, 
In bliss of married consciousness to be 
Fountains of brightness through eternity. 

nAsa-suBP: ITS xxsuBOiTATnre powib-oiciakio ufi. 

Since man was bom to trouble here below, 
Tears were provided for predestined woe ; 



* For example, with a Microscope that magnifies a million times. 

t The river Alphens in Elis is Ikbled to flow under the earth to Sicily, and to unite 
with the fountain Arethnsa ; hence Arethusa, a nymph, whose loyer was Alphcns. # 



40 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

And tears have fallen in perpetual shower 
From man's apostasy until this hour ; 
But there 's the promise of a future day 
When God's dear hand shall wipe all tears away. 

On eyes that watch as well as eyes that weep 
Descends the solemn mystery of Sleep. 
Toiling and climbing to the very close, 
The weary Body, longing for repose, 
On the gained level of the day's ascent, 
Halts for the night and pitches there its tent : 
Then, sinking down, is 'gulphed in an abyss 
As deep and dark as the abodes of Dis — * 
Rather, returns into the peaceful gloom • 
And blank unconsciousness of nature's womb, 
Where plastic forces work, to )3e next mom 
To a new life and mightier vigor bom ; — 
Prepared to run again Life's upward way 
Scaling the misty summits of To-Day : 
Lo ! height o*er height, through all the years, they rise. 
Supplying steps by which to mount the skies, — 
Ladder, like Jacob's, heavenly, complete, 
Whose radiant rounds were tor angelic feet. 
From night's dark caves spring evermore, in trath, 
Fountains of freshness and perpetual youth : 
This seeming death, with consciousness at strife, 
Is health and happiness and length of life. 
There is within, that which preserves and keeps — 
Organic Providence that never sleeps : — 
When the slack hand of Reason di-ops the rein, 
This drives the chariots of the heart and brain. 
Were life's full goblet tmsted to the Will, 
Its nerveless hand would soon its contents spill ; 
The Maker so wa3 careful to provide 
Another principle and power beside, 
* Domoe Dltii. 



PBSSIDSNT'S ADDBESa 41 

Archeus,* iDBtinct — ^ftny name may serve — 

Organic life, Great Sympathetic Kerre^t 

With Gerebellam,t competent to save, 

And rescue from the clutches of the grave, — 

When Bleep would else have caused immediate death, 

Stopped the heart's action, and cut short the breath, 

Drying each source, that fed and kept alive 

Th' industrious bees in the orgflftiic hiV|^| 

■PISITUAL AHALOOna. 

As light to Eye, bo to the Soul, in sooth, 
The light of God, the higher light of Truth- 

* The Archens, according to Van Helmont is an immaterial principle, existing trom 
the beginning {o^Xt) and presiding over the development of the body and over all or- 
ganic phenomena. Besides this chief one, which he located in the upper oriilce of the 
stomach, he admitted sereral sobordinates, one {or each oigan, each of them being lia- 
ble to anger, caprice, tenor, and every homan feeling. 

t The Great Sympathetic lies in front and along the sides of the spine, and sapplies 
the organs over which the will and consdonsness have no immediate control, snch as the 
Intestines, Urer, heart, Ac. Its nnmeroos ganglia (centres and originators of nervons 
inflnenoe) are the knots of a nerroos reticnlation which connects not only the organs of 
organic life one with the other, bat these also with the brain and spinal cord. It is doe 
to this— separately or conjointly with the spinal cord in its reflex or excito-motor capa- 
city, derived from its own ganglionic centre or pith, giving it also Independent and an- 
tomatic powers, powers not sensibly dependent npon the consdoasness or wiU for their 
exercise— that all the vital Amctions do not come to a stand still in our flrat slumber. 

t The opinion, which attribotes to the Cerebellum the power of associating or co- 
ordinating the different voluntary movements, is the one now most generally received. 
Destroyed, the gubernatorial fiiculty is lost and the animal staggers and falls like a 
drunken man. In addition to this, it has been supposed, that whatever the cerebrum 
does rationally and by fits, the cerebellam does unconsciously and permanently— so that 
in deep, the motions of thought and will not being organically but only consciously sus- 
pended, need to be maintained and kept up to their proper level, and that this is the of- 
fice of the cerebellum, which like the chain and springs of a watch, not only regu- 
late its movements, but prevent it from running suddenly down. 

f WhUe an exaggerated importance may have been given to the doctrine of Cell for- 
mation, the truth of it seems to be well established. The statement of Yirchow that, 
" Every animal presents itself as a som of vital unities, every one of which manifests all 
the characteristics of life,'^ although hypothetical, at least in part, is a convenient formu- 
la for explaining many vital phenonmena observed both in health and disease. Receiv- 
ing it, it certainly Justifies the figure here used— the bee working with a blind instinct, 
being compared to that organic intelligence, which resident in each cell presides over 
the ftinctions of nutrition, secretion and elimination. 

6 



42 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

How, when man fell, his dark and hungry eyes 

Looked for the sunrise in the eastern skies 1 

Filled with all doubt, and wandering forlorn, 

Watching for signs of the delaying mom I 

Ah I should it never break, the stumbling feet 

Qo stumbling onward to the Judgment Seat ; 

And toward the guilty, should there be no ruth 

In the just bosom of the God of Truth ; 

Those images of horror and affiright, 

Projected on the canyass of the night, 

Should aye be present, wheresoe'er he turn. 

And Gk>d's fierce anger neyer cease to bum I 

Ah 1 when the parting heavens some gleam let through, 

Some gleam of promise shining through the blue ; — 

Ah, more ! when that the Dayspring from on high 

Told that the Sun of Righteousness was nigh ; — 

Waving glad wings of many colored flame. 

Pore-running angels certified He came; — 

Then most of all, when following full soon, 

Upon his midnight burst eternal noon ; — 

How to the heavenly host his pulses beat. 

Timed to the music of their marching feet ! 

OOHOKnTAL BLDTOHSBB— AWA-UM OT TBS LAST DAT. 

Alas, for those, who, haply blind from birth, 
Have never seen the loveliness of earth : 
To whose rapt gaze, the spectacle ne'er given, 
Of all the dread magnificence of heaven : 
One mighty blank, one universal black. 
The moving wonders of the Zodiac : 
The constellations from their fixed abode. 
Shed no sweet influence on their darkling road : 
Their rolling eyeballs tum, and find no ray; 
An unknown joy, the blessedness of day. 



FRSSIDENT'S ADDB£Sa 48 

Between the man, who, in his neighbor's grief, 
With swiftest pity, flies to his relief; 
And him, whose cmel and tmnatural part 
It is to plague and wring his brother's heart, 
How deep the gulf! how different the award, 
At the great final coming of the Lord ! 
In the Last Judgment, all the world shall hear 
The silent thunder prisoned in a tear* — 
The pent up wrath shall strike the tyrant there. 
Who would not pity, and who would not spare. 

ASTIilJlIB YOB THE VJXD» 

Thou, who wert styled th' Apostle of the Blind, 
No bays too green, thine honored brows to bind ; 
Who toiled and sacrificed beyond the sea — 
'Tis right to name thee, Valentin Hauy !t 
To render happier a cheerless lot ; 
Enrich with knowledge those who have it not ; 
To pour new light into the darkened mind, 
And force an entrance where it none can find ; 
By novel methods, and ingenious tools. 
Imparting all the learning of the schools ; 
For loss of one, obtaining recompense, 
In the perfection of another sense ; 



* Panday has shown by the moat conclusive experiments, that the electricity which 
deoompoBes, and that which is erolTed by the decomposition of a certain quantity of 
matter are alike. A single drop of water therefore contains as mnch electricity as 
ooold be accomnlated in 800,000 Leyden Jar»— a qnantity eqnal to that which is devel- 
oped ttom a chaxged thunder cloud. 

t Lonia ££., better known as St Louis, in ISQOfoimded the SotpUe dst guiiue vinffit 
at Paris— designed, as its name implies, originally for 15 score .or 800 persons— which 
still exists. This is believed to have been the first public provision ever made for the 
Kind. It was solely eleemosynary. No instruction was attempted. Although in the 
Iflth century attempts were made to print for the BUnd in intaglio and afterwards in 
rdlei; nothing material was accomplished, till 1784, when Valentin Hafiy, " the apostle 
of the bUnd " as the French named him, commenced his arduous, and self-denying la- 
bors, and laid the foundations of the modem system. His pupils became eminent aa 
muBldanBori 



44 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Inspiring music, bringing heaven so near, 
They almost think they see it as they hear ; — 
Is like that work, in kind if not degree, 
Done Bartimeus, when Christ made him see. 

ABTLT7X8 TOB THX DSAV ASD DUKB. 

Not less their praise, nor less their high reward, 
Th' unequaled heroes of a task more hard 
Enthusiasts, who labored to bridge o^er 
The gulf of silence, never passed before, 
To reach the solitaire, who lived apart,* 
Cut off from commerce with the human heart : 
To whom had been, all goings on below, 
A ceremonious and unmeaning show ; 
Men met in council, on occasions proud, 
Nought but a mouthing and grimacing crowd ; 
And all the great transactions of the time, 
An idle scene or puzzling p^tomime. 
Children of silence I deaf to every sound 
That trembles in the atmosphere around, 
Now far more happy — dancing ripples break 
Upon the marge of that once stagnant lake. 
Aye by fresh breezes overswept, and stirred 

* The poBsibUlty of teaching the Deaf and Dumb was never conceived by the an- 
cientfs. UseleBB to the State, their deetmction in infancy was even connived at; and 
they were classed legally with idiots and the insane. Plnnged in a night of the pro- 
fonndest Ignorance, sitting apart in utter loneliness, their state was the saddest possi- 
ble. Attempts to instruct them belong mostly to modem times. Three systems have 
been adopted in different countries. 1. That of Wallls, Pereira, Hetnicke and Braid- 
wood, which fidsely assumed that while signs may give vague ideas there can be no 
precision without words. Ck)nsequently the first years under this system were devoted 
ahonost wholly to learning articulation i|nd reading on the lip. S. That of abb6 De 
riEpde as improved by Sicard and Bebian, which proceeds on the directly opposite theory 
that there Is no idea which may not be expressed by signs without words. Sign lan- 
guage has the important advantage, besides many others that might be named, of being 
univenaL 8. The American system, which is a fhrther modification of De rsp^e^s. 
The number of deaf mutes who have distinguiahed themselves In sdenoe and art is al- 
ready quite oonsldeiable. My friend, Mr. John R. Burnet, Ikrmer and author, living at 
Livingston, N. J., is one of the best informed men in the State. 



president's addbess. 45 

With the vibrfttioiiB of new thoughts conferred. 
No more your minds are heathenish and dumb, 
Now that the word of truth and grace has come ; 
Your silent praise, that penitential tear, 
Ai^ quite articulate to your Sayiour's ear. 

HXAxnrG— Fowna ov wnnro— xuszo of vatusb, 

Within a bony labyrinthean cave, 
Reached by the pulse of the aerial wave, 
This sibyl, sweet and mystic Sense is found — 
Muse, that presides o^er all the Powers of Sound, 
Viewless and numberless, these eyerywhero 
Wake to the finest tremble of the air : 
Now from some mountain height are heard to call ; 
Now from the bottom of some water-fall ; 
Now faint and far, now louder and more near. 
With varying cadence musical and clear; — 
Heard in the brooklet murmuring o^er the lea ; 
Heard in the roar of the resounding sea; 
Heard in the thunder rolling through the sky ; 
Heard in the little insect chirping nigh ; 
The winds of winter wailing through the woods ; 
The mighty laughter of the vernal floods; 
The rain-drops' showery dance and rhythmic beat, 
With tinkling of innumerable feet ; 
Pursuing echos calling 'mong the rocks ; 
Lowing of herds, and bleating of the flocks ; 
The tender nightingale's melodious grief; 
The sky-lark's warbled rapture of belief- 
Arrow of praise, direct firom nature's quiver. 
Sent duly up to the Almighty Criver. 

■UnO OV ABT— U ITUMUITAL AJn> TOOAIi. 

If once, ye Powers, with reeds, a rustic Pan, 
Ye tuned idyllic minstrelsies for man. 



46 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERaBY 

These thin dilations of the soul of song, 
Ye haye abandoned, and abandoned long. 
Sweet as the spheral music of the skies, 
The thunder of your later harmonies. 
O fill the void capacious atmosphere 
With your full sum, and pour it in the ear ; 
Drown it with melody, nor let it wade 
Longer in shallows, of the deep afraid. 
Join to all instruments of wind and cords 
The poetry and excellence of words. 
If country calls, put in the Trumpet's throat 
A loud and stirring and a warlike note ; 
And let there follow an inspiring blast. 
As the long file of heroes hurry past ; 
Then raise th' exultant clamor to its height, 
When crowned as victors, they return from fight. 
Because the service God demands of men 
' Is not an intermittent thing of now and then. 
Temples of permanence we rightly raise. 
For the perpetual purposes of praise ; 
And build great Organs, in whose tubes of sound, 
Sleeping or waking, ye are always found : 
Awake I prepare Te Deums ! now awake I 
Wave your great wings till all the buildings shake I 
Rend the low roof^ and rend the vault of heaven. 
Bearing the rapture of a soul forgiven ! 

TOIOB— AXB OV MXHRJLTHOS, Vn TBASmOTATIOVt. 

Wonderful instrument, but not so choice 
As is the Organ of the Human Voicb. 
What compact proof of Heavenly Power and Skill, 
When simplest means sublimest ends fulfill. 
That two stringed Lyre, quick strung to every note. 
Placed at the windy entrance of the throat — 



president's ADDRBSa 4'^ 

With a divine economy of room, 

So placed it might the smallest space consume, 

There where the aerial currents come and go, 

To feed the vital fires that bum below, 

And with a quickening purifying force, 

The blood to freshen in its onward course — 

Taking the waste, effete and useless breath, 

Charged with the very element of death,* 

Converts it into music, glorious shapes 

Of power and beauty, ere that breath escapes. 

A transformation marvellous and strange, 

Unequalled, in the Alchemy of change. 

Harmonious forces working to condense 

The blazing jewels of intelligence : 

Diamonds more rich than proudest monarchs wear. 

Formed from the gaseous carbon of the air ; 

Th' imperial currency of human wit, 

Image and supeiteription stamped on it. 

Coined from the atmosphere, th' exhaustless mine 

Of golden treasures, magical and fine ; 

Chief circulating medium of thought, 

And conmion mintage, by which truth is bought. 

And wisdom in its infinite supply. 

Stored in th* invisible market of the sky I 

■MB AOOOUITABU: nLV-BKXIHDnre— XAIBSXAnOAL FBOBUDC* 

O Heart and Mouth in strictest wedlock bound, 
Whence spring th' immortal births of soul and sound : 
Winged for far flight, your moral offspring sweep 
The airy fields of the cerulean deep, 
Up to the awful place, where Judgment waits, 
Within Eternity's tremendous gates. 

PhUosophy itself may serve to teach 
No power so fearful as the Power of Speech : 
The idle word, which nothing can recall, 



48 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Breaks sacred silence thrilling through the All ; 

Tea, like a pebble dropped into the sea, 

Ripples the ocean of inunensity : 

An oath profane, the horror of a lie, 

The shuddering Ether bears beyond the sky ; 

Sounding through height and depth, its way it takes 

To distant spheres, and endless echos wakes: 

After long ages, still can be inferred, 

The sense and nature of each uttered word, 

Declared in postured particles, because 

The dance of atoms is by rhythmic laws : 

For that another cannot be the same, 

€rod calls each atom by a different name ; 

Makes these an alphabet, by which to spell 

Each sentence spoken, and each syllable ; 

Beyond the power of parchment, or of pen, 

Expounding all the utterances of men.* 

ITB 800IAL UBIS-TBI WOSD MJLDM FLI8H. 

Most genial of the faculties is this, 
And most subservient to social bliss ; 



* Mr. Charles Babltagef an EngliBh Mathematician of the flret rank, lonnerly Lnca- 
alan ProfeBsor of Mathematice at Cambridge, the Chair of Newton, Dunona also as the 
inventor of a Calculating Machine, boilt at a cost to the English QoTemment of 
$85,000, foUowed by another involylng a still heavier oatlay— ina work styled "The 
Ninth Bridgewater Treatise," published in 1888, filled with much original and quaint 
speculation, expresses his fidth in the startling doctrine that no word or action can 
ever be eliminated firom the records of Nature, but that the air is a *' vast library," in 
whose pages are forever written all that man has ever said or woman whispered, inas- 
much as the atrial pulses which seemed to have died out completely might yet be dem- 
onstrated by human reason to exist So of the ocean. A being possessed of unbounded 
powers of mathematical analysis might trace the results of any impulse on the fluid, 
or read back the history of the sea in its own billows. And so too, the solid frame of 
the earth may serve as a stereotyped record both of the transactions and the proceed- 
ings of its inhabitants ; for not only the heavlngs of the greatest earthquakes, but the 
little local tremors which the stamp of a human foot may produce, may all be said to 
have left their memorials in the ground. Heaven and earth are therefore prepared to 
bear witness against the transgressor on the Day of Judgment Teirible thoughts 
these, but what if they are true ? 



pa£SID£Nt\s address. 4d 

Fulfills the longing as no other can, 

When man would manifest himself to man ; 

The isolated soul shut up no more 

Walks freely forth as through an open door. 

Vainly in inarticulate dumb show, 
Had Nature strove to teach man here below ; 
When finding, that intended to reveal, 
Served but the more His presence to conceal, 
God put aside the vesture of the skies, 
And walked and talked with men in human guise : 
Th' apocalyptic Word, made flesh, made thus 
Communicated Godhead — Qov With Us. 

AKHUULAHOV— VOtB— 'HOUTB-HnaELIr-TAflTB. 

Behold how man, the polyglot, employs 
Th^ uncompounded elemental noise ; 
Makea endless permutations, mixes breath 
For nice intonings of each shibboleth : 
Up from the Throat, one little step, we reach 
The cunning moulds and matrices of speech ; 
Formless and void the vocal chaos flows,^ 
Shaped into Language by the Mouth and Nose ; 
Mellifluous modulations taking place, 
In scented caverns of the hollow face ; 
Sweet mobile Lips, Teeth, Palate, flavorous Tongue, 
Making intelligible the speaking Lung ; 
Aiders of Speech, but then the seats as well 
Of the two senses of the Taste and Smell. 

■mU/— ODOM: THUB nTBILBTT AMD IVPOVSMBABILITr. 

The Nerves of Smell, the first the brain to leave, 
Combed and divided through a bony sieve,* 
They, from their tresses of disheveled hair 
Shake out the tangled fragrance of the air. 

♦ The ethmoid bone, (from V^f^o^t * a seive/ and Cf'Jof , • form.*) 

7 



50 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

Conyersaiit with all Bweetnees — ^Nature brings 
Hither the soul and quintessence of things ; 
Airy solutions of the finer powers, 
Imponderable properties of flowers ; 
Th^ aroma of all seasons and all times, 
Kingdoms of nature, continents and climes — 
Too subtle and too spiritual, I ween, 
These for analysis however keen — 
Daintiest of senses, daintily it feeds 
On thymy pastures of the skyey meads, 
Drinks from etherial fountains, whence are quaffed 
Delicious lungfuUs at one mighty draught, 
Cheering the breast, and sweetening all the blood. 
Like some celestial minister of good. 

BMBATH OF UVS, VATUXAL AHD SPIBITUAL. 

God breathed — O breath with heavenly sweetness rife,- 
Into man^s nostrils first the breath of life. 
The blissful aura vivified the whole. 
And straightway man became a living soul. 
Then odorous Eden yet more odorous grew 
As o'er its bowers, th' informing Spirit blew 
< Another inner and diviner air, 

Moving within the proper atmosphere. 

That shook the leaves and made the tree-tops nod, 

A mystic wind immediately from God, — 

Rushing and mighty like the Holy Ghost 

Poured out upon the day of Pentecost. 

Still the same Spirit where it lists it blows, 

We know not whence it comes nor where it goes, 

But souls it quickened on Creation's mom, 

Now dead in sin to a new life are bom : 

One inspiration of immortal breath 

Creates a life beneath the ribs of death. 



president's address. 51 

THMnnuBrr. 

O yia sacra, O thrice blessed door, 
Once hallowed with Thy presence, hallow, Lord, once 

more : 
Inbreathe Thyself^ my Maker I fill each cell 
Of my deep breast, and deign with me to dwell. 
Come, my Desire ! Thou theme of heavenly tongues, 
Fulfill the want and hunger of the lungs. 
Be thou my breath, my laughter, my delight. 
My song by day, my murmured dream by night. 
When hope dilates, and love my bosom warms, 
Be these the product of thy pow^erful charms. 
If grief convulses, 1x3 it grief for sin, 
Prompt every sigh and make me pure within. 
Perfumed by Thee " make every breath a spice 
And each religious act a sacrifice." 

TABTB-XUMDIAnOV AXD WA«n— VOTHOie LOR. 

We cat to live : the Qustatory Sense 
(The same as Smell, but with a difference,) 
At the pleased portal of the hungry throat. 
From endless sources neighboring and remote. 
Assembles relishes, and daily feeds 
On these to satisfy the body's needs. 
Each moment, lo, we die and are reborn ;* 
The old becomes cadaverous and outworn ; 
Beyond the boundary of our every breath. 
Wide yawns the open sepulchre of death : 
Parts of our living selves give up the ghost : 
Corrupt, corrupting, use and function lost. 
Benignant Nature with victorious force 
Effects deliverance from the loathed corse 

* ** OocMio enlm pnecepe est propter artis materiam/dico antem corpuB, quod con- 
tlniie flnit et momento temporia tnjumuULiju."— Galen. 



62 MEDICAIi SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

And body of this death : in ceaseless flow, 
Funeral processions of dead atoms go, 
Thronging life's ways and outward opening gates, 
All unattended, where no mourner waits. 
Because the quick have duties, let the dead 
Bury their dead, the Lord of life hath said. 
No fear that needful ministry or rite 
Shall then be wanting when they pass from sight ; 
Sown on the winds or swallowed of the waves 
They shall not fail of hospitable graves. 
Dear to terrestial and celestial powers, 
Through every moment of the flying hours ; 
Earth, careful mother, to her 1x>som draws 
Each reverent particle subject to her laws ; 
Dust welcomes dust, and all the happy ground 
Rejoices that the lost again is found. 
Again it forms a portion of the mould 
To tread the circle it fulfilled of old. 
Again it ministers to the thirsty root. 
Mounts to the blossom and matures the fruit ; 
Eaten again, again it makes a part. 
Or of the thinking brain or feeling heart. 

HUMAH WAHT ABD DITIVS 8UFPLT. 

Because we ne'er continue in one stay — 
Our flowing lives still wash their banks away ; 
This colliquation of unstable flesh, 
Invades the old and scarcely spares the fresh ; 
The new formed solid, even, oozes through, 
" Thaws and resolves itself into a dew ;" 
And all is flux, and out ten thousand doors 
Our manly strength perpetually poiurs — 
"We Hunger and We Thirst, and all abroad 
We see spread out the mighty Feast of Qod. 



prksident's address. 53 

Abounding plenty equal to the waste 
With luscious adaptations to the taste ; 
Viands heaped up in such seductive guise, 
Forestalling pleasure looks with sparkling eyes : 
The golden produce of the garnered fields, 
Whatever the ralley or the mountain yields, 
The juicy tops of Nature, not that found 
In the dark mineral lumpish underground. 
By intermediate yegetatiye toil, 
And much elaboration of the soil, 
Lifted in air and glowing in the sun. 
We pluck the fruit then when the work is done. 
In curious quest of every dainty known. 
We draw from every month and every zone. 
To pile our boards, the canvas is unfurled 
Of more than half the navies of the world. 
Art intervenes, and as the case requires, 
Concocts the crude with culinary fires : 
Goes forth in nature to extend her range. 
And serve man's love of novelty and change. 
By findings of manipulative skill. 
Testings and tastings, mixing at her will • 
Of all the kingdoms, flavorings of the same, 
And seasonings of vegetable flame. 
Imperious Wants ! obedient to whose call. 
Armies capitulate, dynasties fall : 
Howe'er the rulers of the earth combine, 
They may not blink the fact that man must dine. 

It might seem little and beneath God's care — 
A punctual ordering of man's common fare; 
Unwarranted, extravagant, absurd, 
To think our Pater Nosters could be heard — 
Did we not know that round our every meal 
Suns wait and serve and mighty planets wheel. 



64 MEDICAL SOCIETY^ OF NEW JERSEY. 

IjOBD'B PXATmr-HODIBKHAL BBSAD— BTeZSnO WIBDOX. 

Father in heaven, hallowed be Thy name — 
'Tis on Thy fatherhood we build our claim- 
Stoop to our needs we cannot else be fed, 
Give us this day, as eret, our daily bread. 
Preserve us from perversion and abuse, 
Turning Thy bounties from their proper use, 
From gluttony and criminal excess, 
Making enough our rule, nor more nor less. 
Instruct us how to choose lest that we sin 
Against the body's health, the powers within. 
Awful economies and sacred laws 
Of half our miseries the dreadful cause. 
May we live innocent as at the first, 
Using safe beverages to quench our thirst, 
Our common drink be water from the well. 
Not brewed enchantments of the fires of hell, 
Not tasting unblest cups, by Thee unblest. 
But where Satanic benedictions rest. 
Cursing and killing, maddening the brain — 
Brief joy succeeded by eternal pain. 

nrOBSnOS— DIGBSnOH— AflSDOULTIOiN . 

Be in our Mouths to sanctify our food ; 
Begin the process changing it to blood. 
We dare not call that common and unclean 
Which Thou hast cleansed — nor count that longer mean 
So honored by assimilations grand. 
And exaltations of Thine own right hand. 
As through the channels of the body rolled, 
Th' ingested Morsel comes to be ensouled. 
Wherefore be present, every step attend 
Of its miraculous progress to the end. 
During the perilous passage of the strait, 



president's address. 56 

O keep fast shut the Laryngeal Gate : 

Adown the Throat while that it gently glides, 

And in the Stomach's secret chamber hides, 

Be there to entertain th' expected guest, 

And to the welcome give a keener zest. 

Make the couch ready : and mid veiling gloom, 

And holy privacy as in a womb. 

Induct into the mysteries of the place : 

Rain down celestial influence and grace 

Upon the nascent neophyte ; prepare 

The lavers of regeneration ; where 

By wondrous saturations* for a time, 

And fresh baptisms of the new-bom Chyme, 

A part all purified, from soil purged clear, 

Made meet and worthy of a higher sphere. 

Enters the veins and mingles with the blood : 

The rest a stained probationary flood. 

Passing the Gkite Pyloric waits awhile. 

Its transformation into purer Chyle. 

Prosper and bless and let the work proceed. 

Each faithful function equal to the need : 

Teach the strict Lacteals, duly this to guide 

Into the narrow way from out the wide, 

Where freed from feculence all white and clean. 

And trained, through mazes of the Glands between, 

For saintly fellowship and spousals sweet 

With the dear Lymph, as they together meet 

Within the Duct Thoracic, mount to gain 



^ The Gastric Juice, like the saliva, is not secreted in considerable quantity (Dr Beau- 
mont says not at all) except under the stimulus of recently ingested food. It is estima- 
ted that the average total quantity secreted in a man of medium size in 34 hours is 14 
pounds, equal to nearly two gallons. This quantity would be altogether incredible, were 
itnot, that as soon as it has dssolved its quota of food, it is immediately re-absorbed 
and again enters into the circulation, together with the alimentary substances which it 
holds in solution.— />a^on. 



J TBTT JHaST. 



l»i, l.?^m» 3 y!!i-» -iT>» Sat ^*^rg 



-»^ ' CL :ir -r -^^ ^ :iac >uric ±.j^If abroad, 

* - nr-T*. f:r~; x nrr. iciL ruL — 

^ ^r- ini TT-^nrnn:^ rr-'i.n^ ■ne fnTT-jgw ro where 

X .i:«.~i:^ "^lii ii'-"" 2rt^. i'T ▼OiiC ± ■vmr*: 
^ ^i-T :ir*'»^i- 'rn.jit »i tic TTimii. 
I. TTn^: 'M^-"^ i3r im2.D ♦• it i:amtf : 



• i :»- _»». : Isarr j> . sac*: ok. arncr me Aarrcie ai^ oae T«mcrkk. Ii 
Mp;^ : ^ -^t rorrrncB^ ^mrs s«fr vr -sml aat*^ T.airKiit. b <^i«^Hiiili and 

^ \m ii«i "I rtsiTca. F ^-«^>c«s:r. «k Ptiintniarf. t^ BhMi 4a ite Kf^ Side 
a. ^ Imt^. MT^i^r vasM. a a* ~ ^j» a- Jiri^En!& :» -imSL €r veaM& : «a tkie Left, 
\ * ^me7 ^ rr^K fl- snsau rw :ds; icaing^ ii :te iim i ii mr adr «r Ikbj»- 
Hfla^- ik^ ttzir n ^sr c -^mfc — ^Ois :«n JMSXiZ its r:>ui^ 31 3&e o^cIanK of the 

i^ :^ ^.^^r-'^ ..4ML «BL sncmair. sm. m cjoiMA xadK. aaJC 4irT:iaiL»« laidfcs^ 
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^ ^ '^^if s ^ii: ^ fux£ :^m. :te A> »e LJ» » s i^ ^ t y r i i « of tvo to tkrv«. md still 
<>iii«^ n 3if L^v-^^a^x^ V.'^ftsgam escn^ses t^ TcJocftr m the arteries ac C3 iaciM 
>r- •«r:siL :a. *^j» jc 5 ^ai:^e«. Sx?<riaKac» kaw beva Bade to aKcrtaa tbt tisM 
'^MM^'m xutiiif^ Ufmt^xhttmiDn wmmdrnf^earemlaiiam. Traces of a Mfaaoa of 
I^f-m-^mg=^4^ rx^as^ rafii^irii iirt* Ike i^^ iasalar TtaBoTahone appcwcd 
i: iV -rf^ :a t»r=. t '^ im^mtj-AT^ teeaoi*, bat tW« *« »ot decwire of the rate af Ike 
«x;t oT tteiiahiiM BanUta awam witfc CfTcty heartrbeaL Iifc-» faan. 
lY^^rftv air at oaee fa rrcfy ofgao, make that beat icpreaortatHv of a 
i^'exiatcaee bci^^DO more than a caknlable nnmber of rcpeCitkm 



J 




president's address. 57 

The human flood to humanize ye^ more, 
Making it moral, with all passions rife, 
Instinct T^ith mortal and immortal life. 
Transfigured thus, thus raised and glorified, 
Complete the circle on the other side. 
Where Auricle and Ventricle with power 
Repeat their grasp five thousand times an hour ; 
Closing unresting hands that never tire 
On the one passionate object of desire ; 
And through each moment of the night and day 
A traveling joy to every part convey ; 
Filling each Cell of all the Organs up— 
As wine is poured into a jeweled cup — 
With the Falemian of the grapes of Heaven, 
The Living Blood miraculously given ; 
Endued with plenteous power by which it can 
Rebuild the complex of the perfect man ; 
To every organ like to like impart, 
Distribute brain to brain and heart to heart ; 
Conquer the years, the wastes of time repair, 
Add to the body, make the fair more fair: 
Nor potent less to raise to loftiest heights 
Of sensuous pleasures, and divine delights — 
Untied to fieshly ministrations — ^fraught 
With stimulant to Feeling and to Thought, 
Our Ganymede, enlivening with full bowl 
" The feast of reason and the flow of soul." 

BBASr-fllAT OF TBS AITSOTZOBS— YUOnUL MODZnOATIOSB. 

Undoubted Sovereign, worthiest to reign ! 
Sharer of empire with the regal Brain I 
(Like omnipresent in the realms of sense 
Found at the centre and circumference. 
As if by multiplification, every part 

8 



58 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF KEW JERSEY. 

Possessed a sensory and beating heart) 

By virtue of thy birthright from above 

Thine all the high prerogatives of Love. 

One with thyself, Love-s ample power display, 

Assert its right to universal sway ! 

As thou, so Love is many and yet one, 

Its royal robes of soul and body spun — 

Assorted vestments, filling many a room, 

The beauteous product of the living loom. 

By the deft fingers of the feelings wrought 

Plying the shuttle with the helping thought — 

The several organs, to their nature true, 

Giving each tunic its distinctive hue — 

One of the colors of refracted light, 

Or the chaste total of religious white — 

Defining Loves, all Family Loves that bind 

The Love of Country, Love of Human Kind, 

The Love of God, all other Loves above, 

The Love of Truth and Right, the Love of Love. 

Within, what gracious sympathies appeal ! 
What visceral yearnings do not mothers feel I 
The conscious vitals, full of fond alarms 
For the sweet infant folded in her arms. 
And melting tendernesses, that impart 
Tears to the eyes but laughter to the heart. 

WOKAir— SIX— TTVIT7 VX DZFFSBXVOX. 

O loving Woman, man's fulfillment sweet. 
Completing him not otherwise complete I 
How void and useless the sad remnant left 
Were he of her, his nobler part bereft ! 
Of her who Ixjars the sacred name of Wife, 
The joy and crown and glory of his life, 
The Mother of hjs Children, whereby he 



president's address. 69 

Shall live in far off epochs yet to be. 

Conjoined but not confounded, side by side 

Lying so closely nothing can divide ; 

A dual self, a plural unit, twain, 

Except in sex, to be no more again ; 

Except in Sex, for sex can naught effiice, 

Fixed as the granite mountain on its base. 

But not for this less one, away to take 

This sweet distinction were to mar not make. 

Dearer for difference in this respect. 

As means of rounding mutual defect. 

Woman and Man all social needs include ; 

Earth filled with men were still a solitude : 

In vain the birds would sing, in vain rejoice, 

Without the music of her sweeter voice. 

In vain the stars would shine, Hwcre dark the while 

Without the light of her superior smile. 

To blot from earth's vocabularies one 

Of all her names were to blot out the sun. 

LOTS OV Tm BBZU— BTDB AEBWMBMD, 

O wondrous Hour, supremest hour of fate. 
When first the Soul discerns its proper Mate — 
By inward voices known as its elect — 
^ -Bluimmd Ijy love, and infinite respect. 
Fairer than fairest, shining from afar, 
Throned in the heighte, a bright particular star 
The glory of the firmament, the evening sky 
Glad with the lustre of her beaming eye. 
Young Love, First Love, Love, haply at first sight, 
Smites like the lightning, dazzles like the light : 
Chance meeting eyes shoot forth contagious flame* 
Sending the hot blood wildly through the frame. 

• Arietotlc calls Love, "rt Oepfibv ?r/)dy/io"-a certain fiery thing. 



60 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

By strange enchantment violently strook, 
The total being rushes with a look: 
A beauty never seen before, except some gleams 
Purpling the atmosphere of blissful dreams, 
Wakens rare raptures and sensations new 
Both soul and body thrilling through and through. 

Says sage Experience — sighing o'er the past — 
These dear illusions will not always last ? 
For beauty fades and disappointment clings 
. To the reality of human things ? 
It may be so — ^it may be, lovers' sight 
Surveying all things by love's purple light, 
Sees not the faults possession shall disclose. 
Nor the sharp thorn concealed beneath the rose. 
But if thus Nature her great ends attain 
The pomps of fancy dazzle not in vain : 
The pleasing falsehood of perfection flits, 
But not the Love, that in contentment sits 
Among the Dear Ones of its happy home. 
Blest with sweet foretastes of the heaven to come. 
Deciduous charms of face unmissed depart. 
While bloom the fadeless beauties of the heart : 
Inward conformity, and gradual growth 
Of moral likeness, tightening bonds of both. 
Perfect the marriage, which was but begun 
Upon that day they were pronounced one. 

TBT7B LOTB-SPVSIOUS LOTS. 

True Love is humble, thereby is it known 
Girded for service, seeking not its own ; 
Exalts its object, timid homage pays, 
Vaimts not itself, but si>eaks in self-dispraise : 
** Look not on me," it says, for " * I am black,' 
In thee all fulness is, in me all lack : 



I 



president's address. 61 

But what I have and am are wholly thine 

Vast were the grace wouldst thou give thine for mine." 

Let Love but enter, it converts the churl, 
And makes the miser lavish as an earl ; 
The strict walls of his prison, giving way, 
Fall outward And let in the light of day : 
Released from base captivity to pelf. 
He upward soars into a nobler self; 
And hands, that once did nought but clutch and hoard. 
Now emulate the bounty of Hie Lord ; 
Hold up a mirror that reflects the face 
Of Him whose heart is love and man-ward grace. 

O how unlike to this, so chaste, refined. 
Magnanimous, benevolent and kind. 
Is that base thing defiling'and defiled, 
Bom of unbridled lusts and passions wild, 
Which soon of all the virtues rings the knell 
Ai)Ld sends its subjects headlong down to hell. 
The hidden canker of a vicious heart 
Spreads mortal sickness to the farthest part : 
Th' infected body rots from day to day 
Till death contemptuous calls the soul away. 
To its own place its sentence to fulfill : 
" Let him that filthy is be filthy still." 

GHAXITT'PHTBIOLUr— OPIFSBQin PXB OBBSK DZOOB.* 

O Ye devoted to the Healing Art 
By solemn consecration, set apart 
To be the ministers of God above 
In the sublime Activities of Love ; 
Whose special function 'tis to give relief 
In the dark hours of suffering and of grief; 
Betwee9 the living and the dead, to stand 

• Motto of the Society. 



62 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

Wlicre fall the shafts of death on either hand; 
Without one thought of flight, to still maintain 
Perpetual battle with the Powers of Pain ; 
With a fine arrow from a well bent bow 
Transfixing fatally the murderous foe ; 
And wdth an arm made powerful to «ave, 
Snatching the destined victims of the grave ; — 
The lofty nature of your office such, 
You cannot magnify the same too much, 
Which TuUy even, eloquently lauds, 
As that which lifts man nearest to the gods. 

VOBOLOOT— AnSOULTATlOir OF HXABT AVD LUVGa. 

How many forms of sickness man befall, 
Sorrow and pain the common lot of all ! 
Science enquires, and as its kinships finds 
Makes classes, orders, families and kinds, 
Grouping and marshalling diseases so 
You. can them better nominate and know. 
But no nosology did e'er include 
The total of the mighty multitude. 

Wise to interpret each prophetic sign, 
To pierce the veil and hidden fates divine, 
Wlien parents ask, with giief and terror wild. 
Canst thou not save my darling, save my child ? 
You skilled to catch, while listening to the breath, 
The distant footsteps of approaching death 
May in the sighing of the suflfering lung 
And in its stillness hear alike a tongue 
That syllables oracular reply : 
" Impossible, 'tis fixed, your child must die." 
Response more dread not Delphic prophetess 
E'er shuddered from her murmurous recess. 

With itish of countless chariots, palpitates 



president's address. 63 

lifers great metropolis through all her gates, 
Their crimson wheels with a perpetual sound) 
Coming and going in their endless round, 
Are heard tumultuous as thy hurrying throng 
Th^ Appian or Flaminian ways along : 
Tis yours to know next hour all this will fail, 
And death and silence everywhere prevail. 

FBTBEOIAH'I . OHABAOBn AMD AXVS-MIUlOa FBOOBU0ITS. 

O it is well that ye have hearts to feel 
And ears not deaf to pity's soil appeal, 
Putting no difference 'twixt rich and poor. 
Plying with equal zeal the means of cure, 
Not deeming it becoming to regard 
Color or rank or person or reward. 
The man of impure life and sordid aims 
He smuts his office and his calling shames : 
Him you disown and place him under ban 
As nothing better than a charlatan. 
Believing needless ignorance a crime, 
You strive to reach the summit of your time ; 
To old age learning up from early youth 
Tour life one long apprenticeship to truth : 
Wisely suspicioi^s sometimes of the new, 
Ye give alert acceptance to the true : 
Even though it make old science obsolete, 
It with a thousand welcomes still you greet. 
" Knowledge is power," and here 'tis power to save, 
A power like God's to rescue from the grave. 
Each Year adds something — many things ye know 
Your sires knew not a Hundred Years ago ; 
Art grown to more, your sons will higher climb. 
And make the Coming Centuries sublime : 
Till Christ's Millennial Kingdom shall begin. 



64 MEDICAL SOCIETT OP NEW JERSEY. 

And put an end to sickness and to sin. 

Heights of the Future ! breezy with the breath 

Of vernal quickening to the fields of Death, 

In the far distance of the long before, 

We think we see your misty summits soar : 

Though scarce distinguished from the mingling skies, 

How glad the sight to our believing eyes I 

SMSrrUAL ¥*T.iT>TM-OBmigr TBS eXSAT FHTflOIAV. 

Ah ! there are maladies beyond your skill : 
You cannot cure depravity of will : 
You cannot mend a moral nature flawed, 
Convert a mind at enmity with God : 
You cannot terminate the inward strife, 
Restore the broken harmony of life : 
With all th* armamentarium of Art 
Restrain the outflow of an evil heart : 
Cleanse by detergent washings of the skin 
The immedicable leprosy of sin : 
Remove the lunacy that chooses death. 
And imprecates destruction with each breath. 
When came the Great Physician of the skies. 
To find a remedy that should suffice. 
Knowing 'twas not in mineral or wood. 
He sought it in a Pharmacy of Blood ; 
And since none other but His own was pure, 
He transfused that to consummate the cure. 
Man curing when past cure — content to give 
Himself to die to make His patient live. 

DXATH— DOCOBTAUTT— SaSUXBSOnOK— BPXBITUAL BODY. 

Death spreads, no more — a black and wrathful cloud 
The smiling infinite of heaven to shroud — 
A harmless mist, instead, divinely bright 
With dewy splendors of the morning light, 



president's ADDRES& 65 

That scarcely serves th' eternal world to hide, 
Where loved ones gone before in bliss abide : 
Lo I what a mighty beckoning of hands, 
And wafted welcomes of angelic bands, 
Afi one of ChrisVs dear number upward springs. 
And first essays his wondrous gift of wings. 
Such greetings did your recent coming wait, 

aged pilgrim I* at the heavenly gate, 
When man^s allotted years on earth now spent, 
You, dying, " to the greater number went."t 
What though your body moulders 'neath the sod, 
Its untouched life is hid with Christ in God. 

1 heard a voice proclaiming from the skies : 

" The dead shall live, with my dead body rise." 
Awake and sing, O ye that dwell in dust. 
Because He lives, who is your life, ye must. 
His quickening spirit shall go forth again, 
IDs power overshadow and His love impregn. 
The slumbering germs dispersed through land and sea. 
The buried ovules of identity. 
Shall suddenly unfold, and all the Earth 
Be as a woman in the pangs of birth. 
The Body bom not mortal like that sown. 
But kindred and resemblant to Christ^s own : 
Admiring angels shall the sight applaud. 
Blazing with all the majesty of God. 



• Dr. L. A. Smith. 

t Abiit ad plnree. If this phnue was an apt and ezpreselve metonomy for death 
2|000 yean ago, how much more now. 

9 



66 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

P08T8CBIPT. 

Preptred imid fhe hurry and distnction of oUnor duties, and with apfciil 
reference to the demands and limitations of the occasion^ the foregoing Poem, 
as originally dellrered, fell short of the author's design, which was to pro- 
dace, if possible, a tolerably complete compendium of that noblest, more 
necessary, and yet, strange to say, tbat most neglected of all the Sciences— 
Anthropology— reliered of some of the dryness belonging to the ordinary 
mode of presentation. The hope of supplying in some measure existiDg 
defldencies, led the author, after the manuscript had passed into the hands 
of the printer, to ayail himself of the short interrals which trsnspired ht- 
tween the receiying and returning of the proofe, to castigate some parts, and 
expand others not sufficiently developed, so that besides alterations there 
haye been additions to the amount of two hundred lines and more since 
that first reading. He regrets that the hurry of the press Joined to the 
hurry arising from other causes, afforded so little opportunity for putting 
in practice the sound inculcation of Horace concerning the duty of deUy 
and carefhl finish : linuB labor et mora. With more time at his disposal, he 
thinks he could haye done l>etter Justice to the fine capabilities of a subject, 
which the writers of yerse, ransacking heayen and earth for a theme, have 
hitherto somehow strangely oyerlooked. This remarkable omiasion is the 
more to be wondered st, because many of our best poets haye been physi- 
cians ; and for some reason or other 

" the wise of andent days adored 
One power of Physic, Melody and Song." 

In regard to the Notes, howeyer soperfluous they may be to some, it 
was thought tliat they might be of use to others— particularly non-prof(M- 
sional readers, should there happen to be any such. 

A few oyersights in proof-reading, and one instance, at leaat, of ftlse 
rhyme, were not obserred until too late for correction. Read, therefore, 

On page 19, lines 12th and 18th trom the top, Archetype for «* Arohitype," 
and ''J)rom the Creation" instead of '*for.» 
^ On page 28, line 8d from top, 8tq)hm'9 for "Stephen." 

On page 39, line 9th from the top, papfXlm for ** papilla.'' 

On page 80, lines 17th and 18th firom the top, to correct rhyme sub- 
stitute 

Thick round the brow of beauty sweetly curled 
And crowning Adam monarch of the world. 

On page 82, line 8d of note, read 81 Spinal, instead of *< 82." In last line 
of note, on next page, read eurrenU instead of " current." 

It would not be surprising if there were other errors that haye escaped 
notice. 



HISTORICAL NARRATIVE. 



BY DR. WM. PIER80N. 



" Crescunt cxmcordia res partXB,^^ 

THIS motto, applied to the rise and progress of the Dutch 
Eepublie, under the skillful and patriotic lead of Wil- 
liam the Silent, may without stretch of imagination, be applied 
to inferior communities and associations, that originate minor 
but commendable purposes, and by united and harmonious 
concert, conduct them to successful issues. Its exemplifica- 
tion, we think, will be found in the history of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey, which is our theme on this interesting 
centenary occasion. 

On the 17th of June, 1766, there appeared in the Mercury, 
(a paper published in the city of New York,) the following 
advertisement : " A considerable number of the practitioners 
" of Physic and Surgery m East New Jersey, having agreed 
" to form a Society, for their mutual improvement, the ad- 
" vancement of the profession, and the promotion of the pub- 
" lie good ; and desirous of extending the usefulness of their 
"scheme, and of cultivating the utmost barmony and friend- 
" ship, hereby request and invite every Gentleman of the 
"profession in the province, thai may approve of their de 
" sign, to attend their first meeting, at Mr. Duff's, in the citj 
" of New Brunswick, on the 20th of July, at which time anu 
" place the constitution and regulations of the Society are to 
' be settled and subscribed." 



68 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Among other reasons assigned for this first movement, is 
the following : " The low state of medicine in New Jersey, 
" and the many difficulties and discoaragements alike injurious 
" to the people and the physician, under which it has hitherto 
" laboured, and which still continue to oppose its improve- 
" ment in utility to the public, and its advancement to its 
" native dignity, having for several years engaged the atten- 
" tion of some gentlemen of the profession, and occasionally 
" been the subject of conversation, it was determined to at- 
" tempt some measures of rescuing the art from that abject 
" condition into which it seemed too fast to decline." 

A question seemed to have arisen in the minds of the origi- 
nal founders, whether legislative interposition ought not to be 
the first measure ; but upon farther reflection it was concluded 
that an association of the faculty based upon the voluntary 
principle, should take precedence, and would by its weight 
and influence be an important instrument in securing the 
former. 

Agreeably to the foregoing notice, the following gentlemen 
convened at the appointed place, viz : Robert McKean, Chris- 
topher Manlove, John Cochran, Moses Bloomfield, James 
Gilliland, Wm. Burnet, Jonathan Dayton, Thomas Wiggins, 
Wm. Adams, Bernard Budd, Lawrence Van Derveer, John 
Griffith, Isaac Harris, and Joseph Sackett. 

These gentlemen proceeded immediately to organize the 
Society, which they styled " The New Jersey Medical So- 
ciety," and to establish rules and regulations for its govern- 
ment The motives, reasons and purposes which influenced 
them and for which they aimed, will be best understood by a 
concise citation of the leading features of the constitution. 
In the preamble they say : " Whereas, medicine, comprising 
" properly physic and surgery, is one of the most useful sci- 
" ences to mankind, and at the same time the most difficult 
"to be fully attained, so much so that indeed perfection 



HISTORICAL NABRATIVE. 69 

'* therein is perhaps never to be acquired, the longest life 
" spent in the pursuit always finding something new to occur, 
" and lamenting something still wanting to perfect the art." 
After adverting to the necessity and value of an interchange 
of knowledge and practical experience, to supply the defect 
in the then existing means of acquiring medical education, by 
an associated correspondence in a well regulated society, as 
also to the pleasures of social intercourse, and the refinements 
to flow from such an association, they say, for the purpose of 
establishing rules, in the absence of law and custom, for the 
admission of candidates — a due reward for personal services — 
the maintenance of the dignity of the profession — and th6 
security of the public from imposition, they unite in adopting 
the following constitution : 

" 1st. That we will never enter into any house in quality 
of our profession, nor undertake any case in physic or surgery, 
but with the purest intentions of giving the utmost relief and 
assistance that our art shall enable us, which we will diligently 
and feithfully exert for that purpose. 

" 2d. That we will at all times, when desired, be ready to 
consult or be consulted by any of our brethren in any case 
submitted to us ; and that in all cases where we conceive dif- 
ficulty, and circumstances will admit, we will advise and re- 
commend such consultation. 

" 3d. That we will not pretend to, or keep secret any nos- 
trums, or specific medicine of any kind, as being inconsistent 
with the generous spirit of the profession, but will be ready 
at all times to communicate to any member of this Society 
any discovery or improvement we have made respecting the 
healing art 

'' 4th. That we will on all occasions treat one another as 
becomes the medical character, and that each of us will do our 
utmost to maintain harmony and brotherly affection in this 
Society — to promote the usefulness of it to the profession, and 
to the public" 



70 MEDICAL SOCIETY. OP NEW JEtoEY. 

5tb. Provides for the gratuitous attendance upon all the 
poor, who have no legal means of support from their country. 

6th. Provides for semi-annual meetings of the Society, 
which all members were required to attend under a penalty of 
three pounds proclamation money, unless satisfactory excuse 
could be rendered. 

7th. That owing to the widely dispersed situation of the 
members, general meetings oftener than twice in the year 
would be inconvenient ; provision is made for less associations 
of the members, whose locality would admit, to meet every 
two months, for the purpose of mutual improvement. These 
meetings were, however, not obligatory. 

8th. Provides for the alteration and amendment of the rules, 
and for the consideration of all matters which may be proposed 
by any individual member, or by any of the inferior societies, 
or branches, as they are styled. 

9th, 10th and 11th sections provide for the appointment, 
and prescribe the duties of its officers, who were to hold office 
for one year. These officers are President, Secretary and 
Treasurer. 

12th. Provides for special meetings upon the call of the 
President at the request of any five members, 

18th. Admission to membership. Any person desirous of 
becoming a member, must signify his intention, at least one 
month before a regular meeting, to the Secretary, who makes 
known the same to each of the members ; and at the next 
regular meeting the candidate is to be balloted for by squares 
and triangles, or any other device that may be agreed on, and 
if he receives three-fourths of the ballots cast, he is admitted. 

** 14th. The Society shall not be dissolved, but by the con- 
currence of seven-eighths of the whole body." 

The last article reads as follows : 

" This Society will do all in its power to discourage and 
discountenance all quacks, mountebanks, impostors, or other 



HISTORICAL KARRATIVB. 71 

ignorant pretenders to medicine, and will on no account sup- 
port or patronise any but those who have been regularly ini- 
tiated into medicine, eith,er at some university, or under the 
direction of some able master or masters, or who by the study 
of the theory and* practice of the art, have otherwise qualified 
themselves to the satisfaction of the Society for the exercise of 
the profession." 

From the foregoing analysis of its details, it is apparent, 
that the Society was originally established upon the voluntary 
basis — ^for mutual improvement — the cultivation of social and 
friendly intercourse — ^the promotion of the dignity ?ind ad- 
vancement of the healing art, and the frowning down and 
exclusion of all charlantry— cardinal principles which attach 
to the genuine profession at all periods of its history. 

Were the materials at hand, it would be an interesting study 
to inquire what was the standard, and the means of acquiring 
a medical education at the period under consideration. So far 
as the writer is informed, there was but one Medical College 
in all the colonies, viz : the University of Pennsylvania, the 
commencement of which bears even date with that of this 
Society. But what was the curriculum of study — ^what the 
text books — what system was taught — whether humoral path- 
ology — the Brunonian or some other theory prevailed, and 
whether clinical instruction formed a part of the teaching, are 
unknown to your historian. It is most probable the prevalent 
system was elective and defective. Suffice it to say, that 
medical as well as preparatory education was at a low stand' 
ard as compared with present advantages; as will be most 
apparent from the illustrations which will be presented as we 
advance in the narrative. 

Immediately after the adoption of the constitution the gen* 
Hemen who subscribed the same, with the additional names 
of Drs. Camp, Tenant, and Blatchley, held their first session, 
and elected Eev. Dr. McKean, President ; Dr. Manlove, Secre- 
tary ; and Dr. Cochran, Treasurer. 



72 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

The first sabject proposed was a fee bill, which, after much 
discussion, was referred to a Committee, with instructions to 
prepare and report forthwith. 

In the report submitted by the Committee, the preamble sets 
forth, among other reasons, the necessity and advantage to 
the profession and public, of a uniform rate of charges — ^the 
dangers and exposure of the practitioner — ^the great expense 
of education, &c., &c. And adds that they ought at least to 
live by their useful profession, and that the bill proposed was 
not on an average higher than the rate hitherto charged. 
The fees are put down in proclamation money, the standard 
of which was twenty York shillings to the pound, equivalent 
to $2.50 in federal currency. 

This bill has many curious items. I select a few specimens 
that we may have some idea of what our Venerable predeces- 
sors considered reasonable compensation for their services. 

Visits in Town, where the patient can be seen without riding, to l)c 
charged according to the duration of th^ aiUncnt, and the degree of 

attendance, as follows : £ S. D. 

In slight cases, where one or two may be wanted 

In other cases requiring longer and daily attendance — for each 
week's attendance, and in proportion for more or less time, 

exclusive of medicine 10 

Visits in country under half a mile, the same as in town 10 

Every visit above half a mile, and not exceeding 1^ miles. ... 1 6 
Every visit alK)ve 1^ miles and not exceeding 16 miles, for each 

additional mile 1 

And so on. For each mile above 25 2 

Every night visit 5 

Every first consultation visit, exclusive of traveling fees 15 

Each successive consultation visit 7 6 

Some of the principal Surgical operations — 

Trepaning — extraction of cataract — amputation of the breast, 

arm or leg— hydrocele, fistula in ano, each 3 

Lithotomy, exclusive of subsequent dressings 5 

All luxations and simple fractures 1 10 



Except luxation a{ the neck and femur and simple fracture 

of do., each -. .. a 

Compound fractures one-third more than simple fractures, ex- 
clusive of subsequent dressings - - - 

Delivery in case of natural labour 1 10 

Do. preternatural case 8 

Do. with instruments 8 

Medidnee — 

Cathartics, emetics, and draughts, each 2 

Decoctions and wines, with foreign ingredients, per lb 7 6 

Tinctures, elixirs and essences, per oz 8 9 

Salivation, including medicines ^ 8 

Gonorrhoea, £2 Ss. Od. With chancres 8 

The Society imposed on each member the duty of charging 
strictly according to the foregoing bill, with liberty to each 
individual to make such abatement as he thought proper on 
account of poverty, friendship, or other laudable "motives; and 
also resolved not to credit any person, (except those families 
where attendance was constant,) more than three months. 

The Society at their first meeting, agreeably to the 7th ar- 
ticle of the constitution,- subdivided the members into four 
Inferior societies, called the Elizabethtown, the Boundbrook, 
the Prince town and Morris town Societies, to hold regular 
meetings at such times and places as they may deem conven- 
ient 

At the second meeting in the same year, it was stated that 
some dissatisfaction with the action and proceedings existed, 
tending to cast odium upon the Society. From the record it 
seems that this dissatisfaction was connected chiefly with the 
fee bill, and it was resolved, after much opposition and dis- 
cussion, " That every member be allowed to charge independ- 
ent of the prices affixed by the Society, until the next general 
meeting." This negative of the fee bill, although several at- 
tempts were made to reinstate it, continued for several years, 
until after the act of incorporation in 1816, when a new bill 
was established. 
10 



74 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JKRSET. 

At the same meeting, the President submitted a recipe given 
to him by Dr. Ayres of Rhode Island, as a celebrated nos- 
trum of Dr. Jared Elliott, of Connecticut, with the remark 
that he knew nothing of the remedy, but was assured by Dr. 
Ayres, that he had frequently ministered it with great suc- 
cess in dropsies and hysteric cases from relaxation. I give 
the recipe as an illustration of the advance of medicine at that 
period : 

Electarium stomachicum, anti hydropicum vel hystericum 
specificum. ^ 

R. 
Pulv. Gent., oz. i. 
Myrrh, oz. i. 
Glacci Com., oz. iiss. 
Cons. Ro& q. s. ad elect 

To the word Glacci is appended an explanatory note, viz : 
Common Glass, the arcanum concealed under the name of 
Glacies. The dose is too unintelligibly given, but we are not 
left in the dark, for Dr. Ayres says he was not very solicitous 
about the levigation of the glass, but administered it frequent- 
ly not very fine, and never knew any bad consequences to 
follow, except when given at first in too large doses ; and the 
way to ascertain what was a sufficient dose, would be the im- 
mediate efiPects when taken into the stomach. If sufficient, 
an immediate pungent pain would be instantly felt and a 
universal shock of the system, something like the electric 
shock. If these did not follow, the dose is then to be in- 
creased. To the credit of the Society, be it said, they judged 
it not prudent to recommend the use of it, without more au- 
thentic proofs of its success. 

The narrative thus far enters somewhat into minute detail 
of the proceedings, in order that we may form a more correct 
•judgment of the spirit and purposes of the Society. Hereafter 
it will be more cursory and general, noticing only the promi- 
nent and important modifications and objecta 



HISTOBICAL NARRATIVE. 75 

The regular routine of business seems to consist principally 
in the appointment of the officers, who were generally changed 
yearly, the admission of new members, and receiving ex- 
cuses for absenteeism, and discussion of the affairs of the 
Society. For half a century, under the government of the 
first constitution, scarcely a meeting was held in which one or 
more applications for membership did not occur. Different 
qualifications for admission were adopted at different periods. 
At first it was sufficient that the candidate be known to some 
of the members, or be vouched for by some well known and 
established practitioner, and for want of this testimonial the 
case was referred to the next regular meeting. Soon, how- 
ever, the candidate was required to submit to an examination 
by a Committee appointed pro re nata. Afler the enactment 
by the colonial legislature, of the first medical law, a license 
granted by the Supreme Court was accepted as a sufficiei^ 
testimonial. Subsequently the additional requirement was 
added that the candidate shall have been in practice for three, 
which at a later period was reduced to two years. 

When any member desired to remove out of the colony, it 
was customary to apply for a testimonial of character to the 
Society, which was uniformly granted. 

At the meeting of the Society, May, 1768, it was proposed 
for the first time, that Intermittent Fever be the subject of 
discussion, at the regular meeting — a practice which prevailed 
with more or less regularity for a considerable time. The 
subjects proposed and the decisions had, will be noticed mere 
particularly hereafter, to illustrate the general tenor of medi- 
cal inquiry and medical knowledge at this early period. 

At the meeting. May, 1770, it was voted that hereafter the 
President shall open the meeting with a dissertation upon 
some medical subject, with this special proviso, " that it shall 
always be before dinner." To exhibit the state of medical ed- 
ucation at the period under review, I cite some of the subjects 
of these dissertations : • 



76 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

** Putrefaction, its causes, effects and remedies." " Inocula- 
tion." " The Catamenia, the causes of obstruction, method of 
cure, &a" , " Nature, causes and methods of cure of the dis- 
orders of Infants." " Nature, causes and cure of the pleuri- 
sy." "Nature and property of blood." "The formation, use 
and sympathizing quality of the nerve." " Nephritis." " The 
blood, and the changes it is capable of undergoing in dis- 
eases." " Health and disease, and accounting for the latter." 
** Nutrition." " Animal secretiona" " The natural phenom- 
ena of sheep." " The origin, antiquity, dignity and usefulness 
of the science of medicine, and the qualifications necessary 
for a practitioner." " The chemical principles of bodies." 
" Properties of atmospheric air." " The causes of vital heat 
and animal motion." " Dropsy," and others of similar char- 
acter. 

la connection, it is proper to state that the minutes of 1767 
say, that as the medical education of students, or as they were 
then styled, apprentices, had been neglected ia the provisions 
of the constitution, to the great detriment of the profession, 
it was resolved that no practitioner should receive an appren- 
tice unless he had a competent knowledge of Latin, and some 
initiation in Greek — that he should serve not less than four 
years, one of which might be spent, with the consent of the 
Master, in some school of physic in Europe or Americji. 
That the apprentice fee should be one hundred pounds, proc- 
lamation money, which was deemed very low, and no more 
than a card acknowledgment for board during the term. 

The importance and necessity of legislative interference at- 
tracted the attention of the Society. And at the meeting in 
1768 a Comnaittee was appointed to prepare a petition to the 
General Assembly for a law to regulate the practice of physic 
and surgery in the province. This movement excited suspi- 
cion and opposition in and out of the profession. Counter 
petitions were circulated — the Society faltered, and although 



HlSTO^tlCAL NARRATTVB. 77 

introduced for three successive years, hesitated between pre- 
senting their petitions to the General Assembly, or applying to 
the Governor and Council for a charter. They invoked the 
aid of lay gentlemen of character and influence, and finally 
at the meeting in May, 1772, resolved to proceed with the 
application to the General Assembly, which proved a success, 
and a medical law, the first, it is apprehended, in any of the 
colonies, was enacted Sept. 16, 1772. 

The preamble of this law sets forth that many ignorant and 
evil disposed pretenders had practiced physic and surgery in 
the colony, to the great detriment of his majesty's subjects, 
therefore it was enacted : 

Sec. 1. No person to practice in the colony unless examined 
by some person appointed by two of the judges of the Supreme 
Court, and licensed by them. 

Sea 2. The penalty prescribed for the violation of the pre- 
ceding section was five pounds proclamation money. 

Sec. 3. Exempts all persons commissioned by his majesty 
and employed in his service. Any person was allowed to ex- 
tract teeth, bleed, and give gratuitous assistance. Any skill- 
ful physician or surgeon from a neighboring colony was al- 
lowed to practice occasionally. 

Sec. 4. All bills to be presented in plain English, and 
liable to be taxed by any one of the justices of the Supreme 
Court, or of the Court of Common Pleas of the county, city, 
or borough, where the party complaining resides. 

Sec. 5. The penalty for the sale of any drugs or medicines 
by any physician, surgeon or mountebank doctor, who should 
travel through the colony, was twenty pounds proclamation 
money. 

Sec. 6. Limited the act to the term of five years. 

From Nov., 1775, to Nov., 1781, there is an interval of six 
years in the journal, to which reference is made at the meet- 
ing in 1782, by a Committee appointed for the purpose, in the 



78 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

following language : " The war, (which has been productive 
" of the happy revolution in America,) having claimed the 
" attention of all ranks of freemen, most of the members of 
" this Society took an early and decided part in the opposition 
" to British tyranny and oppression, and were soon engaged 
" either in the civil or military duties of the State. Added 
" to this, the local situation of the war, (the scene of action 
" being chiefly in this and the adjoining States,) rendered an 
^' attendance on the usual stated meetings not only unsafe, but 
" in a great measure impracticable from the scattered and dis- 
" tant residences of the members. * * * * As soon as 
" sufficient order and harmony were restored to civil govem- 
" ment, a convening of the members was again deemed ne- 
*• cessary and proper ; as well to re-establish it upon its former, 
" liberal and respectable principles, as to place it under the 
" patronage of the authority of the State." 

From this testimonial, we have the gratifying reflection that 
during that long aftd eventful struggle for liberty, as well as 
from similar evidence, at subsequent, and especially during 
the recent period of our nation's difficulty, the profession have 
ever been prompt to make the sacrifice, even of blood, upon 
the altar fire, that never goes out in the genuine patriot*s 
heart. 

From the above period, to 1790, the society pursued the 
even tenor of its course, without any incidents of very special 
notice. Accessions, in increasing number, were made to its 
membership, subjects were introduced for discussion at the 
regular meetings, and discussions had. I cite a few specimens 
as illustrating medical science at that period : " What is the 
proximate cause of intermittent fever ?" Decided by vote to 
be debility. ** Whether putrefaction ever takes place in the 
living body?" This question being deemed too vague for 
discussion, the following was substituted, " What is the prox- 
imate cause of a putrid fever?" No decision was had, a 



HISTORICAL NARBATIVK. 79 

majority not being in favor of any one opinion. '* What are 
the remote and proximate causes of Epilepsy and the method 
of cure ?" No decision was had. " What are the causes of 
Dysentery and cure ?" Decided that the proximate cause was 
spasm. " What is the beat treatment for Hydrocele ?" The 
several methods of injection, caustic, seton and incision were 
debated, and the sense of the Society was in favor of incision. 
During the period under review, patients were brought into 
the Society and cases submitted for advice. A lad aged 17 
years was presented for a tumor on the forearm. The Society, 
undecided whether it was aneurism or an encysted tumor, 
advised incision in the first instance, which was performed in 
presence of the Society, and a considerable ** discharge of 
cameous, ligamentous, osseous and cheesy-like substance, fol- 
lowed ;" the tumor not being encysted, but occupying under 
the common integuments the space from the cubit to the 
wrist. Four days after the operation it was found necessary 
to amputate the arm, which soon was followed with symptoms 
of tetanus. The patient continued in this condition with 
very little remission for six weeks, after which convalescence 
commenced and the cure was perfected in eleven weeks. A 
case was presented of a patient who had labored under inter- 
mittent fever, and subsequently was seized with pain in the 
right lung, attended with copious expectoration of a substance 
resembling trunks and branches of vessels. The Society was 
of opinion that the expectoration was inspissated lymph, and 
that the form was owing to the peculiar organization of the 
parts, and that em^etics were particularly indicated. 

A case of convulsive fits, occasioned by swinging the patient 
several times round by the feet, was presented for examina 
tion and advice. It was the opinion of the Society, after con- 
siderable discussion, that the whole train of symptoms de- 
pended on atonia, and that the proper remedies were tonic 
medicines, (such as bark and cuprum ammoniacum) with ex- 
ercise and the cold shower bath on the occurrence of the fit. 



80 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

For the first time a letter was received from the Medical 
Society of Massachusetts Bay, proposing coiTespondence, 
which was cordially replied to, and an interchange of papers 
and correspondence continued for some time. Communications 
were also received from the CSoUege of Philadelphia, and at a 
later period from the Medical Society of New York, estab- 
lishing the fafit that the friendly correspondence, which we 
now hold with several State Medical Societies, is not altogeth- 
er a modern civility. 

An increase of membership and business suggested the idea 
of increased officers, and a Corresponding Secretary was elect- 
ed, who, under a rule of the Society, held the office perma- 
nently. At a later date a Vice President and Treasurer were 
added to the list. 

At the meeting in 1786, it was ordered that a seal be pro- 
cured for the Society, and a Committee for that purpose was 
appointed. The Committee reported progress from time to 
time, were continued, and finally presented the seal, which 
with a slight alteration, has been in use to the present time. 
No particular description of it is given in the journal. The 
inscription is taken from the Latin poet, Ovid. 

This quotation, if literal, is not strictly grammatical, and 
certainly inappropriate. The conjunction quje affixed to the 
word opifer^ is without an antecedent word to be connected. 
It would be well in the future that this error be corrected. 

When we take into consideration the sparseness of popula- 
tion, during the period now reviewed, the circuitous and de- 
fective highways, and the want of traveling facilities — the 
inadequate means of education, especially in scientific depart- 
ments — the fact that in the entire State there was not a settle- 
ment which could be called a town, none but home manufac- 
tures for domestic use — and all the various obstacles incident 
to and growing out of our infant and colonial condition, it is 
a matter of surprise that the practice of medicine should have 



HISTORICAL NARRATIVE. 81 

commanded so large a share of the attention of practitioners 
at that period ; and it ought to put to shame the indifference 
and negligence with which are treated the claims of this 
Society, and the important interests of the medical profession, 
by the practitioners of our day. 

The medical law enacted by the Colonial Legislature, to 
which reference has already been made, seems not to have 
given imanimous satisfaction, and efforts were made — ^unsuc- 
cessfully, however — ^to obtain a charter from the Governor and 
Council ; and very soon after the establishment of our inde- 
pendence, and the reassembling of the Society, the proposition 
to apply to the Legislature of the State for a medical law was 
received with great favor. A lar^e Committee was appointed 
for the purpose, and in their first attempt failed, having ob- 
tained only the vote of one branch of the Legislature. The 
second application was successful, and in 1790 a law was en- 
acted, entitled " An Act for incorporating a certain number 
" of Physicians and Surgeons of this State by the style and 
" title of the Medical Society of New Jersey." 

Prior to this, some medical gentlemen in East Jersey, for 
reasons not assigned, were desirous of obtaining another charter 
independent of the Parent Society. This was strenuously op- 
posed, and a strong Committee was appointed to wait upon the 
Legislature, and to resist, as they successfully did, the appli- 
cation. 

The preamble of the above act states the objects to be, the 
advancement of medical knowledge and the cultivation of 
liberality and harmony among themselves ; and a uniformity 
of practice upon the most approved system. 

Sea 1 names fifly-one gentlemen as the corporators, to be 
associated under the style of the Medical Society of New Jer- 
sey, to continue for the term of 25 years. 

Sec. 2 provides for the holding of real and personal proper- 
ty to the amount of 500 pounds. 
11 



82 KEDICAL 80CIET7 OF NBW JIRSET. 

Sees. 8 and 4 provides for the appointment of offioera, and 
name for President, Moses Soott; for Vice President, Thomas 
Barber; Treasurer, Thomas Wiggins; Becording Secretary, 
Francis B. Sayre, to hold office for one year ; and John Beatty, 
Corresponding Secretary, to hold during the pleasure of the 
Society. 

Sec. 6 provides that a majority shall constitute a quorum ; 
but that no measures adopted shall be valid unless 17 members 
were present 

• Sec. 7 authorizes the Society to adopt rules and regulations 
for the government of its members. 

In accordance with the foregoing, a code of By-laws wm 
adopted, in which are a few'particulars worthy of notice, viz. : 
the subdivision of the Society into four smaller Societies, call* 
ed branches, to be subject to thfe control of the yearly meet- 
ings, and to hold sessions on the first Tuesday of May annual- 
ly, the parent Society to hold its annual meetings in November, 
Every member in rotation was required to present a written 
dissertation upon some medical subject^ or state a case, which 
was to be the subject of discussion for the day ; the annual pay- 
ment by each meniber of ten shillings as a foundation of a fund 
for the Society. 

This new organization, though simple in structure and baaed 
upon the voluntary system, did not seem to meet the views 
of the profession. The Society began to decline, but still con- 
tinued a feeble existence up to 1795 ; though special means 
had been adopted to secure the attendance of a sufficient num- 
ber to make a quorum. At the meeting in 1796 an intimation 
was given by the President of the College of New Jersey, of 
the design of establishing a medical department in that semi- 
nary, and that the Trustees had already appointed Dr. McLean, 
Professor of Chemistry. To this the Society responded, and 
tendered its co-operation and aid. From this period to 1807, 
a space of 12 years, there are no minutes on record, and of 
course no meetings were held. 



HIBTOBIOAL NABRATIYIS. 83 

The reasons for this intemipiioB are nowhere stated. I 
think, however, it may be gathered from the record, that the 
large number requited by the act of incorporation to constitute 
a quorum — the month of November being an unfortunate time 
for the annual meetings — and more especiallj the &ct that at 
this period a Medical Society composed of the Eastern Coun- 
ties of the State was in existence and acting independently, 
were the chief causes. 

In June, 1807, by a voluntary letter of invitation to the 
members and olher gentlemen of the profession, a meeting was 
held at New Brunswick ; at which a constitutional quorum not 
being present^ it was determined to admit to membership nine- 
teen medical gentlemen who were present upon invitation, they 
declaring under their hands that they were legally authorized 
practitioners and now residing in the State. The Society pro- 
ceeded to the election of officers^ and resolved to appeal to the 
next session of the Legislature to sanction the proceedings and 
to change the time of the annual meeting to June, and to re- 
duce the quorum to nine instead of seventeen. The applica- 
tion was successful. It seems that at this period there was a 
Western District Society, and it was directed that the two Pis- 
trict Societies meet on the first Monday in October, the East- 
em 9i New Brunswick and the Western at Burlington. 

From this time onward, no interruption of regular meetingi^ 
occurred. The Society was prosperous ; its members greatly 
increased, and more interest in the advance of medical science 
manifested, as is apparent from the frequent clinical discussions 
had upon the presentation of patients and cases. The By-laws^ 
were revised in accordance with new legislative enactments, 
aod a new fee bill adopted. 

In 1811 the attention of the Society was directed to the 
mode of examining candidates for license to practice. The 
subject was referred to a Committee to report forthwith ; and 
upon their recommendation, the State was divided into three 



84 MEDICAL SOCIBTY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Districts: the Eastern comprising the Counties of Bergen, 
Essex, Morris and Middlesex ; the Middle of Somerset, Hun- 
terdon, Sussex and Monmouth ; and the Western of Buriing- 
ton, Gloucester, Salem, Cumberiand and . Cape May. Three 
examiners were appointed for each district, to continue in of- 
fice for two years, and to hold examinations at such time and 
place as they might deem proper, A Committee at the same 
meeting was appointed to confer with the Justices of the Su- 
preme Court for their approval. 

Another important measure was adopted, authorizing the 
District Societies to admit members who should be received in 
the general Society. A Committee also presented the first, but 
imperf^t meteorological observation for the year. But few 
instances of discipline are recorded. Fines were occasionally 
imposed for absenteeism and non-performance of duty. But 
two instances of expulsion are noticed ; one prior to the war 
of independence, and the other near the close of the first half 
century of the existence of the Society. The first was un* 
doubtedly on political grounds, and the second for violation of 
professional etiquette. 

As fiarther evidence of the increased zeal and interest which 
had taken firm hold of the profession, was the move set on 
foot to obtain a new act of incorporation. The matter was put 
in charge of a Committee, who presented a draft of a law, 
which received the entire approval of the Society in 1815, and 
on the 16th of February, 1816, was passed by the Legislature. 
Here closes the first volume of the records, and the first half 
century of the Society's operations. 

On entering the second half century, we emerge into a new 
existence ; we enter the borders of time, where a few surviving 
memories are still familiar with our transactions; we throw 
aside the self-sustaining and self-working system, and covered 
with the 8Bgis of legislative enactment, we move as others di- 
rect, who are not of us. 



HISTORICAL NARRATIVE. 85 

Former legal provisions having expired by their own limit- 
ation, the application of the Society for a new charter was 
more successful, and on the 16th of Feb., 1816, au act entitled 
" An Act to incorporate the Medical Society of New Jersey" 
was passed, the object, aim and privileges of which will be in- 
dicated by the following analysis : 

Sec. 1. Declares the members to be a body politic and cor- 
porate, designates its name and style, with the ordinary func- 
tions of corporate bodies. 

Sec. 2. Provides for the first meeting of the Society at New 
Brunswick, and for the election of fifteen Managers, not less 
than nine of whom to constitute a quorum for business; which 
managers were authorized to choose their officers, prescribe 
their duties, and adopt rules for the management of their con- 
cerns. 

Sec. 3. Authorizes the Society to appoint not less than three 
Physicians or Surgeons in each County of the State, to insti- 
tute District Societies for the respective Counties. 

Sec 4. Provides that after the establishment of the District 
Societies, no person shall be allowed to practice Medicine or 
Surgery in any of the Counties until he shall have passed an 
examination, and received a certificate of license from the Dis- 
trict Society to which he applies, under a penalty of a forfeit- 
ure of any debt or demand accruing from such practice ; with 
a proviso exempting all persons who were in practice previous 
to the first meeting of the several District Societies, also any 
person, though not legally qualified, from practising in an 
emergency, when a regular physician cannot conveniently be 
had, or any physician residing in an adjacent State from occas- 
ional practice. 

Sec. 5. Any student deeming himself qualified, may apply 
to any District Society, and after careiul and satisfactory ex- 
amination, before at least three members, shall receive a certi- 
ficate of qualification, the presentation of which to the Presi- 



86 MEDICAL SOCIBTY OF KBW JBRSKY. 

dent of the State Society, shall entitle him to receive a license 
at his band upon payment of five doUara 

Sec 6, Provides the penalty of twenty-five dollars, with 
costs of suit — one-half to the complainant, who will prosecute 
the same to effect^ and the other half to the town, for the 
benefit of the poor — against every person who shall come into 
the State, for the purpose of erecting any stage for the sale of 
drugs or medicines of any kind. 

Sec. 7. Eequires all practitioners to present' their bills in 
plain English words for payment^ subject, upon application to 
any Justice of the Supreme Courts or Court of Common Pleas, 
to taxation by any skilful Physician to be appointed by the 
Court ; notice of the place and time of such taxation to be 
given to the payee within thirty days after payment has been 
demanded. 

Sec. 8. Makes it a public act and limits it to twenty-five 
years. 

Sec. 9. Bepealsall preceding enactments relative to the prac- 
tice of Physio and Surgery. 

We have specified in detail these particulars, because they 
are the basis of all subsequent legislation, in reference to the 
interests of the profession and of our Society. 

In May, 1816, immediately succeeding the passage of the Act 
of Inoorporation, seventeen gentlemen from the Counties of 
Middlesex, Somerset, Monmouth, Morris and Essex, convened 
at New Brunswick for the purpose of forming the Medical So- 
ciety of New Jersey. They elected fifteen Managers, and ap- 
pointed Committees to organize District Societies in the five 
counties above mentioned. Upon the adjournment of the So- 
ciety the Board of Managers convened for business, as directed 
in the second section of the Act, and elected the following as 
the first officers under the new organization, viz. : 

Lewis Dunham, Pres. ; Enoch Willson, Vice Pres. ; Eph- 
raim Smith, Treas. ; Augustus Taylor, Cor, Sec. ; Wm. Mc* 
Kissack, Eec. Sec. 



HISTORICIL KABBATIVK. 87 

These officers were, by a previous vote of the Society, to be 
the officers of the Society for the ensuing year. 

The Board appointed Committees to procure a seal, and pre- 
pare a code of by-laws, and adjourned to meet in the follow- 
ing month, at which time they adopted the seal used by the 
former Society, (with some alterations, the precise character of 
which is not stated) and which has been in use to the present 
time. They appointed examiners from and for each of the five 
District Societies, and adopted the code of by-laws reported by 
the Committee, and also a form of license. 

The following leading features in this code are noticeable : 

The five officers already mentioned — ^their respective duties ; 
all elections by ballot, and a majority vote requisite ; special 
meetings provided for ; nine members to constitute a quorum 
at all meetings ; absence from any meeting subject to a fine 
of one dollar, or the censure of the Society ; the payment of 
two dollars as admission fee, and the annual payment of fifty 
cents by each attending member ; the imperious duty of every 
member to discountenance quackery on all occasions ; to re- 
fuse professional intercourse with unlicensed practitioners 
and expelled members ; a vote of three-fourths of the members 
present necessary to authorize the forming of new District 
Societies ; the right reserved to the Society of nominating 
candidates from whom the District Societies to choose ex- 
aminers ; a vote of three-fourths necessary for the admission 
to membership, with satisfactory testimonials of moral char- 
acter from at least two members of the Society, and the ad- 
ditional evidence that the candidate has been a practitioner 
within the State one year preceding; the payment of J5 as a 
license fee, and the payment of the same sum by any member 
wbo may desire a properly attested certificate of membership ; 
a three-fourths vote required for expulsion of a member, and 
for the alteration of the by-laws* 

Thus commenced this new Society ; but very soon defects 



88 ICKDICAL SOCIETT OP NEW JERSET. 

in its working were detected, and remedies proposed for their 
correction; for at the second annual meeting in 1817, a Com- 
mittee was raised to prepare and present to the Legislature a 
supplement to the charter, with reference particularly to the 
mode of organization of the Society, the appointment of ex- 
aminers, and the institution of District Societiea For some 
cause, the profession outside of the five counties above named 
seemed reluctant, either to become members of the General 
Society, or to create new districts under its authority. 

At the annual meeting of the Society in 1818, the Commit- 
tee previously charged with the duty reported a supplement 
to the charter, passed at the preceding session of the L^sla- 
ture, February 10, 1818. This supplement provided that the 
Society hereafter should be composed of four delegates chosen 
by and from each District Society, the officers of the same to 
be ex-officio members; and conferred all the privileges and 
duties of the previous board of managers upon the Society. 
It in fact abolished this board of fifteen managers, thus re- 
moving, what seems from the subsequent history, to have 
been the feature most obnoxious to the profession. The sup- 
plement also provided for a semi-annual meeting in the month 
of November yearly, and for the appointment of three censors 
or examiners for each County Society, whose approving sig- 
nature should be necessary to authorize the President to grant 
a license. 

At the same meeting the standard of qualification of any 
applicant for examination was raised, he being required to 
have reached the age of 21 ; to have studied under the care 
of some regular practitioner, including attendance upon one 
course of lectures in some medical college ; and if a graduate 
of some literary college, the period of study was restricted to 
three years. It was further required of the candidate to give 
satisfactory evidence that he had not been examined by any 
board of censors for six months previous to his application. 



HISTORICAL NARRATIVK. 89 

The organization of the Society by delegations being estab- 
lished, the annual payment of fifty cents by each member was 
annulled, and the yearly assessment of four dollars upon each 
District Society was substituted. 

At this meeting a communication was received from the 
State Medical Society of New York, asking co-operation in a 
Convention to be held at Philadelphia, for the purpose of com- 
piling an American Pharmacopcea. The subject being report- 
ed upon by a Committee, the Society decided that, while the 
object and utility of the measure was highly approved, it was 
not expedient at the present time to participate, in conse- 
quence of the condition of the finances of the Society, and the 
short period allowed for preparation. The correspondence 
that ensued, brought the subject again before the Society at 
its next annual meeting, in 1819, and a delegation consisting 
of two gentlemen was appointed. 

As corroborative of a better state of feeling and increased 
interest in the profession at large, resulting from the adoption 
of a new charter and code of by-laws, is the fact that in this 
and the two succeeding years, applications were made foi*the 
formation of District Societies in the counties of Sussex, Ber- 
gen, Gloucester, Salem, Cumberland, Hunterdon, Cape May, 
and in Warren very soon after it became a county — thus es- 
tablishing local societies in every county of the State except 
Burlington, which did not make application until a much later 
date, in 1829, when the profession throughout the State was 
in communication with the parent Society through these sev- 
eral channels. 

It is worthy of notice, that at this time a second application, 
similar to that made at an early period of our history, was 
presented through a Committee to the Trustees of the College 
of New Jersey, respecting the degree of M.D., which met with 
the same result as in the former instance, and was rejected on 
the ground of inexpediency* 
12 



90 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NSW JERSEY. 

A proposition was presented by Dr. Taylor, to amend the 
act of incorporation, so as to transfer all examinations for 
license from the District Societies to the general Society. 
This centralization of power was a favorite measure of the 
mover, and although persisted in and postponed several times, 
received a quietus at last, by a resolution of the Society, " that 
no application to the Legislature for alterations to the act of 
incorporation should be made but by the consent of a major- 
ity of the District Societies, to be made known at a subsequent 
meeting of the State Society." 

At the annual meeting in 1820, we notice the adoption of a 
revised code of by-laws, the principal alterations of which are 
the following, viz : Three Vice Presidents instead of one ; the 
appointment of a Standing Committee of three, who were to 
be ex-officio members of the Society, and their duties essen- 
tially the same as at the present time; special meetings to be 
called, when requested by any four members, two of whom 
to be of different districts; no appointment of censors for any 
district to be made, unless said district be represented at the 
animal meeting; the annual meetings to be held at New 
Brunswick, and the semi-annual at Trenton. Bules to govern 
censors : Five instead of three to be appointed annually for 
each district represented, the President or Vice President of 
which always to be one, and three approving signatures re- 
quired to make valid every certificate ; applications for exam- 
ination to be acted upon only at regular meetings, and in 
presence of at least three of the censors. In addition to the 
duties of censors previously noticed they were required to 
examine candidates upon the subjects of Materia Medica, 
Pharmacy, Chemistry, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Theory 
and Practice of Physic and Midwifery. 

For the first time the by-laws, with the fee bill slightly mod- 
ified, were ordered to be printed for the use of the membera 

The Society being thus constituted and furnished, we shall 



HISTORICAL NARRATIVE. 91 

pass over a series of years, in a hurried review of its history, 
to the obtaining of the acts of 1825 and 1880, with these gen- 
eral remarka The routine business seems to have been trans- 
acted with great quiet and regularity. The meetings, espe- 
cially the annual, were well attended by an increasing number 
of delegates, although some of the districts neglected to im- 
prove the privilege granted to them; and on the whole there 
was a manifest and growing interest in whatever pertained to 
the profession, as a science or business. And this, chiefly 
through the active influence of a few prominent members, 
who were very regular in their attendance, watched carefully 
the proceedings, suggested, and by their zeal and weight of 
character carried, many improvements. 

During the decade under review, some incidents occurred 
of sufficient interest to claim our attention. In 1824 an ap- 
peal (the first on record) was presented by a member of the 
Essex District against a decision of that Society. The appel- 
lant. Dr. Lee, had been arraigned for improper conduct, and 
expelled by the District Society; he appeared before this So- 
ciety with counsel, a prominent member of the bar, and after 
much discussion the judgment was reversed, and the District 
directed to reinstate him in membership. From the record it 
would appear that this instruction was disregarded by the 
District, for a vote of censure was passed at the next session, 
which, however, was subsequently rescinded and ordered to 
be expunged from the minutes. What gives additional in- 
terest to the case is the fact that at the next annual meeting, 
in 1825, a by-law was adopted, in which it was provided that 
any member of a District Society, if charges were preferred 
against him, should have the privilege of appealing imme- 
diately to the State Society, and thereby arresting any farther 
proceedings in the trial by the District; and if the District 
should not appear to prosecute the case at the next annual 
meeting, the accused to stand acquitted. This manifestly was 



92 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NBW JBRSEY. 

an infringement, if not a virtual abrogation of the right to 
judge of the qualification of membership, universally preva- 
lent, it is believed, in all deliberative associations, literary or 
social, a right which this Society has recognized in its by-laws 
ever since 1830. 

In 1825 a supplement to the act of incorporation, was ob- 
tained from the Legislature, granting authority to confer the 
degree of Medicin» Doctor ; and in May of the succeeding 
year the Society adopted rules and regulations for conferring 
the degree, upon examination, and also as an honorarium, 
without that formality. These rules have been in operation 
up to the present time, although few have be^n disposed to 
avail themselves of the privilege. 

With this supplement also dates the origin of Fellows of 
this Society, consisting exclusively of all who should hold the 
office of President. These are invested with all the rights 
and privileges of delegated members, with some additional 
powers of minor importance. This change, although at first 
calculated to awaken jealousy in the minds of some, and to 
excite apprehension that a privileged order thus constituted 
might in time obtain an undue control in the aJBfairs of the 
Society, is now, in the opinion of your historian, universally 
approved. Its wisdom and utility are conceded by all who 
are conversant with its operations. The yearly attendance of 
the Fellows upon the regular meetings affords a favorable 
opportunity of becoming familiar with the management of 
our aflfairs, and by their number and weight of character, of 
suggesting and carrying through important measures. They 
are in fact the very back-bone of the Society, and to them we 
may confidently look as efficient aids in sustaining the honor 
and promoting the best interests of the profession. 

An application at this time was made, in behalf of the But- 
gers Medical College of New York, by Drs. Hosack and 
Francis, members of the medical faculty of that institution, 



HISTOBICAL NABRATIVB. 98 

soliciting the approval and patronage of this Society. The 
matter was disposed of by the adoption of the following reso- 
lution : " That the appointments made by the Trustees of 
'^ Butgers College, of the professors in the medical department 
" of the College, meet our decided approbation, as eminently 
'^ calculated to promote the advancement of medical learning, 
" the interests of the profession, and the good of the commu- 
"nity." 

At the annual meeting in 1828, a communication was pre< 
sented from the editors of the Medical Becorder, proposing a 
premium of $50 for a prize essay, and requesting the Society 
to suggest an appropriate subject, and to appoint a Committee 
to award the premium. A cordial and courteous answer was 
returned, and the following subject selected, viz : " The pro- 
" phylactic power of the kine pock — the causes of its failing 
" to prevent the small pox. The nature of the varioloid — 
" under what circumstances it may be communicated — whether 
" it is a species or milder form of variola, and whether it can 
"be communicated to the same person more than once." 
Whether or no any prize essays were ever submitted to the 
Committee, or any action by the Society subsequently taken, 
the records are silent 

About this period an incident occurred, novel in its char- 
acter, and of sufficient importance to claim attention, as it 
involved a legal question of some interest. The subject was 
introduced by the Standing Committee in their annual report 
Dr. Waldo Brown, a practitioner in Essex District, applied to 
the Censors of Morris for examination, and afler a second trial 
was rejected. After a short interval he applied to the Censors 
of Somerset, and obtained a certificate, which secured to him 
a regular license. On application to the Essex District for 
membership, these facts being known, were urged against him 
and he was rejected. . The case as presented by the Standing 
CoDMnittee was referred to a special Committee, who recom- 



94 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

mended the adoptioa of a series of resolutions, which will 
best explain the views and actions of the Society touching the 
matter, and were unanimously adopted. 

They are as follows : 

^^ Besolved, That the application of Waldo Brown to the 
" Somerset Society for examination, after his recent rejection 
" by the Censors of the Morris District, was a direct violation 
" of the bye-laws of this Society, and deserves the reproba- 
" tion and censure of the profession. 

" Resolvedj That the conduct of the said Waldo Brown, in 
" denying to the Essex Society the fact of his examination 
" and rejection by the Censors of the Morris Society, and his 
" attempt to revile and calumniate the Censors of said Morris 
" Society, was unbecoming the character of a gentleman, and 
" renders him unworthy of the fellowship and the respect of 
" the medical profession. 

" Resolved^ That the Standing Committee, with such Com- 
" mittee as the District Society of Essex may appoint for a 
" similar purpose, be instructed to make further inquiry into 
" the professional and moral deportment of said Brown, and 
" in their discretion to advise with counsel as to the propriety 
" of instituting an enquiry before a competent tribunal into 
" the validity of the licence, under which the said Brown is 
" now practicing the medical profession, and to report there- 
"on." 

It is within the personal knowledge of your historian, 
although the annals are silent, that the legal question was 
submitted to Elias Van Arsdale, Esq., one of the most prom- 
inent members of the New Jersey bar ; and that his opinion 
was to the eflfect that a license once granted, under our charter 
and by-laws, could not be revoked. 

Subsequently Dr. Brown was appointed a delegate from the 
Essex District, but was, by a vote of the Society, refused a 
seat At the next annual meeting an attempt was made to 



HISTORIC JkL NARRATIVB. 96 . 

rescind this vote, which failed. The matter now seemed to 
assume more the appearance of a partizan contest between 
the Districts of Morris and Somerset, the members of the Es- 
sex District being divided. At the second subsequent meet- 
ing of the Society, through the earnest and persevering eflForts 
of his personal friends, the vote was rescinded. i 

This ended the matter with the Doctor, but not so with the 
Society ; for in the first^supplement obtained shortly after the 
act of 1830, the power is expressly given to the Society, **to 
" revoke the license of any person who shall have obtained 
*' the same through fraud, or in violation of any of the re- 
" quirements of this act or the act to which this is a supple- 
" ment, or who has dishonored himself by disgraceful conduct 
" or 'gross malpractice." 

At the period under review, a movement occurred in the 
Society, the results of which have proved both its wisdom 
and utility. The want of harmony in the act of incorpora- 
tion of 1816 and the subsequent supplements — the deficiency 
of power to secure all the advantages which ought to inure 
to the profession from legislation, and more especially the 
discordance and clashing of the code of by-laws and the ex- 
isting statutes, induced some prominent members of the So- 
ciety to advocate a revision of the act of incorporation and 
the by-law& The subject was referred to a Committee in 
1829, to prepare a new act, and submit it to the approval of 
the Legislature ; and at the same time prepare a code of by- 
laws in accordance with the same, to be approved by the 
Society. A new charter was obtained in January, 1830, 
which, with two or three subsequent supplements, has been 
our organic law and guide up to the present anniversary oc- 
casion — a period of thirty-six years. You are all familiar 
with its provisions, and therefore a particular analysis is un- 
necessary. Sui&ce it to say that it confers corporate franchises 
upon every District or County Society — ^institutes the order 
of Fellows, consisting only of ex-Presidents of the Society. 



96 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

As plenary power was given to the Committee to prepare 
the revised charter and by-laws, without submitting the details 
to the action of the Society, one fact does not appear on the 
minutes, which is well known to your historian, the only sur- 
viving member of that Committee. Touching the mode of 
conducting the examination for licensure, a wide difference 
of opinion existed, and an animated discussion prevailed. 
On the one hand it was insisted that all the examinations 
should be in the presence of the parent Society, by a central 
board of examiners ; thereby guarding more effectually against 
the danger of favoritism, and securing a higher standard of 
qualification. On the other hand it was urged that the old 
system of examination by the District Societies afforded a 
better opportunity of knowing the character and attainments 
of the candidate, and by depriving the districts of the privi- 
lege would necessarily lessen the interest of the meetings, 
impair the membership, and endanger their continuance. 
The result was a compromise plan of dividing the State into 
three general divisions — the Eastern, Middle and Western — 
appointing a board of censors for each. By a supplemental 
charter, obtained a few years after, authority was granted to 
the President of the Society to license any applicant who 
should give satisfactory evidence of having obtained a Diplo- 
ma from certain medical institutions in the country. The 
consequence was the number of candidates for examination 
began to lessen. The license fees were scarcely sufficient to 
defray the expenses of the boards of censors, and the Society 
decided to r^tore to the districts the privilege of conducting 
the examinations. This, undoubtedly, was an exercise of a 
doubtful power — ^a stretch of authority ; but it is believed to 
have had the unanimous approval of the profession, and to 
have conduced to the prosperity of the Society. Notwith- 
standing, various attempts at successive periods were made by 
its opponents to obtain a repeal of the charter* 



HISTORICAL NARRATIVE. 97 

We think it undeniable that the profession in New Jersey 
has fiot been wanting in effort to maintain a high standard of 
medical education, as is clearly evinced in the history of the 
Society, and in every legislative enactment which has been 
asked for. Especially is it true of the law, now under review, 
which provides for a more thorough inquiry into the prelimi- 
nary education of its licentiates, and adds a renewed rebuke 
o^ and additional penalties against, unlicensed practitioners, 
and empiricism in all its vaunted forms. The spirit, the 
intent was good, but practically the law was a dead letter, as 
few were willing to incur the odium and the trouble of being 
prosecutor. 

About this time Intemperance and its cure, subjects which 
seemed to engross almost universal attention, were introduced, 
and resolutions were adopted by the Society testifying against 
the enormity of the vice, and commending abstinence as the 
only safe and certain remedy. Do not the terrible, the aug- 
mented evils, which resulted from the relaxed efforts of the 
friends of temperance^ and their spread, like infectious epi- 
demics, throughout our country — do they not, I ask in sad- 
ness, teach a lesson, which it is unwise in any one to ignore, 
and especially members of the healing art, whose special 
province it is to know, and to make known, the causes and 
cure of all bodily illnesses? 

The American Pharmacopea, at an early period, attracted 
attention, and at the first and all subsequent conventions for 
its revision, this Society was represented by delegation, and 
received its quotas of copies. 

A State Lunatic Asylum was first brought to the notice of 
the Society in 1888, in the annual address of the President, 
Dr. L. A. Smith. The subject was referred to a Committee, 
and in 1889 the Committee was instructed to memorialize the 
I/egislature on behalf of the Society. This stately, magnifi- 
cent structure, with its ample and well-arranged accommoda- 
18 



98 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

• 

tioDS, and the successful management of its inmates, with sil 
of which you are familiar, places it among the first in our 
land, as a model institution, an honor to our State, and may 
well excite proud and pleasing recollections of the interest 
which this Society entertained in its origin and advancement 

In 1841 another attempt to establish prize essays, to be 
awarded according to fixed rules, Vas made, and resulted as 
noticed on previous occasions. The annals afford no record 
of competition. 

Complaints from District Societies relative to the examina- 
tion of candidates, were made to the parent Society, urging 
strenuously the reasons which have been already noticed, viz : 
the infringement of the privileges of District Societies — the 
deleterious effect upon their meetings, impairing their interest 
and diminishing the number in attendance, resulting from 
conferring, exclusively, the examinations to the three boards 
of censors — and of the jealousy awakened by the inequality 
of the number of applicants, in consequence of the meetings 
of the respective boards being held at different periods of the 
year. The subject was referred to a special Committee, and 
subsequently to the Standing Committee, who in 1844 reported 
a plan, which was adopted by the Society, and has been in ope- 
ration up to the present time, with the entire approval of the 
profession, as is confidently believed. 

We now reach a period in our narrative which may be just- 
ly characterized a new era in the medical history of America, 
the formation of "The American Medical Association," to 
which this Society sent its first representatives at the session 
held in Philadelphia in 1846, which convention has been <5on- 
tinued uninterruptedly until the temporary suspension occa- 
sioned by the rebellion of 1861, from which the country has 
now fully emerged, but which has borne along its sweeping 
torrent, as predicted by every intelligent and loyal mind, 
desolation, ruin and shame to its guilty authors. With the 



HISTORICAL NARRATIVE. 99 

return of peace, the ecumenical sessions of this body have 
been resumed. Auspicious association! we hail thee as the 
instigator and instrument of a higher and more uniform grade 
of medical education, in its preliminary and professional as- 
pects — the arbiter of a judicious ethical code — the garner 
where may be gathered the improvements and discoveries in 
the healing art, and an authoritative judgment pronounced 
upon their value and adoption. If no higher merit can be 
claimed in its behalf, we think, its annual re-unions, affording 
as they do, opportunity for relaxation of labor, and of an 
extended acquaintance with members of the profession through- 
out the land, and for the exerciae of those amenities and 
courtesies which belong to our calling, ought to endear this 
association to every one, who believes that man was not made 
for toil alone, but for the enjoyment and employment of those 
social elements which pertain to his nature. 

At the instigation of the Society a supplement to the char- 
ter was obtained in 1850, authorizing the creation of a benev- 
olent fund for the benefit of the widows and orphans of de- 
ceased members. Whatever merit may attach to the measure, 
the records are silent, as to any practical scheme for carrying 
forward the grants of the Legislature, in securing any advan- 
tage to beneficiaries. • 

In 1854 a supplement was obtained, the object of which 
was to nullity the law relative to licensure, and to throw open 
the practice to any and every body who could present to any 
Clerk of the County, for filing, a diploma translated in the 
English language, or any other evidence of graduation. I 
notice it for the purpose of disabusing the public as well as 
the profession, of any participation of the Medical Society of 
New Jersey in this nefarious scheme. It was the work of 
enemies — stealthily hurried through the Legislature without 
the consent or knowledge of the Society, with the consummate 
impudence of attaching it, as a supplement to the act of in- 



100 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

corporation, as though it had our approval. This death blow 
virtually removed at once every barrier which the public had 
for protection against quackery and pseudo-practitioners, and 
no doubt exerted a stronger influence than any other reason, 
in securing the unanimity accorded to the new act of re-or- 
ganization, under which we haply meet this day. If the 
public does not need this protection, surely this Society does 
not, for we are fully competent to protect ourselves against 
contamination of all unworthy members. 

From the earliest date of our history, it has been a promi- 
nent feature in the labors of our Society to secure reports of 
interesting cases, and the prevalent diseases of the year. And 
for the better attainment of this and other important objects, 
it was provided in the first code of by-laws, in 1819, after 
corporate powers were obtained, that a Standing Committee 
should be annually appointed, whose duty it should be "to 
" investigate and report the general health of the citizens of 
" New Jersey during the preceding year ; the causes, nature,. 
" cure of epidemics (if any had prevailed) in any part of the 
" State, curious medical facts and discoveries, and remarkable 
" cases which may have come to their knowledge." But not- 
withstanding the solicitude of the Society, and various expe- 
dients adopted from time to time, to secure the full benefits of 
this provision, expectation has been often disappointed, and 
the instruction hoped for has not been realized. Either the 
Committee have failed altogether, or their reports have been 
meagre and defective, from the neglect of those whose duty 
it was to furnish the necessary detaila The present Chair- 
man of that Committee, in 1860, oflfered the following resolu- 
tion, which was adopted as follows : 

" Whereas, the duties imposed by the constitution upon the 
" Standing Committee, require for their adequate performance 
" a greater degree of experience in the same, than the mem- 
" bers at large can be supposed to possess, therefore, 



HISTORICAL NAKRATIVK. 101 

^^Sesohed, That the Society deem it desirable that the 
" Chairman of the Committee shall be re-elected from year 
" to year, so long as such re-election shall be agreeable to the 
" parties ; and that his expenses of attending upon the meet- 
" ings and of correspondence shall be borne by the Society." 

To the appointment of a permanent Chairman and the pub- 
lication of the transactions in pamphlet form, for general 
distribution, we must attribute the increase of attendance at 
our annual meetings, and the greater interest in the proceed- 
ings, which are so manifest to and conceded by every one 
familiar with our history. The earnest zeal, untiring perse- 
verance and judicious supervision of the printing of the trans- 
actions, gratuitously bestowed by the present Chairman, are 
services which the Society cannot well repay, and can ill 
afford to lose. 

Simultaneous with this, Dr. Woodward of Connecticut ap- 
peared before our Society and presented proposals of an inter- 
change of friendly relations. This proposition was met 
promptly and unanimously, and from it has resulted a most 
pleasing and interesting intercourse with that and similar in- 
'stitutions; so that now we are in annual correspondence with 
Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts. 
Why should not this correspondence be extended, and the 
mutual benefits of an enlarged fellowship be felt in more dis- 
tant sections of our country ? Its reflex action upon this So- 
ciety cannot be other than salutary. 

We have now reached a period of time which may be 
deemed a second era — a new epoch in the chronicles of our 
Society. To-day we commemorate the closing of the old and 
the dawn of a new century. Experience had taught us the 
inutility of some, and the embarrassments of other provisions 
in our organic law. Allusions had frequently been made to 
the subject in annual addresses from the Chair; common 
observation had produced unanimity of sentiment with the 



102 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

members, that if left to ourselves we could make laws better 
adapted to our wants ; that by a surrender of what the public 
erroneously judged to be exclusive privileges, and by a return 
to the voluntary system, we could throw off the odium that 
attaches to monopolies, and secure more independence and 
dignity to the profession by self-reliant effort than by any 
aid which legislators could confer. 

Accordingly the matter was placed in the hands of a Com- 
mittee, who, at the session in 1863, reported a new charter, 
which received the approval of the Society, and in the same 
year the sanction of the Legislature. Its provisions are few 
and simple. The ancient corporate name is retained, as also 
the organization of the Society by delegates firom the District 
or County Societies, (three from each) with the power of es- 
tablishing a new basis of representation. It gives authority 
to make rule^ and regulations for the management of its 
concerns, and indirectly those of the districts, and to confer 
the degree of M.D. instead of a license diploma, which degree 
is to be considered sufficient evidence of qualification to prac- 
tice, and without it, or a similar title from some institution in 
affiliation with the American Medical Association, no one can 
be admitted to membership in any County Society. Thus we 
place our students upon an equal footing with those of other 
States, favored with Medical Colleges ; and maintain, by a 
judicious method of conferring the degree, the standard of 
qualification for membership and practice. The Committee 
in their report say : " The plan has indubitably the merit of 
"simplicity, with enlarged freedom to the Society in the 
" management of its concerns. It approaches to the voluntary 
" system, as nearly as the case will admit, and in this respect 
" corresponds with the basis upon which the Medical Society 
" of New Jersey was originally founded in 1766." 

In a financial aspect, the receipts from fees paid by licen- 
tiates, (which with the annual assessment of the District So- 



raSTORICAL NARRATIVE. 103 

cieties have famished the means of defraying the cost of 
publishing the transactions, and other unavoidable expenses,) 
have gradually diminished. The former have decreased, and 
the latter increased. - Under our new organization is it irra- 
tional to expect an augmentation of revenue from this source? 
Every student of medicine has a preceptor, to whom he looks 
for guidance and advice. The blame will be ours, if we neg- 
lect to recommend our students to the Medical Society of New 
Jersey for an M.D. It will cost less, and confer value and 
honor comparable, to that obtamed from any other source. 

Will it be deemed an error of judgment if we give utterance 
to the opinion that we have now five elements of recent ori- 
gin concurring to impart a new impetus, and to arouse the 
esprit de corps of the profession in our State ? viz : aflSliation 
with the American Medical Association — ^the appointment of 
a permanent Chairman of the Standing Committee — the an- 
nual publication of the transactions — correspondence with 
Societies of sister States, and a new charter based upon the 
voluntary system. 

In preparing this review of the annals of the Society, it was 
our business to compare and narrate, to state the facta In its 
prosecution we have not indulged in philosophical disquisition, 
nor aimed at rhetorical embellishment. We have studiously 
avoided the mention of names; not because there are not 
many members who have been efficient supporters and bright 
monuments of the profession, for in the appendix of the last 
edition of the by-laws will be found a catalogue of those who 
throughout the entire century have been honored with official 
station. Among those of the dead and living will be found 
many with whose names we are familiar, and whose character 
and attainments in civil and professional life have reflected 
their lustre upon this institution. 

Comparing the rise with the progress of the present time, 
there is, we think, demonstrative evidence of the correctness 



104 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF- NEW JERSEY. 

of the sentiment with which the narrative commenced — ^that 
by united and harmonious action great results grow out of 
small beginnings. Instead of the seventeen gentlemen who, 
from different portions ot the State, met in convention in 
1766 — adopted and subscribed the first constitution of this 
the parent Society — the records furnish evidence of an oi^n- 
ized Distnct Society in each of the counties of the State, ex- 
cept Cape May, Ocean and Union, (the latter, however, is in. 
afiSiliation with Essex District,) with an average membership 
of about 150. !N^or is the change in the science and status of 
^ the profession less flattering. There is a wide stretch from 

administering powdered glass as a specific in hysteria or drop- 
sy, and the well-established principles of pharmacology and 
therapeutics — a vast difference between an indenture to an 
apothecary, and the toilsome study of practical anatomy, and 
its application to surgery — the perusal of text-books on phys- 
iology, pathology, chemistry and materia medica — ^the attend- 
ance required of the student preparing for examinations upon 
clinical and didactic lectures in our medical schools, together 
embracing a curriculum of studies which the novitiate's term 
is scarcely sufiicient to compass — great and essential advance 
from ten shillings a week for medical attendance to the fee 
bill recognized by this Society. In medical literature, too, we 
are not wanting. Many valuable works by American authors, 
adopted as text-books in medical schools, revealing important 
discoveries, which have settled doubtful theories into acknowl- 
edged certainties — ^improvements in surgical practice, for 
which the war of the rebellion has afforded unexampled op- 
portunities, but which, as yet, are only partially known, 
and the well-written articles published in the transactions of 
the American and State Societies, settle the question beyond 
dispute. More materials for the teeming press, at home and 
abroad, are furnished by our profession, perhaps, than by any 
other. 



HISTORICAL NARRATIVE. 105 

Time does not permit, nor the chronicles we consult, furnish 
adequate data for a further enlargement of this pleasing and 
interesting subject ; suffice it to say, that Medicine, as a sci- 
ence, a business, and an art, in all its range of investigation, 
and its wide scope of inquiry, is, in the beautiful metaphor- 
ical language of the gentleman who occupied the chair at the 
preceding meeting, " a family of sciences — a Banyan tree with 
*• its grand old centre still intact, but the branches have arched 
" over and taken root, and we have a noble group ; an acad- 
'* emy, amid whose grives, as did Plato and his followers, we 
" may sit and sup each our relish of the fullness of philos- 
" ophy." 

And here we close the history of the first one hundred 
years of our institution, venerable in age and endeared by 
association. Standing as we do in the portals of the second 
epoch, is it extravagant and illusory to indulge the hope that 
when the record of another century shall be made up, bene- 
ficial results, in larger measure and greater proportions, will 
be apparent? Let, then, the membership, in the century that 
succeeds, by every good word and work, receive with favor 
and pursue with alacrity whatever promises to advance the 
dignity, the honor, and the utility of our calling ; never for- 
getting the beneficent sentiment of the Boman poet, whose 
language we have borrowed for our motto, ^^opijerper orbem 
dicorP 

14 



REPORT OF THE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE. 






PB0P0SITI0K8 m OOmUSIONS WITH BlfiiKD TO lAlARIA. 



BY DR. JAMES B. COLEMAN. 



LIFE is manifested under a certain arrangement of ele- 
ments, which elements are few in number, and com- 
bined in various proportions, forming tissues, organs, and 
apparatus. 

The affinities of these elements for each other, as they are 
united in organized bodies, are controlled, during life, by 
influences partly independent of the common laws of chem- 
istry. 

Any agent that is in any way inimical to life, so far as this 
agent acts, has a tendency to break up the elementary arrange- 
ments that are necessary to organization. 

When the effect of this agent is considerable, the vital forces 
of necessity fail, and a fermentation ensues, in which inorganic 
chemistry becomes superior to organic chemistry, and decom- 
position ensues. 

During a normal condition of organic bodies, the compo- 
sitions of tissues, secretions, and exhalations are tolerably well 
understood, as far as the different species have been investiga- 
ted. These compounds are of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and 
oxygen, and they are regarded as nutritive, non-nutritive, 
medicinal, or poisonous, as they are variously compounded 
of these inorganic elements. 






REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE, 107 

In an abnormal state, other arrangements of these elements 
occur, and the products of healthy action are lost The 
extent to which the vital forces have been obstructed, deter- 
mines the kind of combination produced. 

The decomposition of dead organized matter throws oflF 
gasses and water; these are innoxious as ordmarily mingled 
with the atmosphere. 

Animals, when su£fering from disease, or the effects of agents 
inimical to life, are frequently in a state to generate the most 
virulent poisona In the peculiar state between life and death 
— ^between organization and decomposition — ^between organic 
chemistry and inorganic chemistry — in which the power to 
elaborate the ordinary secretions is in a measure lost, combi- 
nations of elements are formed, such as are recognized as 
poison& Dissections, wards of hospitals, holds of ships, even 
private sick-rooms, offer illustrations. 

These poisons, elaborated from the common element of the 
blood, whether dissolved in the liquids of the body, or in the 
gasses that emanate from it, are greatly attenuated, eluding 
the grosser tests of chemistry, and when mingled with the air, 
frequently operate at a great distance from their origin, as we 
notice in variola. 

These products of diseased action are not peculiar in their 
diffusability. Emanations equally attenuated, attend the nor- 
mal condition of animals, such as musk and the remarkable 
odor of the Mephitis Americana. Other exhalations, not 
recognized by the senses, pass off, and are detected at great 
distances by animals with acute smelling. Othei* products, 
inodorous to any sense of smell, but having qualities charac- 
teristic of the healthy organisms from which they proceed, it 
is fair to presume, are thrown into the air. 

Vegetable organizations, vegetable life, and vegetable dis- 
ease, have been partially illustrated in the preceding propo- 
sitions. 



108 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

The power to elaborate, by diseased organs, from their 
nourishment, or from the materials already assimilated to 
them, new compounds, poisonous in their character, can, by a 
reasonable analogy, be given to plants as well as to animals. 

The predominance of the living forces in the tissues of the 
healthy plant, gives the known combination of elements which 
constitute their normal solid, liquid, and seriform products. 

The life force is stronger in vegetables than in animala In 
the vegetable it can organize crude matter, while in animals 
it can only re-arrange organic materials. One will dissolve 
silex, and decompose carbonic acid; the other can operate 
only on combinations that have been prepared by vegetables, 
and are prone to decomposition. 

Light, heat, and moisture, develop vegetable organisms, 
and as these influences are regulated and proportioned, the 
endless varieties, from forest trees to microscopic plants, are 
produced. 

Agents thus powerful, operating on organisms especially 
adapted to some of their specific conditions, must, when this 
condition is changed, be attended by a wide departure of the 
plant from its normal condition. Without the accustomed 
amount of light,' the leaf cannot decompose carbonic acid ; 
under diminished temperature the circulation is impeded, and 
the vital forces weakened; without the proper supply of 
water, the circulating solvent is deficient Increase these, or 
any one of them, to an unusual degree, and equally deleterious 
results follow. 

As vegetable life is more directly dependent on meteorologi- 
cal and terrestial influences than animal life, more interferences 
are made with the normal performance of its functions, from 
these sources, than can be experienced from the same by 
animals. 

Without locomotion, plants are subjected to the vicissitudes 
of their position. Almost all animals can withdraw from 
places against which their instincts rebel. 



REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMrpTEE. 109 

As light, or warmth, or water, are unduly supplied to the 
healthy wants of a plant, it becomes diseased ; that is, per- 
fonns its functions in an abnormal manner. 

Upland plants, organized for a soil that is moistened alone 
by rain and dews, if flooded for a period beyond the usual 
time of ordinary storms, are known to perish. 

Aquatic plants, when deprived of water, and put in the 
condition of upland plants, perish also. 

Plants requiring large accessions of carbon to their struc* 
tare, flourish only in the broad sunlight; others, watery in 
their fibre, and soft in texture, vegetate best in the shade ; 
deprive one of the direct sunlight, and expose the other to it., 
and they perish. 

These required conditions for the health of plants, and these 
causes of disease, explain the propriety of leaving the face of 
the earth as we find it in relation to the plants that grow upon 
it, if we consider their perfect health. 

A new country, before it is occupied by man, has a natural 
and healthful adaptation of plants to its surface. The upland 
and the meadow have their appropriate growths, and the or- 
dinary droughts, storms and floods, do not materially affect 
them. The forests, with their shadowed vines and shrubs, 
pa^ their existence in the healthful vigor of a natural and 
unmolested situation. 

When a stream is dammed, and a meadow flooded, grasses, 
that require much moisture, are over-supplied and gradually 
die out 

When swamps are cleared, and hedges cut down,. and when 
soil that has never been disturbed by a plow is broken up, a 
variety of plants that had their existence in the tangled se- 
clusion of these old places, are forced to vegetate for a while 
where they never would have taken root, and then gradually 
die. 

All attempts at agriculture, which suddenly change the es* 



110 MKinCAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

tablished order of acclimated and healthy vegetation, invaria- 
bly cause its sickness and death. 

Underdraining meadows, dams to reclaim lands subject to 
river overflow, cutting down forests, will, for years, cause 
many of the plants within their bounds to perish, and during 
the period that it requires to accomplish their destruction, 
their functions are perverted. 

To preserve a plant in vigorous health, the necessary con- 
ditions of its existence must be observed. Its climate, its 
soil, its light, its moisture, and its natural, not its forced devel- 
opment It must grow naturally. 

When plants are thus naturally adapted to their places, 
there is less danger of becoming diseased. 

When, for the purpose of agriculture, lands must have 
crops not corresponding with the natural growth on that land, 
and require a cultivation inimical to this natural growth, the 
old vegetation should be destroyed at once, put in the condi- 
tion of dead vegetable matter, and not suflfered to dispute 
possession in its sickness, with the new growth, as is the case 
with partially cultivated new lands. 

The common opinion, founded on long observation, is — 

That the cultivation of new lands is unhealthy. 

That clearing up a swamp, causes, for a few years, sickness 
near it. 

That overflowing meadows, for mill purposes, is the cause 
of sickness. 

That floods which submerge uplands, and leave pools in 
grass and grain fields, and scald, as it is commonly called, the 
plants, generate bilious fevers. 

That unusually hot and dry weather which shrivels vegeta 
tion, and causes it finally to perish, causes dysentery. 

That plants sprouting and germinating on ship board, in 
cellars, in darkened recesses, and small shaded gardens of 
cities, without the light and air their nature requires, generate 



REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. Ill 

typhoid and other diseases of a putrid character, and which 
are communicated from individual to individual in an atmo- 
sphere that favors a low vitality. 

We still further observe and remark, 

That cut grass in hay-making, freshly pulled weeds thrown 
in heaps to decompose, the pumice from cider presses, in fact 
all the refuse of dead vegetable matter, of whatever kind, on 
the farm, in the forest, or in the various places to which veg- 
etable matter is applied in the arts, is not known to produce 
sickness. 

That boatmen, the inhabitants of lowlands, and the people 
who live along tidewater shores, and streams which have not 
been dammed, nor had their borders improved, although ex- 
posed to damps, and fogs, and marsh affluvia, and all the 
agents that many writers name as productive of disease, often 
enjoy as good health as those who dwell inland, in equally 
inartificial places, where all the vegetation within their bounds 
is in the soil of its natural selection, and where the marsh veg- 
etation in its healthy vigor, throws off oxygen by day to vital- 
ize the air, and where the aroma from its myriad flowers and 
leaves, is not more deleterious to man, than the fragrance of 
clover fields and orchards. 

The natural decay of a plant by age, or of its foliage in 
autumn, cannot be considered the cause of poisonous exhala- 
tions any more than the corresponding decline in animals. 
Here functions are gradually suspended, their work has been 
nearly accomplished, there is no struggle of the life forces 
with organs not yet past maturity, an^ prone, by any misdi- 
rection, to vitiate their functions. Fungoid sporules, invisibly 
small, floating in the air, need not be considered a cause of 
sickness, for their elements are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, 
and oxygen, nothing more; and they must operate, if they 
operate at all, by virtue of the atomic arrangements of these 
elements. Exhalations from diseased vegetables claim the 



112 MEDIOAIi SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

same elements, whatever may be the peculiar arrangements. 
The common emanations of cryptogamons origin are a health- 
ful product of normal vegetation, and such as the same class 
of plants is constantly evolving during certain periods, with- 1 1 

out any evidence of poison. Analogy is against regarding 
them as poisons. 

The conclusion at which we now arrive is, that Malaria is a 
product of diseased action in vegetables. That it is eliminated 
by their perverted functions, as infectious matter is in ani- 
mals ; that it is volatile, or gaseous, in its state or difFasability ; 
that it enters the lungs with the air we breathe; that it de- 
ranges, the affinities of the elements of the blood, and poisons 
the whole system through that fluid ; and that the amount 
and kind of deterioration, and the^ organs that suffer most, 
determine the specific character of the disease. 



REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMIHEE. 



THE Standing Committee, in presenting their report to 
this Society, would first acknowledge with profound 
gratitude, God's preserving care, and the goodness of that 
Providence which has permitted us to meet on this interesting 
anniversary occasion. We also oiBfer to Him our thanksgiv. 
ing that the sound of battle, which for the last four years has 
rung in our ears and disturbed our land, has given place to 
the pleasing notes of peace. We welcome with heartfelt joy 
to the quiet round of duty in civil life, our brethren of the 
profession who served their country, and us as well, in the 
arduous and self-denying duties of the field and the hospital. 
The years of our civil war have been years of destiny. We 
have an abiding faith for our future, in that Divine Hand which 
has wrought out for us our deliverance. 

The Committee addressed to the reporters of the local So- 
cieties in the month of November, the following suggestions as 
subjects for report, in addition to those ordinarily presented . 
" A statement of the hygienic and climatic influences of your 
county, its typography, population, and habits of the people 
the prevailing diseases, their type and modes of treatment, 
any facts illustrative of the past and present history of medi. 
cine ; the present status of the science in its relations to the 
people, and in a word, whatever you may deem appropriate 
to put upon record to interest and instruct those who, one 
hundred years hence, shall stand in our place to study the 
history of the past." 
15 



114 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

These suggestions received qaite a general response in the 
reports transmitted. As a whole they possess unusual interest- 
They evince much research and decided ability. They are 
submitted to the consideration of the Society with this report 

The communications received show a very general state of 
health throughout the year. No epidemics of a severe kind 
or of general prevalence are reported. It would appear that 
there has been a more general tendency than in many years 
before to intermittent and remittent fevers. They seem every 
where, to have been very manageable, and mostly free from 
congestive complications. 

In Hudson County^ the general diffusion of this form of dis- 
ease is attributed by the reporter and his colleagues there, to 
the unusual upturning of the soil by railroad and other im- 
provements, and by the filling in of low places by the scaven- 
ger filth of the city of New York. In regard to the county 
at large, the reporter remarks that "a large portion of the 
county, for a number of years, had been singularly free from 
miasmatic disease, and probably would have remained so had 
it not been for the march of (so called) improvement" 

In Passaic County^ intermittents of a mild character have 
been prevalent during the autumn and winter months. The 
reporter informs us that a great deal of rain fell during the 
months of June and early part of July, overflowing the streams 
and swamps. This was followed by .a drouth, by which the 
low grounds became dried, and much decaying vegetable mat- 
ter was exposed to the action of the sun. Many cases of 
remittent fever occurred during the fall, changing in a few 
days to intermittent, and yielding readily to the usual anti- 
periodics. 

In Essex and Union Counties^ a tendency to intermittent dis- 
ease has been marked. Fevers, intermittent and remittent, 
have been more frequently met with in Orange, Newark, and 
the other towns, than for many years before. The reporter, 



KKPORT OF THE STANDING COMMTrTEE, 115 

Dr. Jobs, details the history of an epidemic of dysentery in 
Elizabeth and Millburn, and its vicinity, which he character- 
izes as almost invariably of an intermittent type. A medical 
friend of the reporter, in writing from Elizabeth, says : " Not 
a case have I seen when quinine or the arsenical preparations 
were not indicated." " In the Orphan Asylum of this city, 
(Elizabeth) among nearly forty children, all have shown a 
tendency to the disease." "In all these cases anti-periodics 
were used freely and with satisfactory results," except in two 
fatal cases, where the brain became involved early in the dis- 
ease. In Millburn township the disease prevailed in July 
and August — at first intermittent This characteristic ceased 
for several weeks, so that quinine was scarcely used, but be- 
fore the cessation of the disease, the periodic disposition re- 
turned, and seemed, as the reporter remarks, "to conduct 
mildly from us, an epidemic which had been ushered in with 
so much violence." 

The report from Warren County recognizes the fever of the 
past summer as epidemic in Blairstown, its form being inter- 
mittent and remittent. The type differed from any seen for 
the last fifteen years. The Committee commend the report of 
the same to the attention of the Society. Other portions of 
the county have been visited by these fevers. 

In Bergen County^ intermittent fever, which, for several years 
past, has scarcely been noticed, has during the past year be- 
gun to prevail to some extent 

In Cumberland County, the universal prevalence of intermit- 
tent fever throughout the county during the past summer and 
Butumn is noted. The same forms of disease have prevailed 
to a considerable extent in Camden County, marked by a ten- 
dency to asthenia, assuming in children a congestive form, 
giving rise to convulsions and alarming cerebral symptoms, 
and in a few cases fatal ; treatment, the very liberal use of 
quinine and the arsenical solution. 



116 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Dr. Gibbon, of Salem County^ informs the Committee that 
the most remarkable feature of the medical history of the 
county for the year, was the very great and unprecedented 
prevalence of intermittents and remittents. 

In regard to the more general diffusion of this form of disease, 
as detailed by the reporters to the Society, the fact is very 
noticeable that it has appeared not only in the swamps and 
low places favorable to the production of miasmatic influence, 
but on high and hilly districts, where the soil and all surround- 
ing influences are ordinarily healthy. Tlie reporter for Mer- 
cer, after describing a form of fever which prevailed in a 
locality in the suburbs of Trenton, less than half a mile square, 
says, " The ground of this locality is considerably elevated 
above any water course and quite level. The soil is a sandy 
loam, without hard subsoil. No diseased or decaying, vegeta- 
ble matter was known to exist in the vicinity." The same 
fact liolds true with respect to portions of Essex and other 
counties where their topography is unfavorable to the pro- 
duction of miasm, as it is usually supposed to be generated. 
It is also a fact well known, that in all the regions of country 
contiguous to New Jersey, in the State of New York, and in 
Connecticut bounded by the Hudson and East Eivers and 
Long Island Sound, intermittents have been unusually fre- 
quent during the past season. This prevalence of intermittent 
diseases becomes worthy of special notice in connection with 
another apprehended invasion of Asiatic cholera, when we 
recall the &ct that the same epidemic intermittent influences 
were marked from 1828 to 1832, the year when cholera first 
visited this country. Indeed, there would seem to be already 
some premonitions of the complication of diseases of the bow- 
els in the dysenteries and choleraic tendencies as reported in 
some of the districts of the State. 

Dr. Coleman, of Burlington County^ writes that cholera mor- 
bus and dysentery made their appearance as early as May and 



REPORT OF THB STANDING COMMITTEE. 117 

June, in a severe form and in numerous cases. " Many of the 
cases of cholera were exceedingly aggravated, inducing vio- 
lent cramps of the stomach and extremities, feeble pulse, cold 
and clammy skin, approaching in violence Asiatic cholera, 
and inducing a dread of its near advance as an epidemic." 
As illustrating the apparent connection of intermittent with 
choleraic disease, the member of the Committee from Bergen 
County, in his communication upon bis district, remarks that 
at the same time that malarious fevers in his county began to 
decline in 1849, cholera also invaded the country, and these 
two forms of disease seemed to impress their low and conges- 
tive characters where even the ordinary diseases of the climate, 
dysentery, for instance, previous to 1849, was of a strongly 
marked sthenic type, coming on with hot skin, strong pulse, 
and high febrile reaction requiring v. s. leeches and other active 
sedative treatment But the dysentery of 1849- oO-'Sl as- 
sumed many of the characters of true cholera, with tenesmus, 
small mucous and blbody stools, feeble pulse, cool skin, and 
husky voice, followed in a few days with livid and cold sur- 
face, and rapid exhaustion. With the disappearance of the 
malarious influence, diseases generally again assumed a rather 
more marked sthenic character. "Whether," he remarks, 
" the increased tendency to the spread of the so-called mala- 
rious diseases will be attended by the same change of type of 
diseases generally during the coming year, remains to be seen. 
We believe the fact to be generally admitted by the profes- 
sion that the asthenic type of disease which now so uni- 
versally characterizes our diseases has been manifested since 
the invasion of cholera in 1832. 

Dysentery^ next to intermittents, seemed to have prevailed 
more or less throughout the State during the year. In Ilvd- 
son County^ they were frequently met with, and were marked 
by a decided hemorrhagic tendency. In Essex and Union 
Gcmniies^ at Millbum and. Elizabeth, as before noticed, in Or- 



118 MEDICAL SOCIBTY OP NEW JERSEY. 

ange and at Newark, dysenteric diseases were more than usually 
prevalent The same is true of many other portions of the 
State, as the fact is communicated by the reports to which the 
Committee refers the Society. 

Diptheria is reported as occurring in limited districts, but 
not as an epidemic, nor with much severity of form. The 
treatment as detailed corresponds with that of former years. 
The reporter for Monmoyih^ in writing upon the treatment, 
remarks that the local treatment should be simple, and that 
in his experience, topical applications had proved more inju- 
rious than beneficial He regards mild gargles as advanta- 
geous, and recommends, as superior to all others, the per- 
manganate of potash used as a gargle, and administered inter 
nally. He further remarks that "chlorate of potash was 
formerly deemed almost a prophylactic, but it has in a great 
measure lost caste," a remark which we think will beteadily 
endorsed by the most of the members of the Society. An- 
other practitioner, in detailing the treatment of this disease, 
says, "I seldom burn the throat" 

Gerebro Spinal Meningitis^ or Spotted Fever, has occurred in 
a few localities, but rather sporadically. The reporter for 
Monmouth has met with a few cases. He alludes to an epi- 
demic of the disease which prevailed in his father's practice 
in 1852, and that at that time he placed great confidence in 
the administration of opium. The reporter has used it in his 
practice, and found its free use during the inflammatory stage 
to be beneficial, and on the subsidence of this, to administer 
quinine or other remedies, as the case may require. 

In Somerset Gouniy^ in some cases of children suffering from 
fevers, the cerebro spinal system was involved. This was 
indicated by delirium, speechlessness, impaired power of mo- 
tion, coolness of surfistce, and diminished secretion. One case 
terminated fatally from this cause; in another, the power to 
articulate did not return till after convalescence was establish* 



REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 119 

ed. The child's voice was strong and clear. It screamed 
frequently, but did not utter a word. After nearly ten weeks 
the speech was suddenly and perfectly restored. 

A few cases occurred in Hudson County, and are detailed 
in the communication of the reporter. The most striking fact 
in regard to them is that four cases were attacked in one fami- 
ly, and in the same night, with scarcely a premonition — all 
proving fatal. Three cases occurred in Orange, in one fam- 
ily — ages, 4, 7, 13 — within three days of each other, and all 
fetal. They possessed no new characteristics, and were re- 
markable only from the fact that no other members of the 
family, and none others in the town, were affected with the 
disease. 

Scarlet Fever has been unusually limited in its prevalence 
throughout the State. Rubeola^ which so generally prevailed 
last yeflr, is scarcely noticed in the reports of this. So also 
of Variola, which is noticed as occurring to a limited extent 
in a very few localities. 

The prevailing type of disease at the present time is, as 
heretofore alluded to, asthenic. Highly inflammatory and 
acute disease is rarely met with. Depletion by the lancet, 
and by antiphlogistic?, is rarely called for. The preparations 
of bark and mineral tonics with stimulants, now constitute, 
to a very great degree, the armamentarium of the medical 
practitioner. It is claimed by some that the substitution of 
the latter class of remedies has been brought about by a change 
of sentiment as to the mode of treatment, but we think that the 
mass of the profession regard the supporting treatment as 
forced upon them by the low tendency of diseases as now 
manifesting themselves. If the highly acute diseases, with a 
full bounding pulse and phlogistic forms should present them- 
selves as they did thirty years ago, we believe that the lancet 
and depletory measures would be again called into use, and 
the tonic and stimulant plan of treatment be supplanted. 



120 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NKW JERSEY. 

to a considerable degree, by the heroic antiphlogistics of the 
past We cannot refrain, however, before leaving this sub- 
ject, from remarking that the impression is quite general 
among the members of the profession that stimulants, now so 
freely prescribed and so generally used in the now most ap- 
proved form of Bourbon whiskey, both with and without 
medical counsel, are being employed too generally and too 
indiscriminately, either for the arrest of disease or the well- 
being of the sick. 

The Committee solicited from the reporters any historical 
facts which might prove interesting in this centennial report 
The request hes been responded to in but two instances. Dr. 
Johnson of Warren has given a very interesting record con- 
cerning the first practitioners of his county, and makes ex- 
tracts in his report from the writings of one of them. Dr. 
Gwinness, to which the Society is referred. We will only 
notice an item or two in this place. When writing of tonics 
in fever, he recommends the plentiful use of Fowler's solution 
and barks ; he says, " our new remedy, the Quinine, of which 
I have little experience, perhaps on trial may be found pref- 
erable to either." For the red nose of drunkards, he says, 
" wash and rub the part frequently with soap and water, also 
mere, ointment" For toothache, " the lady bug mashed be- 
tween the fingers, and rubbed upon the gum and around it, 
gives immediate and perfect ease." 

Dr. Jobs of Springfield, in his report for Essex District, 
furnishes a short record of the Essex District Society, which, 
on the 4th day of June next, will have completed its semi- 
centennial year. It was organized under the authority of the 
' State Society by three members. Eight were then received 
as members upon application. At a subsequent meeting in 
July of the same year, a code of rules and regulations were 
adopted for its government One of the resolutions adopted 
by the Society embodies the sentiments of its members in 



REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMirTEE. 121 

regard to their mutual intercourse, establishing the same with 
each other upon the basis of honor and mutual friendship,* 
and their purpose to promote the interest and improvement 
of the science of medicine. The Society has maintained itself 
without interruption from the time of its organization, and has 
secured for itself an honorable position among its sister organ- 
izations in the State. It has enrolled about 140 names as 
members, and has at the present time a nominal membership 
of abrat 60. 

The inquiries made by the Committee respecting the status 
of the pio&aBion in the State, have called forth a reply from 
moat of the distcict reporters of a gratifying nature. The 
regular medical men of the State are generally well educated 
in their profession — ^a rery large proportion ot them having 
enjoyed the advant^es of a previous liberal training in col- 
legiate institutions. In their acknowledged claims to a posi- 
tion among the educated and refined, they are second to those 
of no other caUing. In times when epidemic disease prevails, 
or a dreaded scourge is apprehended, the community every 
where look to it as the recognized source of intelligent and 
leliable suggestions for the adoption and promotion of sanitary 
measures for its protection. Quacks and pretenders in medi- 
cine — ^and there are many of them, and will be until the 
millennium — are regarded as of no account, when the general 
medical weliare is in jeopardy. 

We also desire to record in this report, that as a result of 
education and refinement among our medical men, their inter- 
eonrse with each other is largely characterized by the exer- 
cise of the amenities of professional life. The spirit of rivalry, 
which in years gone by, excited distrust and jealousy, now ex- 
eites to an honorable emulation to promote the advance of 
medical science, and to do honor to their calling. The hearty 
Qo-operation of medical men in promoting the organization of 
local and general medical associations is now recognized not 
16 



122 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

oaly aa their duty but their privilege. We believe that we 
are warranted in saying that the medical men of New Jersey, 
by harmony of sentiment in all matters which relate to the 
welfare of medicine, by a high and laudable esprit de eorps^ 
and presenting as they do an undivided front against all forms 
of quackery and pretension, command the profound respect 
and confidence of the people. 

The number of regular physicians in the State at the pres- 
ent time is 596 ; of this number a small per centage are not 
in active practice. Of irregulars of all sorts, there are 180 
males and 21 females. Of the female practitioners in the 
State, one only practices the regular system, being the wife of 
a regular physician in Mercer County. The adherents to the 
different forms ot quackery are as follows : Homeopaths 58, 
Eclectics 81, not classed 14, Thompsonian 6, Quacks 2, Elec- 
tricians 2, Indian Doctor 1, Hydropath 1, Botanic 6, Swed- 
ish Movement 2, Inhalation 1, Cancer Doctor 8, Boot 8, 
Clairvoyant 1. Of the females, there are Humor and Can- 
cer Doctors 2, Eclectics 5, Clairvoyant 4, no system 8, 
Hydropath 1, Homeopath 2, Electrician 4. The female 
irregular practitioners have none of them received a med- 
ical education at any recognized school, and are nearly 
all of them of the class known as the progressive bloom- 
er kind, spiritualists and infidels. A very suggestive fact, 
and just such as we should expect to find ; for the true 
woman, protected by the appropriate safeguards of a true 
religious &ith, knows and appreciates the sphere in which 
the God of Nature gives her power. A false religious faith 
and ignorance in medicine form a perfect substrate to the 
character of a female medical quack. 

The population of New Jersey in 1860 was 672,085. De- 
ducting say ten per cent, from the number of regular physi- 
cians as retired or not in practice, we have one physician for 
every 1261 of the population. Of the quacks of all kinds, 
we have one to every 4450 of the people. 



BEI>OBT OF THE STANDINa COMinTTSE. 123 

The pleasant memories and cordial greetings of this centen- 
nial meeting are not unmingled with tender remembrances of 
those who have daring the year, fisiUen at our side, and been 
called to their last account. Eight of the members of our 
profession have died during the year 1865. 

Dr. E. Fitz Eandolph Smith died on the 28d of May, at Jiis 
residence in New Brunswick, at the age of 79. He entered 
the College of New Jersey in the year 1800 ; graduating 
thence, he studied medicine under the care of Dr. Morris 
Scott, and graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 
1808. He was Treasurer of this Society from 1817 to 1829; 
was elected Vice President in 1880-'31, and President in 1882. 
His eminently Christian life leaves no doubt that he now en- 
joys the full fruition of his steadfast faith and ardent zeal. 
He was a just man. " The memory of the just is blessed." 

Dr. David C. English died in Springfield, on the 7th day of 
August, of a cancerous affection. He was born on the 24th of 
January, 1799, being 66 years of age at the time of his death. 
As a physician, Dr. English was judicious and candid. In 
the communities where he Uved he was highly esteemed for 
his integrity, beloved for his kindness ; a loving and affec- 
tionate father, and a faithful friend. In his last illness he was 
patient under his sufferings, expressing himself as resigned to 
the will of God, and trusting entirely in Jesus as his Saviour. 

Dr. J. Carey Selden died suddenly in Newark, at the age of 
31, on the 14th of November. The Committee have been 
unable to obtain a more particular notice of him for this re- 
port With thd permission of the Society, a further notice 
will, if possible, be obtained for publication in the transac- 
tions. 

Dr. James B. Vanderveer, of North Branch, Somerset Co., 
has died during the year, but the Committee has no informa- 
tion in regard to him. 

Dr. Henry Ackley, T7. S. N., residing at Camden, died in 



124 KXDICAL 80CIBT7 OF KSW JEBSET. 

that dty on the Ist day of December, 1S65, of phihias. He 
was a native of Philadelphia, and 28 years ot age at the time 
of his death. The appropriate obituary notice of Dr. H. Ge- 
net Taylor, accompanying this report, closes with the remark, 
that in the death of Dr. Ackley " we have to regret the loss 
of a most promising member of the Medical profession, while 
his friends mourn over a worthy citizen and true man, whom 
to know was but to love." 

Alexander Barclay, M.D., and Du Bois Hasbrouck, M.D., 
have also deceased, of whom notices will be obtained by the 
Committee, for publication in the appendix to this report 

On the 15tli of December last, Lyndon Arnold Smith, M.D., 
of Newark, closed his earthly labors in death, in the 7l8t year 
of his age. Dr. Smith was well known to the most of the 
members of this Society. No eulogy is called for on this 
occasion, as our hearts are made tender when we miss his 
friendly greeting, and his benignant, cheerful &ce, and re- 
member that his co'operation and sympathy in this Society 
are lost to us forever. 

Dr. Smith was bom at Haverhill, N. H., Nov. 11, 1795. 
His fiither was the Bev. Ethan Smith, a clergyman of learning 
and high position in his day. The Dr. fitted for coU^e in 
the office of Daniel Webster, then a rising young lawyer, and 
an intimate friend of his father's £BimiIy. He graduated at 
Dartmouth College in August, 1817 — took the second degree, 
A.M., in 1820. He was admitted ad. eundan at Williams 
College in 1822, and subsequently at Princeton College. He 
received the degree of M.D. at Dartmouth, in 1822. 

The Dr. settled at Williamstown, where he commenced 
practice in 1822. He removed to Newark in July, 1827. He 
was elected President of this Society in 1887, having been 
Vice President the two preceding years. 

During his last illness — a more particular record of which, 
together with the leading incidents of his hfe, will be found 



RSPOBT OF THE STANDINO COMMITTBS. 125 

in the memoir appended to this report — ^he alluded to this oen- 
tennial meeting of the Sooiefy, to which he had long looked 
forward with intense interest It is only left for us to record 
his virtues and our loss on this day of our rejoicing. It will 
not be deemed inappropriate here to allude to the recent death 
of two of his personal friends in other States, with whom he 
had long been on terms of intimacy, and who were known to 
many members of this Society, Drs. Couper of Delaware, and 
Blatchford of New York — ^the latter an honorary member of 
this Sooiety, who a few weeks since accepted with expressions 
of great pleasure, an invitation to be present at this anniversa- 
ry. He was called to his rest on the 7th inst, in the city of 
Troy, where he had resided about 40 years. 

At the battle of Mission Bidge, the commanding officer, 
having always noticed that the men would follow their colors, 
placed the same in the hands of a trusty sergeant, who had 
just returned to his regiment, from a long confinement in the 
hospital, in consequence of a wound received in a previous 
battle. He led the men as they clambered up the rough and 
precipitous sides of the mountain, and reaching the top, plant* 
ed the standard on the ridge. Just as he had placed it there 
he was struck by a ball ; knowing that he was fisitally wound- 
ed, he ran the whole length of his regiment, with his color 
aloft, to his own company, and placed it in the hands of a 
man whom he knew he could trust, and then lay down and 
breathed out his patriotic soul in death. So these venerable 
fiithers and standard bearers in the profession, after long years 
of honorable service, as they are laid low in death, hand down 
to us the standard they have borne so long and so nobly, that 
we may emulate their zeal and devotion, and bear aloft still 
the standard, as we give ourselves to renewed efforts for the 
well being of our profession, and the advancement of our 
chosen science. May they not trust it with safety in our 
hands? 



126 MEDICAL SOOIETT OF NEW JERSEY. 

Diatrict Societies are organized, and in prosperous operation 
in all the counties of the State, except Bergen, Morris, Ocean, 
Atlantic, Salem, and Cape May. The Committee suggest 
that efforts should be made to secure the organization of local 
societies in these districts. There is certainly no time so ap- 
propriate as the present, and if suitable measures were adopted 
to call the attention of the members of the profession in those 
counties to the subject, we believe that they would meet with 
their cordial co-operation. 

Dr. Phillips, of Mercer County, in closing his report, re- 
marks as follows : " It is well known that a number of medi- 
cal gentlemen left their homes and private business, to serve 
their country in the field, during the late contest I deem it 
eminently proper that their names and record should be ob- 
tained, and preserved in the Transactions of the State Medical 
Society, and would therefore respectfully recommend that a 
suitable person be appointed to procure the names of all from 
this State who served in the Medical Department of the Army 
or Navy, and collect and collate a short history and record of 
each, and present to the next meeting of the Society." The 
Essex District Society, at their annual meeting two years 
since, appointed a Committee having the same object in view, 
in relation to a record of its own members. Circulars were 
addressed to all who had gone out from it to serve their 
country in the war. We regret to say that a very limited 
response has been made to them. The appointment of a 
Committee by this Society, as suggested by Dr. Phillips, would 
be highly proper. The subject is commended to the attention 
of the Society. 

In closing this report, the Committee would, as in former 
reports, allude to the general complaint made by the reporters 
of a want of interest and co-operation on the part of individ- 
ual members of the local Societies, in furnishing material in 
the way of interesting cases and personal observations upon 



REPOBT Of THE STANDING OOMICITTEIL 127 

disease. The cost of time and effort would be very small on 
the part of each, and we need not say how much that is val- 
uable and of interest is lost to the profession by such neglect* 
As the Medical Society of New Jersey now vindicates its 
claim to the profound regard of our medical men by strength 
and vigor, on this its one hundredth anniversary, we trust that 
in future years those whose interests it fosters and protects, 
will take pride, as they have opportunity, to do it more abun- 
dant honor. 

Stephen Wickbs, ' 
Ghas. Hasbrouce, 
P. Gauntt, 

Standing OommiUee. 



APPENDIX TO REPORT OF STANDING COMMriTEE. 



OBITTJ^K/IES, 



E. FITZ EANDOLPH SMITH. By H. A. Baldwin. 

Dr. E. Fitz Kandolph Smith was born near New Bruns- 
wick, in the year 1786. He pursued his literary studies under 
the care of Prof. Lindsey, of Newark/ and entered the College 
of New Jersey in the year 1800, gradliating thence he com- 
menced the study of medicine under the supervision of Dr. 
Moses Scott, and finally graduated at the Univ/crsity of Penn- 
sylvania in the year 1808. He filled the office of Treasurer of 
the State Medical Society from 1817 to 1829 ; was elected Vice 
President in 1830 and 1831, and President in the year 1832.* 
As a physician, he was eminently qualified for his profession, 
and enjoyed in a high degree the confidence of the community 
in which he lived. As a man and citizen he received many 
marks of esteem and public favor ; he was for many years the 
President of one of our most successful banking institutions, 
and it was largely through his instrumentality that it acquired 
and maintained its stable reputation. He was elected the 
Mayor of the City of New Brunswick in the year 1842, which 
office he adorned. He finally retired from practice in the year 
1864, devoting himself to the care of his property and especial- 
ly to agriculture, of which he was always fond. Here the 
same results followed that had attended him in the other walks 
of life. He was renowned for his good judgment and success. 



APPENDIX TO BEPOBT OF STANDING COMMITTEE. 129 

His final illness commenced on the 4tli of May, 1865, when he 
was found almost insensible from an attack of Hemiplegia ; he 
lingered with gleams of consciousness for three weeks, when 
the powers of nature sank exhausted. His eminently Christ- 
ian life left no doubt that (full of years and honors) he was 
but transported to a higher and more ennobling existence, 
where he now enjoys the full fruition of his steadfast faith and 
ardent zeal. He was a just man. " The memory of the just 
is blessed." 



DAVID C. ENGLISH, M. D. By Wm. L. Moore. 

David C. English, M.D., was born in the village of Eng- 
lishtown, on the 21th day of January, 1799. He was the 
youngest and last surviving son of James English, Sen., with 
whom he pursued his medical studies from 1818 to 1822, in 
which year he was graduated from the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, then situated in Barclay street, New York. 

Dr. English entered upon the practice of medicine at Mid- 
dletown Point, and continued there until 1836, when he re- 
moved to the city of New Brunswick. During his residence 
in that city he was engaged in the business of druggist, where 
he acquired a high reputation for the correctness and the uni- 
formity of his preparations. 

In April of 1865, he removed to Springfield, expecting to 
resume the practice of his profession. In this, however, he 
was disappointed. About the time his arrangements for re- 
moval were completed, a cancerous affection developed itself, 
and terminated his life on the 7th day of August, 1865, just 
four months from his leaving New Brunswick. 

The Monmouth Inquirer^ in an obituary notice of Dr. Eng- 
lish, uses the following language : " As a physician. Dr. Eng- 
lish was judicious and candid. In the communities where he 
. 17 



ISO MJ&mCAJL SOCIJETY OF NEW JEBSST. 

lived he was highly esteemed for his integrity — ^beloved for 
his kindness — a loving, affectionate &thei*— and a faithM 
friend. In his last illness he was patient under severe suffer- 
ings, expressing himself as resigned to the will of God, and 
trusting entirely in Jesus as his Saviour," 



ALEXANDER BARCLAY, M. D. By Jno. Blank. 

Alexander Barclay, M.D., was bom in Scotland a few 
months before the emigration of his father to this country. 
He studied medicine with his father, who is a medicfl prac- 
titioner in Newburg, state of New York. He graduated about 
eleven years since at the University of the City of New York. 
He practiced his profession at New Grermantown, and at Le- 
bonville, where he resided at the time of his death, which took 
place on the 18th of June, 1865, at the age of thirty-three 
years ; it was occasioned by a fracture of the cranium, which 
resulted in effusion and in death at the end of three days. The 
injury was caused by being thrown from his carriage in con- 
sequence of his horse taking fright and running away. 



DR HENRY ACKLEY, U. S. N. By H. Genet 
Taylor, M.D. 

Db. Acelby, whose early and untimely death we are called 
upon to lament, was born in the city of Philadelphia, on the 
29th of January, 1887. His father, the late Thomas Ackley, 
Esq., was among our most esteemed citizens, well known as 
the faithful and efficient cashier of the State Bank at Camden. 

The subject of this brief memoir had the advantages of a 
liberal education, having laid the foundation of his subsequent 



APPENDIX TO RlBPOlil' Of Sf Al^DflftJ COKMITTEE. Isl 

proficiency iu Camden and continuing his course of instruction 
in one of tbe literary institutions of Philadelphia,- where be 
graduated with an honorable record as A. B. He then com' 
menced the study of medicine, under Professors R Wallace and 
Wm. Keating, able and distinguished physicians of Philadel- 
phia, attending the lectures at the Jefferson Medical College. 
He graduated at that institution, receiving the degree of M.D. 
in the spring of 1868. 

Br. Ackley immediately commenced the responsible duties 
of a medical practitioner in Camden, which in early youth had 
become the city of his adoption. Upon the breaking out of 
the late war, his patriotic zeal induced him to offer his profes- 
sional services to his country. After successfully passing the 
ordeal of a naval board of examiners at the Brooklyn Navy 
Yard, he was duly commissioned an iassistant surgeon of the 
Navy of the United States, and entered into active service 
in July, 1861. He was iii the first instance assigned to duty 
at the Navy Yard in Philadelphia. Here, Dr. Ackley con* 
tinned until ordered to the East Gulf Blockading Squadron, 
and subsequently assigned to duty in the Mississippi Squad- 
ron. In both of these active and exciting spheres of duty, he 
acquitted himself as a fiuthful and honorable member of his 
profession, constantly acquiring information, and storing his 
ever active mind With the knowledge obtained in the school of 
experience. He participated in the succcession of combined 
naval and military exploits on the waters of the Mississippi, 
which at the time electrified the country and astonished Su- 
rope, commencing with the capture of New Orleans, and ex- 
tending all along the Father of Waters, and including some of 
the most brilliant of the victories which preceded the down- 
fall of Yicksburg, at the bombardment of which the surgeons 
of our naval ships found such ample occasion for the exercise 
of their utmost professional skill, and frequently imder the 
most exciting and trying circumstances. 



182 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

From this scene of varied and dangerous adventure Dr. Ack- 
ley was ordered to the flagship San Jacinto, where, for nearly 
a year he filled the arduous and responsible position of acting 
surgeon-in-chief of the squadron, a post of honor and distinc- 
tion, clearly establishing the well earned reputation of our la- 
mented friend. While serving in this capacity, he was stricken 
down by that fearful scourge, Yellow Fever, and probably there 
received the germ of the disease which so early terminated his 
brief, useful, and we may add, brilliant career. With a con- 
stitution never vigorous ; and severely tried amid the constant 
excitement and exposure to which he was subjected, we may 
thus trace the course of that disease, which, when once estab- 
lished, pursues its career to a fatal termination. 

Weakened by the stirring events and the pestilential ex- 
posure through which he had passed, our young friend was 
relieved from his duties and ordered home. He arrived in 
Camden in the spring of 1864, and during the summer months 
the health of Dr. Ackley gradually improved, but never fully 
recovered its proper tone. But he was young, ambitious, and 
possessed of a fine genial spirit, a social and affectionate nature, 
he saw, or thought he saw in the future, a career of usefulness 
and happiness. In the fall of the same year, his health con- 
tinuing to improve, he prepared to assume the domestic re- 
lations, which his virtues were so well calculated to adorn. 
Dr. Ackley, in the fall of 1864, became connected in marriage 
with Miss Sallie A. Wilkins, daughter of the late Hon. Bich- 
aid Wilkins, of Camden. 

For the past year his friends were pained at noticing a per- 
ceptible, but gradual tendency to disease, and though not con 
fined to his house until within a few days of his death, the insid- 
ious approach of tubercular phthisis, gave the too certain warn- 
ing that his career was soon to be ended. During the past two 
months the disease had made such progress that he relinquished 
all professional duties and gave hinaself up to the care of his 



APPENDIX TO REPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 138 

affectionate family, preparing himself for the coming change. 
Dr. Henry Ackley died on the Ist day of December, 1865, 
in the 29th year of his aga We have to regret the loss of a 
most promising member of the medical iprofession, while his 
friends moam over a worthy citizen and true man, whom to 
know was bat to love. 



LYNDON ARNOLD SMITH, M.D. By Rev. San- 
ford H. Smith. 

Lyndon Arnold Smith was born in Haverhill, N. H., 
November 11, 1795. He had a double descent from the old 
Puritan ancestry, and inherited a Urge share of the virtues 
which have made them noted. His grandfather, deacon Elijah 
Smith, of Belchertown, Mass., served as captain in the French 
war in 1756, in the regiment of Col. Ephraim Williams, the 
founder of Williams' College. The record made of him by 
his biographer is : '* He was a man of sound judgment, ready 
utterance, pleasing deportment, and ardent piety." His mater- 
nal grandfather, the Rev. David Sanford, of Medway, Mass., 
was very distinguished in his day as a preacher and a patriot, 
and a man of wide influence. His father. Rev. Ethan Smith, 
was a clergyman of learning and high position, an author of 
considerable celebrity, and lived to a great age, dying sudden- 
ly " with the harness on " at the age of 87. His mother was 
a woman of fine personal appearance, great activity of mind, 
vivacious manner, good judgment and education, great decis- 
ion of character, and ardent and unaffected piety. She lived 
to see all her children professors of religion, and died beloved 
and lamented at the age of 64 years. 

Doctor Smith attended the common school in Hopkinton, 
N. H., until he was about 14 years old, where he made rapid pro- 



184 KBDICAL SOOIEIT OF NEW JBRSEY. 

gress, and led his clasB in every branch of study. At this time 
his &ther was persuaded by a friend to send bim from home to 
spend a year in the office of Daniel Webster, in Portsmouth, - 

K. H./as an under clerk, and to prepare meanwhile for collie \ 

under his tuition. Mr. Webster was then a rising young law- 
yer and an intimate friend of his father's family. Prom Ports- 
mouth he went to Phillips' Academy, in Exeter, N. H., to com- 
plete his preparatory course. H««, as in the primary school, 
he took a most honorable stand. In the year 1813 he entered 
the Freshman clasi^ in Dartmouth Ck}llege, where his father 
had graduated in 1790. The first sight of the large building 
filled the inexperienced youth with an awe that he wad accus- 
tomed to speak of with amusement in after years. His winter 
vacations were spent in teaching, by which the limited stipend 
of his father was greatly relieved of the draft that his education 
would have otherwise made upon it He graduated in Au* 
gust) 1817, and spent several months subsequently in charge 
of a Grammar school in Hopkinton. Barly in the year 1818 he 
set out for the South ; partly for his health, which was then 
feeble, partly for employment and to gain means for pursuing 
profesilional study. He bore letters of introduction to several 
prominent gentlemen ; among others, to Bev. Dr. John H. 
Rice, of Richmond, Va. He wad most cordially received, found 
at once a most pleasant and advantageous situation, and spent 
three years teaching in a private frimily, and studying mean- 
while the noble science which he was to adorn for so many 
subsequent years. Endearing friendships were also formed, 
whose strength and constancy advancing years only served to 
enhance* Having completed his studies, and gone through the 
regular courses of medical lectures at his Alma Mater, he re- 
ceived the degree of M. D. at Dartmouth, in the year 1822. 
As an evidence of the estimation in which he was held by his 
fellow-students, he was unanimously elected President of the 
Dartmouth Medical Society. Satisfied' that his health would 



APPENDIX TO BBPOKT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 185 

be Burelj prejudiced should he settle in the South, he located 
in Williamstown, Mass., in March of the same year, securing 
at once a good business. In the year 1827, having found his 
extensiye practice over a wide region of mountainous country 
injurious to his health, and the pecuniary returns not at all 
commensurate, he removed to Newark in this State under the 
best of auspices^ and at once began to build up the practice 
and the good name which have made him for nearly forty 
years one of the best known physicians and most influential 
oitizena in the City and State. 

While residing in Williamstown, he married Frances 
Louisa, eldest daughter of Bev. Edward Dorr Griffin, B. D., 
the President of the college and a most distinguished preacher 
of the Gospel Mrs. Smith was a woman of fine personal ap- 
petomce, pleasing address, highly cultivated mind, extensive 
acquirements, ardent temperament, and most devoted piety. 
Her distinguished taleats enabled her to shine among the very 
best of female writers. Her noble Christian consecration made 
her a model of women ; and it was in diligent nursing of a 
dying sister in Christ that she contracted the disease which 
cat short her life in Januaiy, 1862. Of the six children rch 
salting from this marriage, the oldest and youngest have 
"fidlen asleep." Malvina Forman died January 24, 1842. 
Adjutant Myron Winslow Smith fell in his country's service. 
He received his death wound from a minie-ball through the 
lung, at Fort Harrison, (Chapin's Farm) S^tember 80, 1864, 
and died at Chesapeake Hospital, near Fortress Monroe^ Octo- 
ber 5th. The intensely loyal and patriotic &ther gloried in 
iha sacrifice he had laid upon his country's altar. Never did 
a regret Of murmur escape his lips, although the blow broke 
bis ]?ieart and probably hastened the course of the disease 
which in fourteen months' time laid him in his grave beside 
his patriot boy. B^qmescard in pace I Of the other children, 
one follows his &the(r^s profession, one is in business at the 



136 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

West, one is a preacher of the Gospel ; the other is a daughter 
and unmarried. 

Doctor Smith bved the profession to which he had devoted 
his life. He loved his medical brethren. Everything that I 

affected their interests was of moment to him. Not only was 
he a devoted member of the medical societies whose recogni- 
tion is essential to a '* regular practitioner ;" but his friendly 
greeting and benignant cheerful face were very rarely missed 
from those social gatherings of the fraternity, designed for 
mutual improvement and the cultivation of the more generous 
feelings of our nature. No ungentlemanly act or word or 
thought could ever be charged upon him. No breach of pro- 
fessional etiquette ever offended the tenderest feeling of even 
the youngest of his professional associates. He was rewarded 
by their respect and confidence and love in an unusual degree. 
The various posts of honor to which he was elevated by their 
free suffrages from time to time, evidenced this. To his pa- 
tients he was not only the " beloved physician," but the tried 
and trusted fiiend, the warm-hearted and genial companion. 
The aged, the middle aged, and the young, alike found him 
approachable and sympathizing, one not merely ministering to 
their bodily comfort, but to the encouragement of their weary 
and desponding spirits. His keen perception of symptoms, 
his accurate diagnosis of disease, his carefully prescribed rem- 
edies, were made the more serviceable by the loving manner 
that accompanied them. " He was not merely my physician ; 
he was my Jrtend" This is the repeated testimony of those 
families who mcurn his loss. The large assembly which gath- 
ered at his funeral, was composed in no small part of those who 
felt they had a right to weep for one who had sustained them 
in hours of sorrow and pain, and borne their maladies in his 
own heart 

Doctor Smith was a useful citizen. Nothing that concerned 
the interests of his City, State, or County, could lack interest to 



APPENDIX TO REPORT OF STANDING COMMITTEE. 187 

him. He came to Newark when it was a village comparative- 
ly ; be saw it gain in population and wealth, and had the sat- 
is£EU2tion of feeling that his influence had ever been exerted to 
secure the best good of the community around him. No man 
was better known in that community, none had a better name, 
none had in so great a variety of spheres served his day and 
generation. The clock upon Trinity Church was procured at 
his instance, and by funds solicited by him ; he assuming the 
debt at the last, and advancing the requisite balance, though 
but a poor man. His lectures from time to time before the 
" Mechanics' Institute," doubtless had their influence in form- 
ing the correct characters of Newark's young men who have 
become rich and influential throughout the land. He ever 
took a deep interest in the cause of education, and the common 
schools in the city of Newark received much of his attention ; 
he having been for a number of years one of the committee 
to whom the whole charge of them was consigned. He was a 
trustee of the Newark Academy, at the time of his death, and 
none were more faithful to the trust reposed than he. His 
services meanwhile were sought for in various directions by a 
variety of corporations and associations; and they were as 
warmly prized as freely given. 

In the year 1887, in an address which Dr. Smith delivered 
before the N. J. Medical Society, he being its President, on 
the subject of Insanity^ he urged the importance of a State Lu- 
naiic Asylum; and, at his suggestion, a committee was ap- 
pointed to memorialize the Legislature on the subject. At its 
next, session, that body appropriated $500, for the object of 
obtaining information, and authorized the Governor to appoint 
'' one or more competent persons to ascertain the number, age, 
sex, and condition of the lunatics of the State ; the best and 
most effectual means for their relief; and if, in their opinion, 
the erection of an asylum be the best remedy, then to ascertain 
the necessary cost of such an Institution, the best location for 
18 



138 KKDICAL SOCIBTir OF NSW JEBSEY. 

the 3ame, together with all sacb facts as may he necessary to 
lay the foundation for definite actiop ; and to report to the 
nezt Legislature." Accordingly, the Governor appointed five 
persons, selected from different parts of the State, to perform 
these duties ; of whom Dr. Smith was one. The commission- 
ers met at Newark, April 12, 1839, and organized themselves 
into a Board, appointing Hon. Lewis Condict, M.D., Chairman, 
and Dr. Smith, Secretary. In pursuance of the object, the 
Chairman and Secretary visited, as a depntatioa fix>m the 
Board, the different Institutions for Lunatics in Hew England 
and New York, and made report of their arrangement, cost, 
and internal police. These facts, together with the number of 
the insane in the State, were reported to the Legislature by the 
Board at its next session ; which report was accepted, printed, 
aod disseminated through the State. Behold, as the result^ 
pur beautiful and model State Lunatic Asylum, at Trenton 1 
Miss Dix always looked to Dr. Smith with confidence for sym- 
pathy and the aid of his influence, whenever any new project 
was in contemplation for the benefit of the unfortunate class in 
whom she was herself as deeply interested. The following 
incident may illustrate this: On a certain occasion she was a 
guest at the Doctor's house ; her errand to Newark being to 
procure funds for the purchase of a magic lantern for the en- 
tertainment of the inmates of the Asylum at Trenton. Dr. 
Smith, being called to his office to prescribe for a gentleman of 
large means and well-known liberality, at once sought to inter- 
est his patient in the object proposed, and was so successful as 
to hear him exclaim with enthusiasm, " Capital idea I capital ! 
ni give it all myself I" Miss Dix had her magic lantern, cost- 
ing some hundreds of dollars, in a few hours. 

Equal to his interest in the unfortunate dass just named, 
was Dr. Smith's care for another unfortunate class, whose 
friends were too few. The wel&re and future of the black race 
deeply concerned him. In every effort for their good, he was 



APPENDIX TO REPORT OP STANDING COMMITTEE. 189 

foremost The colonization cause foupd in him ever an earn- 
est advocate and firm friend He was for many years a iaith- 
fal attendant upon the meetings of the State and National So- 
cieties. He was Secretary of the State Society, and spent the 
last moments that he ever sat up, only a few days before his 
death, in transacting business for it Every cause that consult- 
ed the temporal and eternal welfare of mankind, was dear to 
him. The Newark Presbyterian City Mission found in him 
a liberal supporter ; and the Essex County Bible Society rarely 
missed him from its meetinga The latter honored him with 
the appointment of Chairman of the Executive Committee, and 
only a short time before his death, constituted him a Life Di- 
rector of the American Bible Society " in consideration of 
services rendered." 

Some idea of the appreciation in which Dr. Smith was held 
may be gathered from the various positions of honor and in- 
fluence which he Was called to fill: In 1885-86, he was elect- 
ed Vice President of the N. J. State Medical Society. In 1837, 
President Chosen Fellow of the National Academy of Arts 
and Sciences in 1841. Fellow of the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, New York, 18i8. Honorary member of the 
Bhode Island Medical Society, 1840. Member of the Ameri- 
can Scientific Association, 1855. Corporate Member of the 
A. B. C. F. M., 1857. Vice President of the American Med- 
ical Association, 1859, presiding over all the sessions, owing to 
the infirmity of the President Elected Elder of the First 
Presbyterian Church, Newark, 1864, having for nearly thirty 
years been Trustee and Treasurer. Honorary member of the 
New York State Medical Society, 1865. He was also (as 
stated above) Corresponding and Recording Secretary of the 
N. J. Colonization Society ; President of the Essex Co. Bible 
Society; Trustee of the Newark Academy; Director in the 
Newark Aqueduct Co., during its existence ; Director in the 
Newark Mechanics' Insurance Co. ; Manager and member of 



140 MEDIC^kL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

the Executive Committee of the Presbyterian City Mission So- 
ciety ; member of the Medical Board of the Mutual Benefit 
Life Insurance Co. of Newark ; Director in the Mount Pleasant 
Cemetery Co. All these trusts reposed in him from time to 
time, some through a long course of years, he fulfilled faith- 
fully. He leaves behind him a name untarnished. 

This sketch would be incomplete, without adding one thing 
more concerning the departed. It is not to dwell upon his 
undoubted and unswerving loyalty and patriotism even in 
those dark hours when men's hearts Mled them for fear. 
Having given his son to the cause, what should he not give ? 
His advice to one seeking an investment for his little all was, 
" Invest in Gtovernment Bonds. They are good/ If they are 
not, nothing else is. If the Government goes down, everything 
else will go down ; and you will at least be comforted in the 
thought that you helped your country in the trying hour." — 
But we desire to speak of his religious life. This savored noth- 
ing of asceticism. No man entered with more lively interest 
than he into the true pleasures and enjoyments of refined life. 
His own home and heart were open to his friends with gen- 
uine hospitality, and he took pleasure in social intercourse. 
His genial smile, his hearty laugh, his words of cheer, will not 
soon be forgotten by those with whom he mingled Always 
preserving a dignity comporting with his years and station, 
yet he attached to him, as by a mysterious charm, even the 
children in every circle. This was the case to the last. It 
was granted him to live in the full possession of his mental 
vigor, and his high social qualities till his work on earth was 
finished. Yet underlying all this, and doubtless largely con- 
tributing to the formation of that quiet, peaceful, and genial 
manner, were deep religious feelings, and a heart at peace 
with God. Dr. Smith was a Christian. Early in life he made 
a profession of religion. He at once set up the family altar, 
with its morning and evening sacrifice. His children, he con- 



APPKNDIX TO REPORT OF STANDING COMMITTEB. 141 

secrated to God, and feithfully endeavored to train for Him- 
His household was a Christian household ; where pious instruc- 
tions assiduously imparted through a long course of years, the 
cultivation of sacred music, and a Christian example^ evinced a 
mind and heart m sympathy with the Divine will. He de- 
sired, above every other portion for his children, that they 
should be heirs of a heavenly inheritance ; and preferred for 
them the service of God, before any worldly honor or distinc- 
tion whatsoever. His fidelity was rewarded by seeing them 
all consecrated, by their own deliberate choice, to that Master 
whom he loved. He was not apt to speak of his own religious 
feelings and experiences. Modest in all things, in these es- 
pecially he made no display. But among his papers have 
been found, since his death, an autobiography written " for his 
own amusement and profit," soYne years since, and a diary in 
wtich, at intervals through many years, he recorded the 
breathings of his soul. These have revealed the inner man as 
never before, even to his family, and shown how much of 
those quiet hours in his life was spent in reaching out toward 
the Infinite and the Holy One, and in communion with Him. 
They have revealed the sources of his strength in hours of sore 
trial, and how ready he was, should he be suddenly called to 
lay down his Ufa But his departure was not sudden. It was 
given him to suffer ; and for long months he was prostrate 
with pain and debility, the most powerful anodynes being re- 
quired constantly to alleviate his distress. Yet throughout 
those weary hours, not a murmur escaped his lips. He was 
very frequently in prayer, uttering the most touching and 
earnest petitions for himself and his loved onea He asked 
that his sufferings might be relieved, if consistent with the 
Divine will ; and if not, that he might have patience to bear 
them. That a mercifiil Saviour had endured so much greater 
Biffynj to save his sinful soul, was enough to silence every 
impatient thought, and reconcile him to the righteous will of 



142 MKDICAL SOOIBTY OF NEW JESBS7. 

God. Nothing was more acoeptftble to him than the Word of 
God, the songs of Zion, and the voice of prayer. With en- 
thusiasm he would assent to ererj proposition in this direction. 
And with his soul buoyed up by these, trusting in the infinite 
merits of a gracious Saviour, he patiently awaited the will of 
the Lord, whatever it should be. He went down into the val- 
ley of the shadow of death, knowing no fear, and met the last 
enemy as if already assured of victory. 

In September last, the disease, which had probably been 
gaining strength as his years advanced, laid him prostrate. 
From the first attack he temporarily rallied, but only for a 
brief period. Gradually his strength turned to weakness^ 
although there were at times great hopes that he might yet 
recover ; and these hopes were not relinquished until the sud- 
den and unexpected relapse, which occurred some sixteen 
hours previous to his death. From this last attack he nev6r 
rallied for a moment; but sank rapidly, in spite of every 
effort of medical skill and unceasing devotion from his attend- 
ants, until six o'dbck on Friday morning, Decembw 15th, 
1866, when, witl^ the expression upon his face as of one whose 
eye had already been opened to the vision of glory, and been 
satisfied, he ceased to breathe^ He fell asleep in Jesus. The 
weary was at rest He had joined loved ones, more on the 
other side of the river than on this. 

His funeral was attended from the First Presbyterian 
Church, the following Tuesday, at 2 P.M. His remains were 
deposited in Mount Pleasant Cemetery, to await the Besurrec- 
tionl 



Dubois HASBEOTJCK, M.D. by Chas. Hasbrouck, M.D. 

Died, at Paramus; Bergen County, New Jersey, March 
80th, 1865, DuBoisr Hasbroitoi:, M<D., in the 40th year of 
his age. 



APPENDIX TO BEPORT OF STANPIKG COMMrTTEB. 143 

Dr. Hasbrouck was born in Ulster C^nty, New York, Sep- 
tember 16, 1825. When about 19 years old, after a good 
preliminary education, he commenced the study of medicine 
in his native village, Stone Bidge, in the office of Dr. Mat- 
thew DeWitt. He graduated from the Medical Department 
of the University of the city of New York, in 1848. Imme- 
diately afterwards he settled in Bergen County, New Jersey, 
and soon secured a large and lucrative practice, most of which 
he retained until compelled to curtail hi^ labors by the rav- 
ages of advancing disease. 

Some ten yeais before his death, he was taken with sub- 
acute pleuritis, with extensive effiisioii in his chest, firom 
which he recovered slowly f^nd with great diffii^ulty. Imme- 
diately after this attack, unmistakable evidences of pulmonary 
tuberculosis manifested themselves. Being fully aware of the 
nature and fatal tendency of the disease, he at once adapted 
his habits of life, so far as possible, to the necessities of his 
physical cpndition, zx^d notwithstanding repeated attacks of 
sub-acute pleurisy, with effusion, and occasional paroxysms of 
hs&moptysisy by strict attention to hygienic measures, be was 
enabled, with occasional iptei'valQ of relaxation, to perform 
xaoBt of the duties of ^ very considerable practice, until within 
a few weeks of bis death. 

He retained the fall vigor of his mental powers until the 
last moment of lifa Si^fi hours before he died, being appa- 
rently conscious of hi^ approaching end, he called his wife to 
his bed side, and made every arrangement for his funeral, and 
for the removal of his body to his native village ; then turned 
himself on his side, a« if done with the world, and gradually 
sank away and died. 

As a practitioner. Dr. H. was decidedly successful, caution 
and self-reliance being happily blended in his character, with- 
out either extreme of rashness or timidity. He ei\joyed in a 
large degree the confidence of his patients, and will long be 
held by them in grateftil remembrance. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 



BERGEN COUNTY. 

Stephen Wickes, M.D., Ohairman of Standing Qmmiaee of 
* Med. Soc of Neu) Jersey: 

AS reporter for this District, I am happy to state that the 
diseases of Bergen County, so far as I have been able to 
learn from my own observation, and from considerable asso- 
ciation with the physicians of the county, have, for the last 
year, presented the simple, mild, and manageable characters, 
by which they have been marked for the past few years. 

Besides the usual proportion of chronic ailments which are, 
perhaps, at all times and everywhere met with, our diseases 
during the past year have mostly been such as are incident to 
the climate — pneumonia, bronchitis, rheumatism, and other 
acute inflammatory diseases of the winter and spring, and the 
various forms of bowel complaints of the summer and autumn. 
And even these, I think, with the exception, perhaps, of 
pneumonia, have prevailed less generally than usual, and with 
the least possible admixture of complications arising from 
epidemic influences. 

In my last annual report, I stated that small-pox was at that 
time prevailing to an unusual extent in the county, but that 
I had been so fortunate as not to have met with a casa This 
terrible disease continued to prevail for a month or two afl«r 
that report was written, and then disappeared entirely. Four 
cases occurring in two groups in diflFerent parts of my ride, 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 145 

came under my care. The contagion in each group of cases, 
could be unmistakably traced to the city of New York; and 
although more than twenty persons were certainly exposed to 
the contagion before the eruption made its appearance, only 
two others took the disease, one of whom had never been 
vaccinated. This fact, I take it, speaks well for the protective 
powers of the kine-pox. 

A few cases of diphtheria have been reported, but in no part 
of the county, so far as I have learned, has this disease pre- 
vailed in an epidemic form. Perhaps half a dozen cases came 
under my care during the year, in two of which the disease 
extended to the larynx, and proved fatal by suffocation. In 
another case, in a young lady about sixteen years old, the 
disease was followed by partial paralysis or impaired power, 
in almost every part, supplied from the cerebro-spinal system. 
Her sight was very imperfect, her hearing impaired, deglutition 
very difficult, she could only speak in a hoarse guttural whis- 
per, and had very little power in, or control over, the muscles 
of her limbs. The poisoned condition of her blood — or, as 
Prof. Meigs would perhaps say, the impaired hematosis, from 
disease of the endangium — affected also the organs supplied 
from the organic or sympathetic system ; and in every respect 
she was in a most deplorable condition. By the persistent 
use of tonics — quinine, iron, &a — with strict attention to 
hygiene, she is gradually recovering; but even now, some 
seven. months after the attack, her sight is still imperfect; 
she speaks with an unpleasant nasal tone, as if she had cleft 
palate, and she walks with an awkward, waddling gait, bal- 
ancing herself alternately from side to side, in an ungraceful 
and laborious movement. 

A few cases of typhoid fever have also occurred in different 
parts of the county. One group of five cases, occurring in 
three families in the same neighborhood, came under my own 
observation in September and October last. 
19 



146 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSKY. 

The only other fact in connection with the diseases of the 
past year, to which I deem it necessary to call the attention of 
the Committeej is this : Intermittent fever, which for several 
years past has scarcely been noticed in the county, has, during 
the past year or two, begun to prevail to some extent. 

In this connection it may be well to state, that from 1839 
when I commenced practice in the county, until 1849, this 
form of fever was almost unknown here. But in 1849, inter- 
mittents begun to prevail ; and each year became more and 
more common, until 1863. At that time, a very large pro- 
portion of the cases that the physician was called upon to 
treat, were diseases of malarious origin, or modified materially 
by malarious influences. At that time also these forms of 
disease were not confined to their usual localities — along the 
borders of our sluggish streams — but were met with every- 
where. I myself frequently attended cases on the top of the 
Palisades — a place most unfavorable to the development of 
marsh miasm. 

In 1854, this class of diseases began to decline, and soon 
disappeared altogether. At the same time that malarious 
fevers began to prevail in 1849, cholera also invaded the 
country ; and these two forms of disease seemed to impress 
their low and congestive characters upon even the ordinary 
diseases of the climate. Dysentery, for instance, previous to 
1849, was of a strongly marked sthenic type, coming on with 
hot skin, strong pulse, and high febrile reaction, requiring v. 
a leeches, and other active sedative treatment. But the dys- 
entery of 1849-50-^51, &c., assumed many of the characters 
of true cholera. With tenesmus, small, mucous, and bloody 
stools, the patient would have a feeble pulse, cool skin, husky 
voice, and in a few days would sink into a condition of par- 
tial collapse, with livid and cold surface, and rapid exhaus- 
tion of the vital powers. 

With this disappearance of the malarious influence, diseases 



BEPOBTS OF DISTBIOT SOCIKTIEa 147 

generally assumed a rather more marked sthenic character ' 
again. Whether the present increased tendency to the spread 
of the so-called malarious diseases will be attended by the 
same change in the type of diseases generally, during the 
coming year, remains to be seen. 

N^ow this alternation of periods of exemption from, and 
prevalence of malarious forms of disease, has not been accom- 
panied by any corresponding changes in the habits of our 
people, and cannot be attributed to the neglect or adoption of 
sanitary measures. What I mean to say is this : So far as I 
can tell, the Bergen County of 1839-49, was the same as the 
Bergen County of 1849-54. And although there are certain 
localities in which miasmatic diseases are more apt to prevail, 
yet it is certain, I think, that the fact of their prevalence at 
one time, and their absence at another, must be accounted for 
upon the supposition that some other cause than miasm, not 
yet appreciated nor understood, must be involved in their 
production. 

Bergen County, occupying the northeast corner of the State, 
is made up of a pretty uniform succession of hills and valleys, 
running north and §outh through the length of the county. 
On the extreme east are the Palisades. Then a breadth of 
irregular high land, from one to two miles wide, which slopes 
down into a most beautiful valley, from one-half mile to two 
miles wide, that extends through the whole length of the 
county, and into the State of New York. This valley, through 
which runs the Northern Eailroad of New Jersey, is drained 
by three streams, two of which run north, and empty, one into 
the Hudson River at Piermont, and the other into the Hack- 
ensack River near the northern boundary of the county. The 
other runs south, spreads out into a broad navigable stream, 
and empties into the Hackensack, near the southern line of 
the county. Between this valley and the Hackensack valley, 
is another range of hills — or rather of a succession of hilla 



148 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

The Hackensack valley also extends throagh the whole length 
of the county, and varies in width from one to two miles or 
more. It is drained by the Hackensack Eiver, a stream 
which, from its source in Rockland Lake, to its mouth in 
Newark Bay, is throughout its whole course the same — crook- 
ed, sluggish and deep. It is navigable for some miles into 
the county, and so far as tide water extends, is bordered by 
low meadows that are daily covered by the tides. Above 
tide water — ^and it is here where intermittents mostly prevail — 
the land is generally low, but cultivated to the river's edge. 

Between the Hackensack and Saddle River valleys, is an 
other range of high lands, several miles wide. The Saddle 
River valley also extends nearly the whole length of the 
county, and is one of the richest and most beautiful valleys 
in the State. The Saddle River, by which it is drained, is 
like the Hackensack, crooked and sluggish. It is not a navi- 
gable stream, and is dammed in sever^il places for mills. 

Between the Saddle River and the Pjissaic, is another broad 
strip of hilly upland. With the extreme northwestern por- 
tion of the county I am not acquainted, more than to know 
that it is exceedingly mountainous and broken. 

Until recently, Bergen County has been almost a terra in- 
cognita. Within the last few years, however, the county has 
been connected with the city of New York by lines of rail- 
way, and the rich and beautiful lands of the county are be- 
ginning to be much sought after by merchants and others 
doing business in the city. 

Our population, by the census of 1862, is 22,654, fully one- 
half of whom are in the eastern townships — ^that is, in the 
valley of the Hackensack and between that and the Hudson 
River. There are a few cotton and woolen mills in the county, 
besides grist and saw mills, and in the lower portion of the 
county are the celebrated print works of Robert Rennie, Esq., 
employing, I am informed, from 250 to 600 hands. Our pop- 
ulation, however, is mostly agricultural. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 149 

The profeasioa here get along very harmoniously together. 
I have no violation of medical ethic5s to report — a fact due in 
a great measure, I think, to the organization of our District 
Scxsiety. This has brought the members togethers — not as 
oflen as should be, to be sure — and association secures confi- 
dence and a better understanding. K no other good result 
from our Society, this alone is worth the cost. 
Yours respectfully, 

Chas. BLabbrouck. 

Hackensack, N. J., Dec. 27, 1865. 



BURLINGTON COUNTY. 

Chairman Standing Chmmiitee, dc. : 

The ceaseless roll of the course of time has brought us to 
the centennial anniversary of that day, to which we can refer 
with pride ; when our patriotic forefathers benevolently met in 
New Brunswick, for " the laudable purpose of elevating the 
profession from its low estate, to the dignity which it ought 
to assume among the intelligent of that age." Beginning in 
weakness, and at times struggling for mere existence through 
the social and political vicissitudes with which it has been 
surrounded, the Society has vindicated its claim to benevo- 
lence, succeeded in harmonizing the antagonistic elements of 
human action, and established an organization for usefulness 
and harmony, which must be progressive and perpetual. 

In answer to the query, " What is the present status of the 
science, in relation to the people ?" I am glad to answer, high- 
ly respectable. If not commanding and authoritative, as the 
pretenders to science have been in past times, when elemen- 
tary science was less generally diflFused . among the people, it 
certainly does not suffer in comparison with other learned 



150 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

professions in the county, nor in social position with the most 
refined. 

Judging from the anecdotal history of the past generation, 
the style of intercourse between the physician and patient has 
been improved. The medical vocabulary has been revised 
and pruned of much that was offensive to good taste. The 
amenities of the profession have been greatly promoted by 
the existence of the State Society, and the adoption of its 
excellent code of ethics, which is recognized by the members 
of our district with the binding force of a Bull from the Vati- 
can, and the thought is gratifying that such open feuds as 
formerly arose from business competition, are now indulged 
in only by those who choose to stand aloof from the So- 
ciety. As physicians, neither the past nor present genera- 
tion of practitioners in Burlington County have aimed at sci- 
*entific prominence. Isolated as we are, we have not the 
advantage of that attrition, which in compact communities 
burnishes the crude mineral into the polished gem, but sound | 

practical good sense has at all times been characteristic of our I 

physicians. 

At present we have in our regular ranks a number of col- 
legiate graduates, many of good primary education, and not 
any but who have graduated respectably in some one of the 
recognized medical institutions of the country. 

We have 37 regular physicians in the county, 20 of whom 
are members of the District Society. The irregulars at this 
time are professedly homeopathic, but practically eclectic, and 
number eight or'nine. We have an Ethiopian enjoying a 
large and lucrative practice, guided, as he affirms, solely by 
inspiration. 

"What are the habits of your people?" I answer steady, 
industrious, and moderately progressive, like the abundant 
streams which rise in and flow through our widely extended 
territory, in one uniform and never varying tide of productive 
powers. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT S0CIET1E& 151 

The people of Burlington County are not in the van in the 
wild rush, and apparent recklessness, which emanate from 
some quarters, but are attentively awake to the adoption of 
what may be profitably suggested, by the dashing enterprise 
of the day. Nevertheless, a vast amount of water power is 
yet unemployed in this county, which the present apprecia- 
tion of the value of railroad communication may soon bring 
into requisition, and long before our successors celebrate the 
second centennial, the busy hum of machinery will resound 
from the Delaware to the Atlantic. 

" Topography." Burlington County lies between 39 deg. 
30 min. and 40 deg. 10 min. north, and extends from the 
Delaware River on the northwest to the Atlantic on the south- 
east, and is comprised in that section of Ne,w Jersey remark- 
able for its low, level and uniform surface, having but few 
hills, of very moderate elevation. The summit level of this 
extensive plane is not more than one hundred feet above the 
sea. Many streams have their origin in this elevation, which 
by a gentle descent run east into the Atlantic, or westward 
into the Delaware. The whole of the country is extensively 
undulated by ravines of denudation, which contribute their 
drainage to the streams in question. More than one-half of 
this area is quite sandy, and covered with continuous forests, 
interspersed with flat savannas. The porous character of the 
soil, and the extremely level surface, absorb and retain all 
rains however copious, which by easy percolation afford a 
never-failing and uniform supply to the most permanent 
streams imaginable. One-third of the county, which lies 
along and parallel to the Delaware River, is alluvial forma- 
tion, and of much greater agricultural value, which also ex- 
ercises an influence over the hygienic condition, mainly in the 
production of more frequent malarial diseases than occur in 
the more sandy district. 

This agricultural district is now undergoing an extensive 
and systematic course of drainage, both secret and open, 



152 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

while much capital is being invested in preparing the savan- 
nas for cranberry culture. The preparation consists in the 
removal of all the turf, and exposing a surface of clear sand, 
which may never again be covered by any considerable quan- 
tity of vegetable matter to poison the atmosphere. 

The climate of this county is mild for the latitude, and 
variable during the winter, severe frosts seldom lasting longer 
than two weeks, while sleighing snows of that duration are 
obsolete, and to the young literally a chronological jubilee, 
no such one having occurred since January, 1836. In this 
connection I take pleasure in subjoining the remarks of Dr. 
T. C. Thornton, of Moorestown, which are mainly true of the 
temperature and rain fall of the whole county, and of the 
character of the streams of the western third adjacent to the 
Delaware Eiver : 

"Moorestown lies in latitude north 39 deg. 58 min., longi- 
tude 2 deg. 4 min. east Washington, 100 feet above low water 
at Philadelphia, geologically on the imaginary line that di« 
vides the two lateral and parallel strata, running diagonally 
across the State from lower Pennsneck, in Salem County, to 
the Earitan Bay. The western one of which consists of lower 
beds of green sand formation, the eastern of marl beds. All 
along both sides of the streams there is much low ground 
covered with immense quantities of vegetable matter that 
rapidly obtains its growth, falls and rots early in the summer. 

MeteorclogiedL TMe for ten months of the year 1865, fumieheA hy 
Dr. Thmtton. 
Max. temp. Minimum. Mean. BalnfifUI. Snow. 

January 40 deg. 4 deg. 



February 49 deg. 20 deg. 

March 76deg. SSdeg. 

April 79dQg. 88deg. 

May 86deg. 41 deg. 

Jane 89 deg. 69 deg. 

July 94 d^. 64 deg. 

Angnat 95 deg. 71 deg. 

September 90 deg. 49 deg. 

October OOdeg. 47 deg. 



S8deg. 4.06 in. 7 in. 

S9dQg. 49 in. 10 in. 

45 deg. 8.49 in. 

66 deg. 8.79 in. 

61 deg. 8.70 in. 

78 deg. 8.10 in. 

74 deg. 8.11 in. 

80 deg. 8.46 in. 

00 deg. 8.94 in. 

61 deg. a46 in. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETISSi 168 

No thermometrical record extant will compare with that 
noticed for the first half of September. Sunrise, 70 degrees, 
mean 80 degrees — ten degrees higher than during the last five 
years." 

It will be perceived by the above table that the range of 
temperature has been unusually high since the first of March, 
and the papers that I have received from my coadjutors 
throughout the county, report a season of unusual sicknesp, 
but generally not of a malignant character. 

The intermittent and remittent types having prevailed, in- 
stead of the typhoid and the continued fevers which we have 
heretofore had, and which have been more fatal. Dr. Thorn- 
ton remarks : " The principal characteristic of the great ma* 
jority of the diseases of this year, was the readiness with 
which they yielded to the mercurial treatment" 

During the months of January and February, pneumonia 
with its kindred affections of the air passages prevailed quite 
extensively. Erysipelas also occurred, both idiopathically 
and as a traumatic affection. 

Pneumonia. As the treatment suggested by Dr. Elwell 
accords mainly with that adopted by our physicians, I re- 
peat his remarks : " The system was generally brought under 
the moderate influence of mercury, the pulse controlled by 
Tr. verat viride, and expectorants used as seemed necessary, 
giving puL doveri at night, also using quinine when needed* 
With the above treatment I had no cause to be dissatisfied, as 
my patients did well." 

Simple tonsillitis and diphtheria have also had their run, but 
have not elicited anything new in treatment Dr. Young 
reports 85 cases of small-pox, 18 of which were confluent' 
Of the whole number only seven had been vaccinated. There 
was but one death. Among the inmates of the infected house, 
continually exposed to the contagion, were forty vaccinated 
persons, mostly children. Of these, thirty-three escaped. 
20 



154 MEDICAL SOGIBTT OF NEW JERSEY. 

Of the remaining seven, five were adults, none of whom had 
been vaccinated since childhood. 

Dr. Thornton says: "In some cases varioloid attacked chil- 
dren recovering from the vaccine disease, all of whom had 
been exposed to the contagion." 

Scarlatina and measles appeared in epidemic form during 
the months of March and April, but presented no new fea- 
tures. 

Cholera morbus and dysentery made their appearance as 
early as May and June. Cases were more numerous and much 
more severe than usual. 

Many cases of cholera morbus were exceedingly aggravated, 
inducing violent cramps of the stomach and extremities, feeble 
pulse, cold and clammy skin, approaching in violence to Asiat- 
ic cholera^ and inducing *a dread of its near advance as an 
epidemic. 

Dr. Townsend, of Beverly, says his treatment, in all cases, 
has been hot applications over the abdomen and eiptremities, 
and the following prescription, every hour, half, or quarter, 
according to the urgency of the case : 
Tr. opii. 
" camph. 
" cayenne. 

Sp. lav. comp. aa i oz. 
Teaspoonful for an adult 

This has never failed to give relief. It was first prescribed 
in New Orleans, during an epidemic of cholera there, by Dr. 
Brown, who asserts its success in the " Transactions of the 
American Medical Association." 

Intermittent fever, of which we have had approaching in 
timations, for several years past, may now be considered as 
fairly established among us. 

By reference to our meteorological table, it will be seen that 
the rain fall for the year has been the average quantity for the 






BBPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 156 

district, (about 60 inches) and &irlj distributed through the 
season, thereby &yoring vegetable decomposition on the suv- 
face generally, neither flooding nor exposing peculiar locali- 
ties. Attempts have been made to ascribe local cause for its 
appearance in some places, but the fact of its equal prevalence 
in other places so topographically dissimilar, has exploded all 
such theories. Its progressive invasion of our country for 
several years past, during which the seasons have varied as 
much as usual in respect to heat and moisture, would seem to 
refer it to that class of more recondite causes of epidemics 
than those which come under our more immediate observation. 
The greater prevalence of remittent fever, and much less of 
the typhoid type, would seem to imply a modification of the 
malarious poison. I have not seen a case of typhoid fever for 
two years. 

The treatment of intermittent fever consists chiefly in the 
use of some form of cinchona, and as the course pursued by 
Dr. Elwell embraces the principles on which it is based, I 
quote from his paper, although some prefer a single large dose 
of quinine. 

Dr. Elwell prescribes " a full dose of calomel or comp. cath. 
pills. Aflerward, 

Cinchonin 1 dr. 
Tr. cinch, comp. 2 f. oz. 
Aro. sul. acid 1 £ dr. 
For an adult, one teaspoonful an hour for three hours in suc- 
cession, every day, until the chill is broken ; then once a week 
three doses a day, till £>ur weeks have elapsed, after which 
they do not return. The great disrepute which the difierent 
preparations of barks have fallen into with the people, is, I 
think, mainly depending on the phjsicians not insisting on 
the contmuance of its use after the chills are broken." 

Dr. Townsend relates the case of an infant, three months 
old, who was cured of chills by injections of quinine, in half 



156 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

grain doses, every two hours. The idea was original with 
him, and well worth the record. 

Spotted fever. Dr. Townsend relates a case of cerebro- 
spinal meningitis or spotted fever, in which the characteristic 
symptom of the latter was absent, which he is inclined to-call 
tetanus, of the class opisthotonos. 

Per contra. During the months of March and April, there 
occurred about twenty-five cases (in the Burlington County 
poor-house, under my care,) of typhus or spotted fever, in 
which the maculae were invariable, but the cerebro-spibal man- 
ifestations were not so constant Petechise were distinctly 
present in all cases — ^in many a diffused effloresence so filled 
the spaces, as to give rise to the suspicion at first of an irregu- 
lar form of scarlatina, but the entire absence of cynanchial 
affection, and the escape of all the children but two, (of whom 
there were twenty,) dissipated that idea, especially when rigid- 
ity of the back and neck, so properly referable to meningitis 
of the spine and brain, became quite frequent. These cases 
were confined to the female department of the house — only 
one man being affected, although many men had free access 
to their rooms. This fever was not ushered in by the pro- 
found chill noticed by some writers, but the invasion was 
more insidious, the toxic cause apparently operating on the 
system sometime before any local manifestations were present 
A general malaise preceded any sensible evidence of disease 
two or three days. With two or three exceptions the spots 
preceded the rigidity of the spinal column. Their appearance 
in time was also irregular, varying from the first to the fifth 
day. Very great prostration of the vital powers was a leading 
feature, the capillary circulation extremely languid, some of 
the cases assuming a mahogany color. Notwithstanding the 
atonic character of this disease, the patients were generally 
averse to the use of tonics or stimuli 

The course of treatment consisted chiefly in an occasioDal 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIKa 157 

aperient of mass. hydr. (only one case of enteritis occurred,) 
a free use of the decoction of actea racemosa, gruels, with 
what whiskey they could be persuaded to take, and milk 
punch. 

Of the twenty-five patients, five or six died, and they were 
the cases in which the cerebro-spinal irritation was greatest, 
ending generally in coma, stupor, and sometimes clonic spasms. 

Under the head of remarkable cases. Dr. Longstreet, of 
Bordentown, reports the occurrence of a peculiar form of ty- 
phoid fever, occurring sporadically, and confined to one fam- 
ily, consisting of "father, mother, five children, and an aged 
grandmother. Some were taken in December, 1664, with 
pneumonic symptoms, which soon ran into typhoid fever. 
Others were taken with gastric symptoms, great nausea, and 
vomiting. The only one who escaped was the aged grand- 
mother. Some of the cases lasted until April, 1865, and one 
boy, aged 14, was for more than two weeks unable to speak or 
even make the attempt, yet perfectly understood what was 
said to him. The peculiarity in this fever was the large doses 
of quinine and stimulants required in the treatment. These 
were the only cases that occurred in the neighborhood, and I 
have been unable to ascertain any local cause." 

Under the same head, Dr. W. L. Martin, of Beverly, states 
the case of a young woman, aged about 24, "who was taken 
with gastric uneasiness followed by diarrhoea. On visiting 
her the next morning I found the discharges to be a dark 
molasses color, indicating a case of melsena or hemorrhage 
£rom the bowels. No cerebral disturbance, no pain sufficient 
to claim attention, no fever, (pulse 80.) The disease ran its 
course, and proved fatal in about nine days. Opium with 
acelate of lead, tannin, turpentine, brandy, &c., were used. 
Post-mortem examination presented an aj^earance of disease 
of the ilium, characteristic of the typhoid fever, which was 
the only evidence of disease to be seen." 



158 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Ovarian Dropsy. A very interesting case reported by Dr 
A. Elwell, of Vincentown, which I send in extenso. Also 
two cases contributed by Dr. Townsend, of Beverly — one 
worthy of attention in consideration of the recovery of the 
patient at his advanced age, after such extensive destruction 
by gangrene. The other, on account of the physiological 
problem involved in the locality of its origin. 

Surgery. Dr. Young, of Bordentown, reports an interest- 
ing case of compression of the brain. " A young man was 
thrown violently from the cars, striking his forehead violently 
against a sleeper, crushing in his skull. He was brought to 
Trenton, 'and Dr. J. B. Coleman attended him. In a few hours 
afterwards, he was conveyed here, with a note from Dr. 0. 
The note informed me that * the frontal bone was broken in two 
places, and driven below the proper line three-quarters of an 
inch.' The trephine was used to make an opening and a ful- 
crum for the elevator, and the bones raised to their proper 
position. The pericranium covers the fractured bone. The 
man made a good recovery." 

Dr. Thornton reports a case of fractured femur, " cured by 
Gibson's Hagedorn, without any shortening whatever; and 
not in this case only, has this splint succeeded so well, but in 
all others on whom I have used it. The extending bands 
were adhesive plaster. They were cut in the direction the 
muslin was stitched by the machinery. They did not ' give.' 
Not the slightest excoriation occurred, nor were they removed 
until aflfer recovery." 

Special Cases by Dr. E. P. Townsend. 

SeniU Gangrene. 

Mr. C. P., -^t. 72. This patient called upon me in July, 
1864, and desired tne to examine the great toe of the right 
foot, which he said had been annoying him for several months 
I found it diseased at the matrix of the nail, presenting one 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOOIETlKa 159 

or two small dark colored blebs, surrounded by inflamed skin. 
I recommended that be should cut the shoe at that point, and 
dress it with cerat simplex, intending to make further inqui- 
ries the next time I saw him, being then in a great hurry to 
answer a call to a case demanding prompt attention. 

I then lost sight of the case until the 16th of November 
succeeding, when I was called to see him, and found that he 
had consulted, not only all the old ladies of the neighborhood, 
but the Homeopathic, African, and other irregulars within 
reach. On examination I found the disease had disappeared 
from the toe, but there was an ash-colored, phagedenic blister 
on the crest of the tibia, about the junction of the middle and 
lower third of the bone. I made inquiry as to his anteeedents, 
and found that his father had died of senile gangrene. 

This patient is a man of temperate habits, has always been 
a careful and moderate liver, and presents as healthy and fine 
appearance as any man of his age possibly could, so that he 
bad a fine constitution in his favor. 

From this point the ulcer spread in every direction, the 
dead parts sloughing of^ until the whole of the soft tissues 
from the internal maleolus to the tubercle of the tibia were 
destroyed. The internal maleolus and the internal face of the 
tibia were exposed. The skin over the belly of the gastroc- 
nemius remained intact, but the cellular or adipose tissue seem- 
ed to be destroyed. 

This progress of the disease occupied the time until the 
middle of January. During this time it was dressed with 
poultices of various kinds, mostly flax-seed and charcoal, 
being washed twice or three times daily with tepid wafcer, con- 
taining labarraques solution. 

About the middle of January he was attacked with violent 
hiccough, which lasted one or two days, with great distress 
to the patient, and on its decline was followed by excessive 
irritability of the stomach. This was finally checked by fre* 



160 MISDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JSBSEY. 

quent doses of salt and water, after the failure of all the usual 
remedies. 

Through February several laminae were thrown off from the 
tibia, and one from the maleolus. After this, granulation 
sprung up, and the case improved gradually until April 1st, 
1865, when the parts were entirely healed, and the patient has 
since had no return of the trouble, and has perfect use of the 
limb. 

His treatment internally was anodyne, tonic, nutritive, and 
when admissible, stimulant Externally, disinfectant and 
emollient. 

Now the question arises, have I given it a proper name? 
According to the best authorities I can find, it ppesented all 
the symptoms of senile gangrene, and yet the result of the 
case would seem to make it doubtful. As for myself I con- 
sider the disease depressed, not cured, but yet lingering in the 
system, ready to seize upon the cicatrice at any time when the 
condition of the patient's system favors the attack. 

A OarUms Case of Ckdculus, 

Mrs. K, Mi. 57, was attacked in May last with irritability 
of stomach and obstinate vomiting. Her medical attendant. 
Dr. J. Bryan, was called on, and attended her one week, and 
during that time foiled to check the vomiting, or to move the 
bowels, although frequent injections were resorted to. Dur- 
ing this time the patient suffered excruciating pain in tlie 
abdominal region. 

At the expiration of a week from the commencement of the 
attack, I was called in consultation with the Doctor, and we 
decided to give one grain pills of opium (made from the crude 
opium) every hour, with the hope that at least some of them 
would be retained. 

By this means we succeeded in checking the vomiting, and 
with it the pain ceased. Four days after the cessation of the 



RKFORTS OF DISTBICT SOCIETISa 161 

pain, (the bowels not having been moved during the sickness,) 
the patient passed from the bowels a calculus of the sizQ and 
shape of an ordinary hen's egg, which I find contains as a 
nucleus a biliary calculus. Around this are fatty and earthy 
matters, arranged in concentric layers. Portions of this stone 
were exhibited to the members of the Burlington Medical 
Society. The woman's health has been excellent ever since. 
Was all this formed in the gall cyst, or did the nucleus pass 
and lodge in the intestine, and receive the deposit there ? 

Case by Dr. Alexander Elwell. 

During the year 1861, 1 was called to a Mrs. Kenora Day, 
an English woman, and formerly a nurse in Philadelphia. 
Being an unusually intelligent woman, she proceeded to give 
her history medically. About two years before I saw her, 
she experienced a severe pain in the right iliac region ; this 
pain was not constant, but very severe at times. From this 
time her menses ceased, and she noticed a gradual enlargement 
of her abdomen. She consulted some of the most eminent med* 
ical men of Philadelphia ; they all with one opinion pronounced 
it ovarian disease — ^recommending no treatment particularly, 
but advising her to a life of quiet, predicting her death in 
about two years. She patiently awaited her two allotted years, 
and at their end I saw her. After listening to her recital of 
the above, I suggested the propriety of tapping as in ascites. 
She asked time to consider, and at the end of about two 
weeks, Dr. J. P. Coleman saw her with me, who also suggested 
tapping, which was acceded to, and done by the Doctor, Aug. 
3d, 1861, taking nine gallons and one pint of a fluid, resem- 
bling very thin starch, and somewhat viscid During the 
next two years she was tapped about once in nine weeks, the 
quantity varying but little — ^ranging from eight gallons and 
two quarts to eleven gallons. The balance of her time she 
was tapped still more frequently, coming as near together as 
21 



162 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

even five weeks, before her death, which occurred Nov. 19th, 
1865, at which time I took from her twelve gallons. In look- 
ing over my notes, I find I have tapped her (including the 
time that you tapped her) twenty-six times— the amount taken 
being two hundred and seventy gallons and one pint — ^being 
an average of more than ten and a half gallons each time, or 
four hogsheads and eighteen gallons oven These are the fig- 
ures ; however GuUiver like it may sound, it is neverthelees 
true. 

Previously to her death, she bad requested me to make a 
posi'moriem^ whenever that event occurred. Drs. J. P. Cole- 
man, Aaron Eeid, and Charles Champion were present, and 
assisted me. Upon opening the sack, we found it closely 
adhering to the walls of the abdomen, in almost every direc- 
tion, and well filled with cysts, from the size of a pea to that 
of a walnut with the hull unremoved. These cysts were filled 
with their viscid fluid in some, othera with a gelatinoid sab- 
stance ; some again with a curd or cheese-like substanca The 
right ovary was enlarged to about six times its normal size, 
and filled with pus, and laying high up, nearly in contact 
with the lower surface of the line ; the lefli ovary was but very 
little diseased, and in its natural position. The uterus itself 
was but little changed from its natural condition. Had this 
case been operated on early in its history, I think the chances 
were favorable for her recovery. 

Autumnal Catarrh, or Hay Asthma. By Thbo. T. 
Price, Tuci:BRT0N. 

I have long desired to call the attention of the profession to 
the certain relief of Autumnal Catarrh, or Hay Asthma, by a 
sojourn during the period of attack at the sea shore. Every 
symptom of the complaint points to the fact that the proxi- 
mate cause exists in particles of irritating substances floating 
in the air. The attack begins by a slight soreness and itching 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 16^ 

of the nose and eyes, watery discharges therefrom, frequent 
sneezing, and all the symptoms of an acute and violent coryza^ 
the irritation rapidly extending to the fauces, larynx, trachea) 
bronchial tubes and finally to the air cells. In aggravated 
cases the suffering is intense, and the dyspnoea intolerable. 

All the remedies yet discovered yield nothing more than 
temporary relief, so long as the patient remains exposed to the 
exciting cause. A residence during the period of attack on 
many of the sandy, barren islands along the coast known as 
"-BsacAes*," secures entire and complete immunity from the 
disease, without any medicine whatever. 

The conditions essential for absolute relief, are: A locality 
by the sea, devoid of upland timber or herbage, and so fkv 
removed from the mainland as to prevent the conveyance 
thereto of the irritating particles by the wind. 

These particles, we have good reason to believe, are the 
pollen or flower dust of some one, or perhaps several, of the 
innumerable species of plants which are in full bloom at the 
season when this unpleasant affection prevaila I am aware 
that some suppose that the cause depends upon some occult 
and undefined thermal or electrical condition of the atmo- 
sphere, but we have well established analogical facts for sup- 
posing otherwise. 

The well known effects of roses upon some persons, called 
^^ rose fsver,^^ and the equally well understood susceptibility of 
some individuals to the dust of ipecacuanha and other irritating 
substances, add strong support to the theory which is here 
advanced. 

An attack of very severe coryza and bronchial irritation 
(exactly resembling the complaint under consideration) is in- 
variably brought upon my wife, if she chances to enter my 
ofiGlce while I am compounding dry preparations, containing 
polv. ipecac, and although she may escape from the cause as 
soon as discovered, the unpleasant effects of sneezing, dysp- 
noea, cough, and expectoration continue for several hours. 



164 MEDICAL SOCIETY 01? NEW JERSEY. 

So generally is the opinion entertained among those who 
suffer with this complaint, that the offending material is sns- 
pended in the external air, and does not depend upon an altered 
condition of the atmosphere itself, that they invariably shut 
themselves up closely in their houses, excluding it as much 
as possible, notwithstanding the attack happens in the warm- 
est months in the year. 

The majority of those afflicted are attacked very regularly 
and certainly about the 18th or 20th of August, and get well 
about the 20th or 25th of September. To escape entirely 
from all symptoms of an attack, the patient should reach the 
place of resort one or two days before its expected appear- 
ance, and remain a day or two after the time of usual ternu- 
nation. Experience has proven that it is unnecessary to pro- 
long the stay at the seaside much beyond the ordinary duration 
of the disease. 

!No satisfactory evidence has as yet been adduced, so far as 
I anf aware, tm settle the inquiry as to the species of plants 
concerned in occasioning the complaint Some suppose the 
cause to be the aroma arising from buckwheat fields when 
blossoming, and such may be the fact, but an idea has dwelt 
with me for some time, which I shall mention here merely as 
a suggestion — that it will be found to exist in the pollen of 
some of the plants of the widely spread sub-order Chrymbiferod 
belonging to the natural order Chmpositce. This extensive 
family of plants, the majority of which are in full bloom at 
the season designated, are universally found all over the United 
States in every latitude, filling every wood and field and road- 
side with their fine corymbs of flowers. Of these, perhaps the 
genus SoUdago, ^^ golden rod,^^ of which there are many spe- 
cies, may be the unwitting agent This plant is almost ubiqui- 
tous, and bears large clusters of beautiful orange-colored flow- 
ers. These suggestions are advanced with the hope that they 
will awaken an interest in some, and lead to investigation. I 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIia 165 

have no proper evidence to fix the fault upon any particular 
order, genus, or species of plants, but that among them some- 
where it will eventually be found, I have scarcely a doubt. 

When the important discovery shall have been made, per- 
haps it may be found that the places of resort for relief may 
be greatly extended. It may be found that high elevations of 
land, as mountain sides, above the region of growth of the 
plants involved would afford the same exemption as the barren 
islands along the coast. I think that I have heard of persons 
affticted with the complaint, who have visited some of the 
higher mountains of our country, the White Mountains, for 
instance, with great relief. 

Long Branch, opposite Tuckerton, has for several years 
been a place of resort for a number of persons who suffer with 
this distressing affliction. They there enjoy complete relief 
This is a long, narrow strip of sandy beach and salt marsh, 
washed on the one side by the ocean waves, and the other by 
Egg Harbor Bay. It is about six or eight miles distant from 
the mainland, and produces only a coarse rough grass and 
bayberry bushes on the sandy parts, and salt grasses on the 
marshes. Perhaps other localities possess equal advantages 
with the one above named, but the essential requirements sta* 
ted in this communication, must be observed in the selection 
of a resort, or the sufferer will be disappointed. A residence 
by the sea side alone, will not answer ; it must he away from 
the upland herbage. 



CAMDEN COUNTY. 
Chairman of the Standing Chmmittee, Ac. : 

Though my experiience of the character of the medical men 
extends to still a very few years less than half the life of this 
society, I may^be permitted to congratulate our fellow mem- 



166 MEDICAL SOOISTY OF NSW JBBSST. 

bers upon an obvious and decided improvement in the tone of 
professional intercourse, and the frankness and cordialitf of 
our afi5diation& This is mainly due with us, to t^e influence 
of our City and County societies, the increased attendance at 
our meetings, and the greater importance of our discussions. 
Never, within my memory, has the courtesy and harmony 
prevailing among us, been so marked as it is at present, and 
the consequent advance of the profession in influence and pub- 
lic estimation, is as decided as it is agreeable. 

" The Camden City Society " has recently appointed a com- 
mittee which is charged with considering and assisting in car- 
rying out measures, necessary for the protection of the public 
health, on the expected advent of the epidemic Asiatic cholera, 
and is empowered to confer officially, with the sanitary com- 
mittee of the city councils, in relation to this important subject 

Another undertaking, indicative of increased activity among 
us, has also engaged the attention of the Society. A fund, 
amounting to about f(mT thousand doUars^ derived firom the 
contributions of several persons, intending to secure substitutes 
or commutation for such of their number as might be drafted 
for military service during the last draft, ordered by govern- 
ment, was left remaining unexpended, in the hands of a public 
spirited citizen, at the time of the sudden termination of the 
late civil war. This, by vote of the parties interested, was 
appropriated to some charitable object, to be selected by the 
trustee of the fund, and it has been pledged to the foundation 
of a medical and surgical Dispensary, under the management 
and control of the City Medical Society, and on a plan nearly 
similar to that pursued in the institutions of like title and 
character, in Philadelphia. Camden has long felt the want of 
some proper retreat for the sick st3*anger, and the mutilated 
victim of railroad and other accidents, so constantly occurring 
in our busy city of extensive manufactories and enormous 
transportation ; and it is now proposed that a suitable building 



BEPORTS OF DISTRICT SO0IET1E& 167 

with a few chambers, should be provided from this fund, and 
further charitable donations for the accommodation of medical 
and surgical cases, as well as for the dispensary purpose. 
Some business arrangements, it is understood, has temporarily 
alone, delayed the immediate initiation of this foundation ; but 
we may expect to see with the approach of Spring, the establish- 
ment of this nascent civil hospital, in which, for the first time 
within my experience, the exclusive control will be vested 
where it properly belongs*— in the hands of regularly accred- 
ited medical men. I am happy to be able to state, that many 
of our leading fellow citizens express themselves prepared to 
render substantial aid in the undertaking in varied ways. 

The discussons at the meetings of the city and county So- 
cieties, and our casual intercourse in the rounds of professional 
duty, give proof that a lively interest and determined industry 
is keeping pace with the advance of the age, and the progress 
of our art It is perhaps just to remark, in this connection, 
that the rural practitioner of the day, separated as he is trom 
libraries, institutions and great centres of information, seems 
here, more strongly inclined than formerly, to contend with 
these serious difficulties, and to cultivate a broader vision, and 
a wider acquaintance with collateral branches of knowledge 
and science. He begins to look more narrowly into the hy- 
gienic condition of his immediate neighbors, and even into 
their economical prosperity, where the results of his more re- 
condite studies can be brought to bear to their advantage. No 
longer regarded as the mere professional adviser, in the sick 
room, he is beginning to be more generally considered as the 
intelligent friend, whose counsel is rendered desirable by his 
extensive acquaintance with nature and man, in morals as in 
physia Mutual respect and confidence between the profession 
and the pubUc is obviously upon the increase, and we may 
safely say to our successors, in this County, we leave you 
at the end of our ^r^^ century of labor, in an honorable position, 
with still more honorable prospects open before you. 



168 MEDICAL SOCEETT OF NBW JEB8EY. 

Much interest has been felt of late years, both in Europe and 
America, on the subject of medical topography, in connection 
with endemic and epidemic disease, the laws of hygiene, Ion* 
gevity and population. Our field of observation in Camden 
county, is a small one, and the general sameness of profile, soil 
and climate throughout several adjoining counties of West 
Jersey, has probably deterred the observers in each, from the 
publication of those detailed observations, from the sum of 
which all valuable and broad conclusions must be ultimately 
drawn. I regret the paucity of records, growing out of this 
circumstance, and hoping that an allusion to the existence of 
the evil, on this particular occasion, will tend to its abatement, 
I beg leave to refer to my former report on the " Topography 
of Camden County," published in the transactions of the State 
Medical Society, for the year 1862, in proof that the subject 
has not been overlooked with us. 

This year and the last have been notable for the unusual 
amount of rain and snow which have fallen. During the last 
winter and spring especially, the amount as estimated by the 
rain-guage, is said to have reached nearly double the average 
of the preceding twenty -three years. The season was not to 
be regarded as exceedingly severe, but the coolness and damp- 
ness of spring were remarkably protracted. In June, however, 
the weather became warm, and from the mididle of that month 
until September was far advanced, we had a singular alterna- 
tion of dry and hot spells, with some considerable floods, while 
during this whole period, the temperature ranged high, and 
the principal hot term was of extraordinary intensity and dura- 
tion. Vegetation has been exceedingly vigorous, but from the 
quantity and timing of the rains, the agriculturists of this sec- 
tion, report that the foliage was in gxcess of the harvest. This, 
had the autumn been as damp as it frequently is, might have 
proved injurious to the health of the district, but the latter part 
of Sept and the whole month of October were peculiarly pleas- 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 169 

ant The leaves ret4Uiie(i their verdure until late in the season, 
and this circumstance, together with the absence of excessive 
rains at this period, had a tendency to diminish the amount of 
disease from the miasmatic'exhalations, except in a few locali* 
ties, where the forest had been recently cleared, in the neigh- 
borhood of marshes on low grounds. 

The early frosts were light towards the end of October, and 
not until the early part of November, did ice make itself visi- 
ble during the morning, in exposed situations. After a very few 
cold nights, at this period, the temperature again relaxed, and 
for ten days we enjoyed the luxury of a genuine old-fashioned 
Indian summer, with a reddish hazy atmosphere, and the 
thermometer sometimes rising above 70 deg. Far. — ^thelast few 
days alone, were unpleasantly cool, and ice of any considerable 
thickness was at no time seen. The 1st of December set in 
very mild, and continued so until the 7th, the mercury scarce- 
ly falling to the point of freezing. On the 9th we had quite a 
snow storm. 

In 1865, the diseases which we have been accustomed to 
meet with annually for many years, have presented themselves 
as usual. During the spring and autumn, intermittent fevers 
have prevailed to a considerable extent, and without any very 
great variation from the usual type. It may be observed, how- 
ever, that a marked tendency to asthenic action, has displayed 
itself generally. In children especially, the disease assumed a 
decidedly congestive form, giving rise to convulsions and, alarm- 
ing cerebral symptoms, in some few cases to a fatal termination. 
Under these circumstances, the only treatment that appears to 
have proved successful, has been the very liberal administra- 
tion of quinine, coupled in very obstinate cases, with the Fow- 
ler's mineral solution. 

Two*diseases may be said to have prevailed epidemically 
during the year. Small-pox, together with its modified variety, 
varioloid, and the scarlet fever. These two forms of exanthe- 
22 



170 MEDICAL SOOIBTY OF NEW JERSEY. 

matous diseases have been quite generally prevalent, especially 
variola, which, in several instances proved to be so malignant 
as to terminate in death. In these fatal cases, a portion oc- 
curred in individuals who were said to have been previously 
protected by vaccination, most of whom were adults. 

It is to be regretted, that the frequency of such occurrences 
has had a tendency to greatly destroy the public confidence 
in the efficacy of the operation so universally adopted as a 
preventive in this formidable complaint, and renders peculiarly 
interesting at this time, all researches and observations on the 
certainty and durability of the effects of vaccination, and the 
degree of care and attention with which it is performed. 

It is known that vaccination is often performed in the hurry 
of practice, and that even able medical men may neglect the 
proper examination of the progress of the areola and pustule, 
without which, certainty of result can never be obtained ; and 
the reputation of one of the greatest securities of human life 
destroyed. 

Your reporter would seriously recommend to his fellow prac- 
titioners, the careful collation and report of all facts bearing 
upon this great question. Of the wearing out of the consiiliUional 
effects of vaccine inoculation^ and the propriety and timing of its 
repetition. 

In comparison with the last three years, the present year 
has presented but few cases of diphtheria. There have been 
several examples of acute affections of the lining membranes 
of the respiratory organs, some of which were preceded or fol- 
lowed by croup, and of these a few proved fatal. 

Pleurisies and pneumonia have prevailed to a considerable 
extent during the inclement weather of the winter and spring, 
and many of these cases displayed the general tendency to 
asthenia, assuming a typhoid character. * 

Pertussis, also, has been by no means unfrequent, but has 
required no very energetic treatment^ being in nearly all in- 
stances manageable and mild in form. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 171 

During the latter part of summer and the early weeks of au- 
tumn, disturbances of the alimentary canal, such as cholera mq( 
bus and dysentery, occurred quite commonly, but for the most 
part the attacks of these affections yielded readily tp the use of 
calomel, opium, acetate of lead, tannic acic and creta ppt. 

• As has generally been the case in former years, rheumatism 
and neuralgia have claimed a notable share of the attention of 
the profession. 

It may be remarked generally that throughout the spring 
and autumn, most of the prevailing disorders manifested a 
striking tendency to periodicity, and demanded anti-periodic 
treatment 

The following singular case of cerebro-spinal meningitis, 
immediately followed by scarlatina anginosa, which came 
under my observation last December, may prove of interest to 
the medical profession : On the 1st of December last^ I was 
called to attend the son of Mr. W., aged nine years, who, for 
the preceding three or four days, had been laboring tinder 
severe pains of an acute character, in the left knee and various 
parts of the head. It had been ushered in by slight chills, with 
continuous febrile action ; he complained at the same time of 
much nneasiness along the spinal canal, especially along the 
cervical column. Even the slightest motion, invariably in- 
creased the pain, and it would be reflected to the anterior part 
of the thorax. At first, from the symptoms in the knee, I sus- 
pected rheumatism, but was soon undeceived. The character 
of the pain often simulated neuralgia, but other features con- 
tra indicated this affection. Considerable rigidity of the mus- 
cles of the spine, and especially those of the neck was present, 
so that, for several days the head was drawn and retained 
backward, during the paroxysmal exacerbations of pain, the 
pupils during a like period were much dilated, the pulse va- 
ried from 115 to 125, respiration at times, was laborious, and 
coma supervened, continuing for several hours. With these 



172 MKDICAL dOClEtf O*' NEW JKRSBY. 

symptoms, there was diarrhcBa and considerable irritation of the 
bladder, together with constant restlessness and occasional toss- 
ing about of the upper and lower extremities, succeeded by 
partial paralysis of the limba 

The diagnosis of this case, when matured, could not be con- 
fused with that of rheumatism, as there were present occcasion- 
al tonic spasms, paralytic and other symptoms, clearly dis- 
tinctive of a morbid condition of the spinal cord and its mem- 
branes. 

On the 21st day after this attack of spinal disease, and during 
convalescence, there was a severe recurrence of fever, with 
soreness of the throat and fauces, and other symptoms, inducing 
strong suspicions of the impending advent of some eruptive 
disease, and the second day following this renewal of fever, a 
well developed scarlet eruption made its appearance. The 
inference was then obvious; that the patient was laboring 
under scarlatina of the anginose variety ; and the correctness 
of this conclusion was afte^rwards established by the &ct that 
three other members of the same family were taken down 
within eighteen days from the first appearance of the eruption 
in this patient 

The treatment in this case was as follows : Calomel and 
saline cathartics, and repeated blisters applied to the upper 
portion of the spine, alterative doses of mercurials, with the 
intention of producing a constitutional impression ; and the 
system was supported by the use of tonics and stimulating 
remedies. The treatment proved successful, although the case 
was considered hopeless for many days. 

The case was decidedly remarkable in more respects than 
one. Authors have spoken much of the tendency of acarlet 
fever, to involve itself with cerebro-spinal disturbances, and in 
fact, we all are familiar with such complications, and their 
very serious consequences, but we observe this usual order of 
sequence positively reversed. The graver disease, in this in- 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCDfiTISa 173 

8tan()e, took precedence, and the very clearly marked cerebro- 
spinal meningitui antidated, if it did not retard the develop- 
ment of the emptive and anginose affection, by overpowering 
or arresting the action of the poison from which they are de- 
rived ; for it is not to be supposed, that the attack of scarlatina 
was the result of nervous sympathy radiating from the brain 
and spine, or of a metastatic transfer of their peculiar morbific 
action, to other organs or tissues. 

The case is fraught with additional interest, from the fact 
that the patieat had been confined to his room for twenty-four 
days, with the primary affection, when the access of the attack 
of scarlatina occurred ; an interval of unusual length between 
the introduction of morbific virus into the system, and the 
consequent invasion of a contagious or infectious disease* More- 
over, the symptoms presented, and the treatment which proved 
successful, render the case a beautiful illustration of simple 
idiopathic cerebro'spinal irritation. 

In the summaries of the transactions of the College of Fhy 
sicians of Philadelphia, as published in the '' American Jour- 
nal of Medical Sciences," firom July 1868, to April 1886, we 
find a very interesting series of observations on spotted fever, 
and among them the able paper of Br. W. W. Gerhard, on the 
diagnosis^ Viewed in connection with these communications, 
the foregoing notes may prove of some little interest to the 
members of this Society. 

From a communication received from Br. J. (Gilbert Young, 
of Gloucester Oity, I shall content myself by giving a brief 
abstract) with a few remarks on a single case (selected from 
several others) of supposed " vicarious action of the skim^^ 

The patient at the age of forty years, had suffered from a 
paralytic attack, which Was repeated under the form of par' 
aplegia four times within the succeeding ten years, with tol- 
erable recoveiy oi^ the use of the limbs, in the interval. The 
fourth attack was terrible and final, and Br. Young was called 



174 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

in a few weeks before death, when palliative treatment alone, 
was admissible. The legs were permanently fixed on the 
thighs, and the thighs on the pelvis. The right arm was 
wholly, and the left nearly, powerless. Speech was lost for 
weeks ; semi-fluid food was swallowed with difficulty, and the 
tongue could be projected but slightly. Deafness had sujter- 
vened, and large bed sores were formed, yet, strange to say, 
he was affected with slight paroxysms of tertian ague, and 
during the sweating stage, his coverings about the back of the 
joints, and on the right side were tinted with a pigment vary- 
ing in color from a pea green to a dark green. Elsewhere, the 
stains resembled the general color of the skin. 

This appearance is attributed, and no doubt justly so, by 
Dr. Young, to paralysis of the cells of the liver, and perhaps 
the biliary duct also, and a vicarious action of the sudariferous 
grandules, depurating the blood of the biliary coloring matter. 

The source of the yellow or greenish tint of jaundice has 
been disputed by various pathologists ; but there seems but 
little reason to doubt that in this case narrated by Dr. Young* 
there was present a genuine vicarious action of the skin, for 
the relief of the liver. 

The subject is of peculiar importance, as it connects itself 
in various ways with the proper treatment, external as well as 
internal. 

This case is peculiarly interesting as illustrative of a fact by 
no means forgotten by physiologists, but, perhaps culpably 
neglected by many physicians, surgeons and hygienists — ^the 
vicarious action of the skin in functional or structural disturb* 
ances of internal organs. That the skin acts vicariously in 
many conditions of the system, is evident from the history, 
both of health and disease. By the thinness of the skin, the 
race horse is able to endure the course to a far greater d^ree 
than the cart horse, from a cutaneous respiration by means of 
his large superficial veins — ^thus relieving the muscles of respi- 



REPORTSIOr'DISTKIOT SOCIETIES. 175 

ratioD. No doubt the check of inflammation from the use of 
cotton and flour, in recent bums, is due to the arrest of this 
species of respiration, in denuded or excited capillaries by the 
exclusion of air, and the prevention or mitigation of the pitting 
of small pox, when air or light are excluded, may be safely 
attributed chiefly to the same cause. It is well known that in 
cases of disease of the kidneys, and in obstinate constipation, 
the urinifefous or stercoraceous odors became chiefly percepti- 
ble in the perspiration. 

Dr. Alexander Marcy, of Camden City, has furnished me 
with the following communication : 

Br. Marcy's Communication. 

Oase IsL A Golored WomaUj with Traumatic Tetanus, 

Great difficulty of swallowiug, rendering it impossible to get 
anything down. I injected under the skin, on each side of the 
neck, half a grain of morphia sulphas, with a few drops of 
tinct. aconite rad., also, on each side of the spine half a grain 
morphia, making in all two grains of salt ; saw the patient 
in four hours ; narcotism complete — muscles relaxed — and the 
patient in a sound sleep, from which she was roused to take 
some beef tea, when a spasm came on, and seized the heart, 
which produced death in a few minutes. In this case the 
dose of morphia was large, particularly as it is claimed that 
the salt acts more powerfully when used hypodermically, than 
when given by the mouth. It was not, however, large enough 
to prevent the occurrence of the fatal spasm. 

Case 2d, Neuralgic Pains in the Back, 

A middle-aged gentleman, suffered exceedingly from acute 
pain in the muscles of the back. The pain was so acute that 
he declared that unless relieved, he could not live. I could 
find nothing to cause it, except neuralgia, and such was the 
diagnosis. 



176 MBDICAL SOCIKTY Or NEW JEBSEY* 

Had immediately half a grain of aoetate of morphia and a 
quarter grain of ext. belladonna, rubbed up in half a fluid 
drachm of water. This combination I injected under the skin 
on the left side of the spine, and then left, promising to call 
and see him in a couple of hours. When I returned at the 
end of the time, he informed me '' a few minutes after the in- 
jection of the fluid, he became relieved," and at the time of my 
second visit — ^two hours after the medicine had been Intro- 
duced, he was entirely free from pain, and fully under the 
influence both of the morphia and belladonna. The latter 
was characterised by the peculiar red flush which accompanies 
the exhibition of that drug, in full doses. No further treat- 
ment was required, nor did the pain ever return. 

Oaae 8d. Hysterical Gmvulstons, 

A child about 12 years old, with convulsions of a hysterical 
character, occurring at various intervals during the day. The 
parents seeing that the ordinary antiperiodics, and also a blister 
fiuled, supposed she would die, and became very indiflferent 
about giving the medicine. Perceiving this, I resolved upon 
administering it myself. The ordinary treatment having failed, 
I injected one-eighth of a grain of morphia, under the skin of 
the back, which reduced the frequency of the attacks. The 
following day I injected one-sixth of a grain, which arrested 
the convulsions altogether. 

OoLse 4:th, Convulsions Jrom Physical and MenUd JSxdiemenL 

A young man about 20 years of age, was taken with oon- 
vulsions on account of a quarrel between himself and his 
lady-love, and the exhibition of several cock-tails of gin. The 
convulsions bore a strong resemblance to those of hysteria in 
the female, while at the same time, there was evidence of con- 
gestion of the brain. He was ordered to be cupped, and to 
have an anti-spasmodic mixture. The cups were applied, and 
relieved him for a few hours, but his attendants failed to get 



REPOKTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIEa 177 

any medicine down him. The convulsions having returned, 
and finding it difficult to administer any by the mouth, I placed 
a quarter of a grain of morphia, under the skin of the arm, 
which bad the effect of quieting him as nicely as could be 
expected. 

So familiar is my experience with the hypodermic syringe, 
that I consider it invaluable in the treatment of disease. In 
all cases where there is difficulty in administering medicines 
by the mouth, it is both reliable and convenient. 

It has. been claimed that the pain of neuralgia^ when broken 
up by this plan, is not likely to recur again, as is the case 
when narcotics are given by the mouth. My own experience in 
case No. 2, of this report, would seem to confirm such a view. 
The method of uang the syringe is so very simple, that no 
mention need be made of it here. Patients do not complain 
of anything more than a stinging pain when the fluid is 
being thrown up. No unpleasant circumstances are apt to 
attend the injection of morphia. It sometimes happens that a 
small abscess forms at the point were the fluid was thrown in, 
but this is rara 

Case 5ih, An Old MulaUo Woman with a Strangulated In- 
guinal Hernia. 

Had been strangulated for two or three days, during which 
time it had been treated by an "eclectic." Found the patient 
suffering excruciating cramp-like pains, with vomiting, &c. 
Upon examination, the hernia could be felt plainly coming 
out at the external ring. I immediately began taxis, and kept 
it up without intermission for nearly an hour, but without 
success. I ordered ice wrapped in cloths to be applied for half 
an hour, after which, having obtained some ether, I anses- 
tbetized the patient and performed taxis for another hour 
without any farther effect, except an occjtsional gurgle, as 
though gas was escaping from the gut Finding all efforts 
useless, I withdrew the ether in order that my patient might 
23 



178 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

be acquainted with the condition and the operation proposed 
for its relief, the tumor, in the meantime, not having been 
reduced any in size. To mj great surprise and gratification, 
I found all the symptoms of strangulation seemed to have 
ceased. There was no more pain or vomiting, and the patient 
was comfortable. To condense — ^she remained comfortable, 
and the bowels were moved by injection. Efforts were made, 
from time to time, to reduce, but without any effect The 
tumor gradually grew smaller, and the old woman resumed 
her avocation, . until in about three months, she told me she 
never felt it, except when lifting. I advised strongly the use 
of a truss, but she never consented to get one. Here was an 
instance in which the hernia must have consisted of omentum 
and intestine. The intestine must have been reduced, and the 
omentum remained. At least, this is the only explanation of 
the affair that I can give. I may remark that the patient was 
seen by my friend. Dr. CuUen, before ether was administered, 
and his diagnosis was also that of strangulated hernia. 

The next case, or rather "next three cases, I report not so 
much because they possess any great deal of interest, as to 
show the necessity of inculcating proper hygienic and dietetic 
regulations upon our patients — a subject so ably discussed by 
my friend, Dr. J. E. Stevenson, in his excellent essay, read 
before the State Society last winter. 

About the middle of June last, I returned to Camden, after 
a short absence, and found a friend in charge of a couple of 
cases of dysentery, which fell to my lot to attend. Suffice it 
to say, they progressed from bad tg worse, until one, a very 
young child, died with brain trouble, and the other, a few days 
after, without any affection of the head. I was struck, all 
through the treatment, with the utter inutility of medicine ; 
the treatment being at first that usual in dysentery (which, if 
it does not cure, seems to relieve, in a measure), and afterward 
various plans of treatment were adopted without any more 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 179 

apparent effect than so much water. Just before the death of 
the second child, I discovered symptoms which are more read- 
ily discerned than described, which led me to suspect a scor- 
butic condition of the blood. It was, however, too late to save 
the little sufferer ; but a third child, which had been taken, 
and was resisting the action of all medicine in the same way 
as the others, was put upon the use of lemon juice in conjunc- 
tion with nit silver and opium, and began immediately to 
recover. As I said, these cases possess but little interest, ex- 
cept when viewed from a dietetic stand point Upon making 
inquiries of the parents I found that they had been living all 
through the spring without introducing into their systems and 
those of their children, any of the properties contained in suc- 
culent vegetables, so abundant for weeks before and at that 
time. I, of course, gave them some advice as to how they 
ought to live, and the importance of varying their diet, and 
that of their children. How little do we, in our efforts to com- 
bat disease, ever think of its prevention I 

A. Marcy, M.D. 

Your reporter may perhaps be permitted to remark that the 
subject so happily illustrated in Dr. Marcy's communication 
appears deeply interesting, when we remember that a great 
variety of medicinal articles are capable of affecting the system 
through the cuticle by friction, and through the cutaneous 
membrane, in the usual process of endermic medication. When- 
ever these substances are already fluid or capable of being re- 
duced to a fluid condition, at ordinary temperatures, they 
admit of hypoendermic introduction, and although many of 
them, by their intensely irritating quality, would prove irritants 
to inflammation, destructive of their own remedial agency, and 
perhaps dangerous to the life of the part of the patient, if in- 
troduced beneath the skin in the ordinary state, it does not 
follow that they may not be thus employed in safety, when 
diluted to a proper extent. 



180 MtolCAL ^CtEtt^ OF NEW JERSEY. 

Though very strong alcohol precipitates albumen of living 
tissues, and would probably, if injected, grangrenate free cel- 
lular tissues, like infiltrated urine, diluted wine (which is But 
a weak alcoholic liquor) is safely used to cause simple adhe- 
sions in the sack of hydrocele. Then, why should a properly 
diluted solution of a highly pernicious drug prove more dan- 
gerous when employed as a hypodermic application, than 
when that drug is introduced through the cuticle by friction 
spread over the surface of a denuded blister, or given internal- 
ly by the route of the stomach, provided, they be presented in 
a degree of dilution proportionate to the greater activity 
and promptitude of action, when placed artificially beneath 
the natural covering that envelopes all living beings. 

Your reporter considers the whole subject well worthy of 
extensive, though of course, exceedingly cautious experimental 
investigation, but he will not throw out any further sugges- 
tions, as to the very obvious diseased conditions, in which, if 
proved to be generally safe, it must become most happily 
usefuL 

In closing my report, it becomes my sad duty to announce 
the death of our estimable professional brother, Henry Ackley, 
M.D., U. S. N. He expired on the 1st day of December, 1865. 
His generous and disinterested spirit, his amiable example, 
the courtesies of his intercourse, so fresh in our memories, will 
ever be remembered with melancholy regret. 

Othl. H. Taylor, Reporter. 



CUMBEELAND COUNTY. 

Chairman of SUmding Oommitiee^ Jkc. : 

In looking at the medical history of this county for the year 
1865, 1 find it characterised by more than the usual amount of 
sickness, although the mortality is no greater. 



RSPOBTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 181 

The diseases which have prevailed most extensively are: 
fevers — ^intermittent, remittent, and typhoid ; scarlatina, diph- 
theria, ulceration, sore throat, variola, dysentery, rheumatism 
and neuralgia. 

Tradition informs us that from a quarter to half a century 
ago, bilious, intermittent and remittent fevers of an inflamma- 
tory type, were among the most prominent diseases physicians 
had to contend with in this country. Antiphlogistic and 
depletory remedies were then used, and constituted the base of 
treatment ; but for several years fevers have been gradually 
assuming a typhoid type, and have necessarily required a tonic 
and stimulating course of treatment In fact, almost all dis- 
cases are decidedly asthenic in character. There being for 
such a long period, an almost total absence of fevers of apurdy 
miasmatic origin, we were about to console ourselves with the 
belief that we were almost free from miasm ; but such is not 
the case, as is proven by the universal prevalence of intermit- 
tent fever throughout our county during the past summer and 
autumn. The majority of cases occurred during the months 
of August, September and October, and were mostly of the 
tertian type. Bemittent fever has also prevailed quite exten- 
sively, many of the cases running into typhoid, and a few 
quite malignant in character. Kespecting treatment, all reg* 
ular phjrsicians concur in the tonic, alterative and stimulating 
plan. 

One remarkable feature attending typhoid cases was the 
almost universal absence of hsemorrhage from the bowels, 
but requiring the free use of oleum terebinthinse, as indicated 
by the red, rfiining and dry tongue and tympanitic 

SoarkUtncLj mostly of the anginose variety, prevailed early 
in the spring, in the vicinity of Bridgeton, and sporadic 
cases in other localities, throughout the year. An epidemic 
jGrom this disease has occurred in my practice, during the past 
two months, and confined almost exclusively to the vicinity of 



182 MEDICAL SOOIBTT OP NEW JERSEY. 

Shiloh. About thirty cases have already appeared, and others 
are occurring. 

The cases are of the anginose variety, characterised in the 
majority of cases by nausea and vomiting, followed soon by 
the rash, which, in most cases, is of a florid redness. The 
throat affection has been considerable, and the tumefaction of 
the parotids and sub-maxillary glands excessive. Seven cases 
occurred simultaneously in one family ; and one well marked 
case was a lady aged sixty years. One fatal case has occurred 
from congestion of lungs and heart. 

The disease has been followed in many cases by anasarca, 
otitis, neuralgia and rheumatism. A general exudation of 
sudamina has occurred in all cases — in some, profuse. Its 
prevalence has appeared to be more from an atmospheric than 
contagious influence. Diphtheria. Sporadic cases have occurred 
during the year, but not so malignant in character as formerly, 
and frequently combined with ulcerative sore throat 

Variola prevailed in the neighborhood of Bridgeton and Fair- 
ton, during the first two months of the year. Its origin was 
traced to Philadelphia. 

Since the commencement of cold weather, many cases of 
rheumatism and neuralgia have occurred. In the majority of 
patients a periodicity has been noticed ; in fact, nearly all dis- 
eases have strongly shown this tendency during the past six 
months. 

Dr. Wm. Elmer reported at the last meeting of our County 
Medical Society, a case of teenia, in which the patient, a young 
lady, had passed small portions for months, and by use of 
calomel and soda, followed by ol. ricini and ol. tereb, she 
passed at one time six and a-half yards in length. A glass 
pessary was also exhibited by a member of our society, weigh- 
ing four ounces and five drachms, which an old lady had worn 
for fifteen years, and for the last ten years, had been unwilling 
to have it changed or removed. During the latter part of her 



RBPOBTS OF DISTRICT SOOIETlEa 183 

lite, she took, of her own accord, about forty-five grains of 
opium daily. 

Our county, embracing an area of 524 square miles and 
numbering 25,000 inhabitants, lies in the southwest limit of the 
most southern geological formation of the State, and has the 
characteristics of that belt — ^level surface and sandy loam. 
The whole southern boundary is washed by the waters of Del- 
aware Bay. The main land is separated from the bay by a 
strip of salt marsh, for one quarter to five miles in width. 
This follows up the larger and tortuous streams into the center 
of the county to the limit of tide water, and some of the 
smaller creeks to the swamps, in which they head. The upper 
or northwest half of the county is drained by Cohansey and 
Stoe creeks, and has a heavier and more fertile soil than the 
lower — ^is comparatively thickly settled and well improved. 

Upon the head waters of Stoe creek, which forms a part of 
the northwest boundary is a calcareous deposit or shell marl, 
and in this locality over the " marl beds," where, in the sum- 
mer of 1868 prevailed an epidemic form of malignant diph- 
theria, an account of which was mentioned by our reporter. 

The only cases of genuine " spotted fever" in this part of 
the county also occurred in this locality in 1864. The other 
few cases occurred in Fairfield township, bordering on the 
marsh. 

The lower half of the county is drained by Maurice river, 
and is more sparsely settled than the upper. The inhabited 
portion seemed to be confined to that margin of land next the 
marsh or ferther inland adjacent the river. A large number 
of the inhabitants of this part of the county are engaged in 
fishing and oystering. The science of agriculture has claimed 
the attention of a majority of citizens, and with its advance- 
ment a considerable extent of country has been transformed 
£rom a wilderness to a garden spot. Much of the low and 
marshy lands has been reclaimed and made to produce richly. 



184 MEDICAL SOOIETr OF NEW JEBSEY. 

Great has been the change socially. Our people are mach 
more intellectual and refined, and attend more to the observ- 
ance of the general hygienic rules of health. These changes 
have been gradual^ and although great, I am of the opinion are 
not in themselves a sufficient cause for the almost total ab- 
sence of purely miasmatic diseases, especially as they occurred 
during the past summer and autumn. Bespecting the climatic 
and medical history of this county, we are unable to give a 
correct statement, as there are no systematic observations made 
of the climatic changes, nor any accurate records kept of mor- 
tality or cause of dfeath. Thomas H. Tomlinson, 
Shiloh, N. J., Jan. 26, 1866. Eeporier. 



ESSEX COUNTY. 
Chairman Standing (hmmiUee, Jtc. : 

In presenting the report for the year 1865 from our District, 
the warrant for departing from the usual course will be found 
in suggestions emanating from the Standing Committee of 
the Medical Society of New Jersey. 

The conformity with those suggestions will necessarily be 
imperfect because of the deficient fiicilities at command. As 
the present — the Centennial year of the parent Society — ^wiU 
constitute a memorable epoch in its history, so in regard to 
our own District Society, the present is an unusually interest- 
ing period, as the semi-centennial year of its existence, and 
may also be considered as marking a point in its history. In 
view of this fact a condensed retrospect of the Society and its 
auxiliaries is offered, under the hope it may prove acceptable 
and interesting. On the 4th day of June next, just fifty years 
will have been numbered since the District Medical Society 
for the County of Essex was organized by John D. Williams, 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIKTIX& 185 

Joseph Qainby, and Samuel Manning, three of the physicians 
and surgeons authorized by the State Society for that purpose. 
John D. Williams became President, and Joseph Quinby, Sec- 
retary. Eight members were then added upon application, 
and a Yice President and Treasurer appointed. 

At a subsequent meeting, in July of the same year, " A set 
of Bules and Begulations^' was reported by the Committee 
appointed for that purpose at the previous meeting, and was 
adopted by the body. As a tribute of respect for the mem- 
ory of the honored ones who constituted the Society at its 
origin, it seems proper to reproduce at this time the second of 
those resolutions, which reads as follows : 

" Besolvedy That the members consider themselves bound to 
act on the principles of hcmor; in all their proceedings to cul- 
tivate friendship with one another, and to promote the interest 
and improvement of the science of medicine." 

This resolution may be considered the embodiment of our 
code of ethics* 

Since its inauguration the Society has observed its yearly 
meetings without interruption, and, for the larger portion of 
the time, semi-annual meetings have been held. It has per- 
formed its duties to the State Society, and with a few excep* 
tions, its transactions with that body have been perfectly har- 
monious. It has especially sympathized with the superior 
body in its antagonism with empiricism. Indeed, its opposi- 
tion to charlatanry has been marked and successful — a fact 
which is known to the profession throughout the Union. ** 
Thus it will be seen, the honorable position taken by the pro- 
fession, at the organization of its District Society, has not been 
lost The efforts made to elevate the standard of professional 
character have been productive of a steady and healthy ad- 
vance; so that at the present time the status of the profession 
is superior to that of any former period, and may compare 
£ivorably with that of any other portion of our own State, or 
24 



186 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

of sister States. In its relation to communitj, the faculty 
hold a position of acknowledged influence, and one which, as 
the conservators of the public health, is very properly accord- 
ed. This is manifest from the disposition to consult the regu- 
lar profession whenever the lowering clouds of epidemic 
disease appear even in the distance. Under such circumstances 
we witness no appeal to any of the irregular systems, which in 
time of perfect security serve to lull the creduloua Still these 
various systems continue to have their adherents, though 
these, to say the least, are not on the increase. As matter of 
course, the heterogeneous population of the larger cities will 
furnish more material which can be operated upon by strange 
or visionary theories. Accordingly we find in our own dis- 
trict, the city of Newark, the point at which the imposter, the 
empiric and the irregular practitioner most do congregate. 
Here may be found the Homeopath, the Hydropath, the 
Thompsonian, the Eclectic, the Clairvoyant, &c., &a It is, 
however, matter of gratulation that the profession, conscious 
of their dignity, do not in any degree recognize them, or affil- 
iate with them. From its inception to the present time, the 
Society has enrolled about 140 names as members. Of these, 
a goodly number at a ripe age ; others in earlier life, and in 
the full enjoyment of high professional position, have gone 
peacefully to rest Some have laid down their lives while in 
the service of our common country. Others again have re- 
moved to new spheres of action, until at the present time the 
nominal membership is reduced to about sixty. 

As auxiliary to the District Medical Society, two organiza. 
tions exist within its limits, which are made up principally 
from its membership. These are not responsible to the Dis- 
trict Society, it is true, being rather social organizations; but 
as their object is the advancement of medical science, and the 
good of the profession, their influence is felt in the greater 
interest engendered, which is brought out in the transactions 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIKTIKS. 187 

of the District Society, and is also felt in the daily ministra- 
tions of the individual members. At their monthly meetings 
subjects of interest to the profession and the community are 
discussed, and the voice of the members given in relation to 
intricate subjects connected with the practice of our profes- 
sion. In short, these associations may be considered as vigi- 
lance committees, looking into all matters affecting the interest 
of the profession, as well as the health of the communities 
represented. 

Thus, it will be seen, the people are the recipients of bene- 
fits of which tbey are quite unconscious. The Newark Medi- 
cal Association is the older of the two organizations, and 
has always held an honorable position, and seems in full pros- 
perity. The Newark Medical Union was formed A.D. 1859, 
and represented at first by about ten members, and at present 
by forty. The aim of each association is the same, and what- 
ever reason may be given for the continued existence of two 
distinct bodies, it is certainly an imperative duty that the most 
cordial co-operation should continue between them. 

An extent of country, measuring about 350 square miles is 
represented by this district. It includes the whole of the pres- 
ent county of Essex, and also a considerable portion of Union 
CJounty, a fact, which, in justice to the members from Union 
County, should be noticed, and the original, distinctive name 
of " Essex District Society," adhered to, instead of " Essex 
County Society," as some have chosen to designate it 
Newark Bay and the Passaic river form the eastern boundary, 
the northern and western are the Passaic river, while that 
portion of Union County having other associations forms its 
southern boundary. The medical topography, as giVen for 
Orange, in a paper by the present Chairman of the Standing 
Committee, and published in the transactions for 1859, applies 
to nearly the whole of the western portion of the district. 
From the western ridges or mountains, eastward, the county 



l88 itEDtCAt dOClBTY Of KkW iE^Kr. 

is generally level, and portions of it are coursed by numerous 
streams, serving to feed the ponds, which are raised for man- 
ufacturing purposes. The sandy loam, of which the soil is 
composed at the base of the mountain, gradually yields as 
the southern and eastern portions are reached, to one of a 
more argillaceous character ; and this again gives place to the 
salt meadows or marshes, which lie directly upon the bay. 
This subject is much more fully and happily treated by a 
neighboring and valued professional friend, in a paper con- 
cerning the endemic influences of the district, which I am 
privileged to forward in connection with this report^ and to 
which reference is respectfully made. 

/L population, which may be estimated at 180,000, composed 
of nearly all nationalities, and of almost every character, in- 
habit our district Aside from the natural increase of pop- 
ulation, large additions are yearly made by emigration. 
These emigrants are readily impressed by the endemic in- 
fluences operating, much more so than persons coming 
from any other section of our own country. Probably the 
Teutonic race present a greater susceptibility to these impres- 
sions than do the Irish. The climatic disposition seems to 
constitute a mean between the extremes which characterize 
our more southern latitudes, and those to the north of ua As 
a consequence, we have at different seasons, the diseases of 
each section, though in a modified form. The febrile affections 
of summer are less malignant, and do not present the rapid 
and dangerous tendency to adynamia, while the inflammatory 
affections peculiar to the colder seasons of the year are not so 
strongly sthenic in character. This may be explained upon 
the established principle that different influences operating 
simultaneously modify the action of each other. The dispoa- 
tion to periodicity having become a characteristic of nearly all 
our diseases, may be properly coniSidered as endemia The 
neighboring country, for a long distance on either side of us, 



BBPOBTS OP DISTBIOT SOCIETIKS. 189 

is subject to the same endemic influence. As stated, however, 
in a former report this feet is susceptible of a very favorable 
construction, and one too which experience verifies. This 
endemic influence has been operating more especially for the 
last twelve or thirteen years. Prior to the year 1853, inter- 
mittents were not a common form of disease ; or, at least for 
the seven or eight years immediately preceding that year, 
although during this time, a village, about four miles to the 
eastward of the writer's residence, was visited by an epidemic 
which affected a large portion of its population for one summer 
only. It was not attributed to any unusual cause operating at 
that tima Tradition speaks also of epidemic visitations hav- 
ing occurred at an earlier date than our acquaintance with the 
District The dates of these epidemics cannot be made out 
Although fevers were common during the summer season of 
the years spoken of, they were of the character generally 
termed " synochal,*' and the decidedly periodic character which 
now marks every case, was not observable. The general type 
of disease was sthenic, and its treatment was based upon this 
doctrine The piesent method — which may be termed the 
abortive ttreatment of fever — did not seem applicable. The 
views above expressed were adopted by the faculty in general, 
and consequently have the weight of authority. When the 
epidemics of 1853 and '54 visited us, however, a comparatively 
new type of disease demanded a different treatment. Physi- 
cians seemed almost instinctively to fall into the proper course 
to be pursued under this new order of things. Since that 
time, the lancet has scarcely been unsheathed, and when a 
depletory course has been pursued, it savored strongly of con- 
servatism. There is an evident disposition abroad to speak 
boastfully of the present improved system of practice, and 
also to reflect disparagingly upon the learning and judgment 
of those who have preceded us. If we adopt the theory of 
cycles, in regard to the recurrence of certain diseases, or types 



190 MEDICAL SOCIETT OP NEW JERSEY, 

of disease, we shall be able to allow the present generation a 
claim for a considerable degree of sagacity in adapting treat- 
ment to changes in the types of disease aa they recur, and also 
to place a proper estimate upon the doctrine and the men who 
made the history of the cycle preceding ours. The future 
experience of the younger members of the profession will test 
the correctness of the suggestion. ' 

Since these epidemic years, the periodic character is evident 
in almost every case which comes under the care of the phy- 
sician. The cause, whether malaria or simply disturbance of 
electrical equilibrium, as maintained by some, seems to be a 
minimum degree of that which developed the epidemics al- 
luded to. As regards the western portion of the District, at 
least this modification cannot be ascribed to the adoption of 
any hygienic measures. While one swamp has been re- 
deemed, the necessity of the rapidly increasing manufacturing 
interest have caused new ponds to be raised, and others en- 
larged, submerging lands covered with vegetation, though not 
so deeply as to prevent the product of decomposition, rising by 
evaporation and mingling with the atmosphere, and thus ac- 
tually increasing the requisites for the production <5f malaria. 
On the other hand, the improvement in sewerage and the 
paving of streets in the city of Newark and Elizabeth, receive 
the credit of diminishing the disposition to malarial disease. 

One fact may be mentioned as resting upon repeated ob- 
servation, whether it can have any bearing upon the theories 
advanced in explanation of the agency by which these affec- 
tions are produced or not. It is, that regular and sudden 
alternations of temperature — ^independently of any perceptible 
degree of moisture in the atmosphere — ^as a high degree of 
.heat during the day, succeeded by cold at night, will constitute 
a favorable combination for the production of periodic disease. 
These changes are sometimes so regular and striking as — with- 
out violence — to be considered typical of the disease which is 



BEPOBTS OF DISTBICT SOCIBTlEa 191 

to follow their continuance. Aside from these more general 
causes of disease, it cannot be denied, our District, in common 
with others, tolerates within itself various morbific agencies, 
which are as susceptible of mitigation, and which may be con- 
sidered proper subjects for investigation in connection with 
sanitary matters. These, in some instances, consist in the 
habits of the people themselves. While a large portion of the 
community may be possessed of wealth, and may have at con- 
trol every means necessary for the conservation of health ; and 
while a larger portion, through industry and frugality, are the 
recipients of a competence, and observe the conditions which 
contribute to health of body and mind, another class, still, 
who may be less favored of fortune, and who seem to be whol- 
ly unmindful of the fact that squalor and its concomitants in- 
duce disease, are scattered through, or live in close proximity 
to every community. Some of the vocations of life seem to 
educate those who follow them, into habits of uncleanness. 
Another calling will seem to dispose particularly to habits of 
intemperance, an evil which obtains too largely in every circle, 
and must prove a strong predisposing cause of disease, es- 
pecially under epidemic irritation. Another evil, that of con- 
centration, exists in the more rural districts, as well as in the 
cities. Too frequently those who are disposed or obliged to 
occupy small and crowded apartments, are of the class who 
are regardless of filth and its consequencea Now, should this 
state of things exist to a small extent only, it may render 
nugatory all the advantages which wealth and refinement 
naturally bring to a very large community. 

Verily, there is often more actual danger from '*idio 
miasm," than from the much dreaded koino miasmata. These 
facts are invested with a greater degree of importance in view 
of the threatened visitation of epidemic cholera. Places 
where filth accumulates, and where the inhabitants live re- 
gardless of the amenities of life, furnish the requisites for the 



192 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

generation of epidemic disease, which, did not the germ find 
a proper nidus for its development, would pass harmlessly by. 
It follows, as a matter of course, all means resorted to for the 
amelioration of the social condition of our class ; and every 
nioral influence which may retard or arrest the evil in another 
case, become as really hygienic agents as do any other sanitary 
measures. Would not the authoritative voice of our Society, 
pronounced in a popular manner, and freely circulated among 
all classes, produce a favorable impression? Would not such 
a manifestation be in keeping with the high character of our 
mission ? Nevertheless, as a whole, the condition of the Dis- 
trict is, without doubt, vastly improved in a hygienic point of 
view. The better taste in locating, and the improved charac- 
ter of the habitations, are not peculiar to those who seek relief 
from the objectionable features of a residence in the great and 
crowded commercial metropolis of the Union, by a resort to 
suburban districts ; but those also who are to the " manor born," 
are awake to the advantages arising from the adoption of the 
enlarged views of the age, in regard to such matters. The 
march of improvement in these respects is very striking, and 
is contributing greatly toward making our section attractive 
and healthy. 

In regard to the medical history of the year now closing, 
there appears nothing very remarkable. An unusual degree 
of health has characterized every division of the year, and a 
general immunity from disease of an epidemic or malignant 
nature, may be recorded. The only exception may be stated 
in the case of dysentery, which seems to have prevailed rather 
extensively, though its type was not malignant 

The features of the disease, as it occurred in Elizabeth City, 
are well given by an esteemed medical fiiend resident there, 
whose language I am privileged to quote. He remarks, " while 
we have all been busy, it has been more from the increase of 
our population than from any marked prevalence of any par- 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 193 

ticular disease, or any unusual complications. Dysentery is 
the only one which in any way may be regarded as an ep- 
idemic, and, in common with the whole county we have had 
our share of this. It has been frequently suggested, that in 
both instances, when visited by the cholera, the preceding 
summer has been characterized by a great increase of bowel 
affections. Next year we will, I fear, be better able to confirm 
or reject this idea, than the evidence will now warrant. The 
dysentery of the past summer and fall, in addition to being of 
a bilious character as it generally is with us, has b^en exceed- 
ingly obstinate and unyielding to the medicines upon which 
we usually rely — and almost invariably of an intermittent 
type — more or less distinctly marked. Not a case have I seen 
where quinine or the arsenical preparations were not indicated, 
and many which showed feeble tendency to recover, have 
gradually yielded to this treatment. In the Orphan Asylum 
of this city, among nearly forty children, all have showed 
tendency to the disease, and many have been dangerously ill ; 
and, for the first time in the history of the institution, two 
died. In all these cases, the above mentioned anti-periodics 
were used freely, and with satisfactory results, except in the 
two fatal cases, where the brain became involved early in the 
progress of the disease, before the discharges were checked in 
any degree, and terminated speedily. Owing to the more 
perfect system of drainage, and to some degree our paved 
streets, now being adopted in our city, intermittent fever is 
comparatively a rare disease. I do not now see one case, where 
I used to meet a dozen at the same time. Nearly all our 
diseases, especially of a febrile nature, require quinine early 
in their treatment" 

The disease prevailed in Millburn township, in July and 

August At first it was decidedly intermittent, and in the 

case of childrA, dangerously, only as it assumed a more or less 

congestive character. This danger became so great and the 

25 



194 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

threatening epidemic character so imminent, that a very judi- 
cious practitioner resolved to administer quinine as a prophy- 
lactic, to all the children of his practice. Before the plan could 
be carried into effect, the^ character of the epidemic changed, 
and quinine for weeks was scarcely used. Before the close of 
the irritation, however, the periodic disposition returned, and 
seemed to conduct mildly from us an epidemic, which it had 
ushered in with so much of violence. The deaths occurred 
when the brain became congested, nearly or quite all other 
cases recovering. 

Intermittent and remittent fevers, it is reported, have pre- 
vailed more extensively through the northern section of the 
District than any other portion of it. Your reporter has re- 
ceived no particulars in connection with the statement. As a 
general thing, the periodic disposition is recognized and ac- 
knowledged by every one to have engrafted itself upon all 
our diseases, so that some preparation of hark is necessary in 
almost every case of sickness. Quinine is the preparation 
chiefly used, as being more prompt and certain in its action. 
Touching the modus operandi of this salt, medical opinion 
differs somewhat, though not in a cardinal way. All, of 
course, are agreed in regard to its specific or anti-periodic 
action. Our positive knowledge, however, seems to terminate 
here, and it is quite lucidly expressed, when we say its action 
is " sui generis." Still, there is considerable speculation upon 
this subject While one will consider it a general tonic, an- 
other will limit its corroborative power to the nervous system, 
which latter view is in concordance with the expressed opinion 
of the Scientific Committee for 1862,in their decision " quinine 
is no antidote for malaria," it does good " by imparting a tone 
and force to the nervous system, enabling it to withstand the 
morbid agency." Others designate it a nervous sedative, and 
contend that such a conclusion is necessary for understanding 
the phenomena which frequently follow its use. By some, it 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 195 

it is spoken of as an excellent emmenagogue ; and, is un- 
doubtedly potentially so. But that it has any " parturifacient " 
effect, as advanced some time since by a writer for one of our 
medical journals, is generally denied. This negative opinion 
your reporter will endeavor to illustrate from his own practice. 
Where intermittents and remittents have prevailed, no class 
Las been exempt from attacks. Women at every period of 
gestation have been its subjects, and a violent attack will 
frequently endanger abortion or premature labor. Under 
such circumstances of threatening danger, at any time prior to 
the full period, we have been accustomed to use quinine more 
largely than usual, so as to produce quininism quickly, and 
thus avert the evil. The practice is perfectly satisj&wtory. 
We would not think of using ergot to any extent under such 
circumstances. 

Appended, are notes of a case of accident occurring in con- 
nection with labor, which are at the discretion of the com- 
mittee. Also papers on medical topography. 

Eugene Jobs, Beporter. 

Case op Accident, in Connection with Labor. 

On' 23d of October last, was called hurriedly about 8 A.M., 

to visit Mrs. M . Obeying the summons promptly, found 

that some three or four hours previously, she had been de- 
livered of child at full period. It was a primiparous case, and 
age of mother was 20 years. The case had been managed by 
the mother, (of the subject) who was not wholly inexperienced 
in such mattera So far as could be ascertained, there was no 
mismanagement in the case. Some two hours after the termi- 
nation of the labor, the patient's attention was drawn to the 
right labium, perineum, &c., by a painful sense of distension. 
This increased rapidly, and became quite alarming. At this 
juncture my acquaintance with the case commenced. An 
examination revealed a tumor, occupying the right labium, 



196 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

the whole right perineum, and even distending the integuments 
upon the upper and inner portion of the thigh. The tumor 
seemed also to rise above the pubis to some extent The 
asdematous and partially transparent character of the tumor, its 
even surface, &c., gave the idea of an effusion of serum only. 
The first impulse was to puncture, and evacuate the tumor. 
Deeming it prudent, however to inquire more minutely into 
its nature, the vaginal examination revealed the same disten- 
sion of the right wall of the vagina, and by firm pressure upon 
this, an irregular mass could be detected within the swelling. 
The pressure upon this mass, even when comparatively slight, 
produced a sensation as though the bowels would be moved, 
but no sickness of stomach. Under the impression that in- 
tesiine might be within the tumor, it was deemed advisable to 
consult my friend, Dr. Whittingham, in regard to the case be- 
fore proceeding with it 

This consultation resulted in our making a number of small 
punctures for the purpose of relieving the oedema by a grad- 
ual draining. About ten hours after this operation the size 
of the tumor was so far reduced as to feel a pretty firm mass 
occupying the space between the wall of the vagina and the 
pelvic bones. By forcibly separating the vulvae, and bringing 
into view the lining membrane of the vagina, a bruised surface 
of about one and a-half inches in diameter could be discovered, 
but there was no solution of continuity. Emollient applications 
were made, and after some days, the bruised portion of the 
vaginal wall showed a disposition to slough. By using a little 
violence, this broke away and revealed a large and undecom- 
posed coagulum, which occupied a space of about two and 
a-half to three or four inches. There was no bloody infiltra- 
tion of tlie tissue. The coagulum occupied a cavity which 
must have been made by a rent in the tissua The reason of 
no infiltration was probably the sudden rupture carrying with 
it a vessel gorged with blood. The coagulum must have been 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 197 

formed immediately upon the termination of labor, becanse its 
size would hardly allow the passage of the head through the 
pelvis after its production. It did not attract attention, how- 
ever, until the distension by serum rendered the pain distress- 
ing. The coagulum was broken down and peeled out, as tu- 
mors frequently are from their sac. Whether similar cases 
are recorded we are not aware. 

The impression made upon the bowel by pressing the tumor, 
justified the fear of a hernial character, although the symp- 
toms of strangulation were not present 

E. Jobs. 

Medical Topography of Essex District. 

In this District, comprising Essex and a large portion of 
Union counties, there are no prominent peculiarities, except 
such as it shares with most territories in the same latitude. A 
temperate climate, subject to no remarkable variations of heat 
and cold ; an area thickly inhabited and well cultivated ; long 
subject to the dominion of the coulter; sufficiently well wood- 
ed; studded, hither and thither, with towns and villages; 
watered by numerous streams, many of which are subservient 
to the interests of the manufacturer; education, morality, 
habits of life, food, attire, employments of the public all simi- 
lar to those of communities around. There would seem to be, 
therefore, no reason for any striking difference in endemic 
disease. Such is as thoroughly the truth as it is the scien- 
tific sequence. There is no such great dissimilarity. Minor 
differences in territorial condition undoubtedly are discerni- 
ble. It is the purpose of this paper to show wherein ; and also 
a corresponding minor distinctiveness in the type of disease 
modifying, but not utterly changing its cl^aracter. 

Our District may be said to be almost an island, bounded, 
as it is, on the west, north, and east by the Passaic Eiver and 
the Newark Bay, on the south by the Eahway Eiver and the 
Kills. It is traversed by two lines of high and rocky hills 



198 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY* 

from north to south, the water shed of the eastern portion 
being easterly through these rivers, with a rapid fall to tide 
water. The tributary streams are frequently enlarged into 
lakes and ponds for the use of mills. This quantity of water 
producing moisture, the hot sun of the climate and the ex- 
uberance of vegetable matter, prone to decay, act, of course, 
as causes of the formation of malaria. Our District is in con- 
sequence, undoubtedly subject to malarious disease throughout 
its extent, like all the regions on its confines, in this latitude, 
on the Atlantic coast. It would be impossible to mention a 
single village or town on the lower Hudson, the Harlem, the 
East river, the Hackensack, the Passaic, the Eahway, the 
Earitan, the Delaware, or the southern Susquehanna, where 
this cla^s of sickness is unknown. 

But the extent to which malaria is engendered is describable 
rather as disseminated than severe, as general than intense. 
Uncomplicated and unmodified intermittents are rarely met 
with, but under circumstances of the grossest negligence, the 
greatest exposure, the strongest predisposition: The diseases 
prevalent are simply those produced among mankind every- 
where by infraction of the laws of hygiene, or exposure to those 
physical vicissitudes which have been recognized as the fi:uit- 
ful source of human ailment, "semper, ubique, et omnibus." 
The endemic influence is made manifest by engrafting itself 
upon and modifying them. Is there a pneumonia ? It is in- 
termittent or remittent in its type. Does a patient have a 
diarrhoea? It also bears the same character. Has a man 
rheumatism? It has its quotidian or tertian exacerbation. 
And so on, through the whole nosological category. Indeed, 
it is marvellous, where and in what curious forms this tyrant 
of pathological cacoeracy will assert his usurping authority. 
" Latet anguis in herbu," — its venom lends a periodical agony 
to the love-lorn maiden's chlorotic heart ache ; its fury, an 
extra nocturnal gnawing to the high-liver's podagra. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 109 

Different portions of the District vary in their respective 
degree of obnoxiousness to this endemic power — where water 
most stagnates in extensive swamps, particularly when reek- 
ing with the rotting filth of large towns and cities, there it 
most prevails. When the water courses are permitted in 
the summer, and autumnal freshets to overflow adjacent mead- 
ows, and gradually to evaporate, here too, it becomes visible. 
In the hot days of August, when decay first strips the forest of 
its withered foliage, and the fields of their garments of dying 
herbage ; in the sultry, muggy days of lurid September ; in the 
cold damp of wind-breeding, mud-begetting February and 
March ; then reign diarrhoea, dysenteries, fevers, bronchitcs, 
pneumonias, just as they do the world over in like states of 
the atmosphere. 

No more of them, not as many of them, but — all of them 
modified, and, as I verily believe, moderated into malarious 
forms. The infrequency of these diseases so ordinary in the 
greater part of the national territory, is referrible, we think, 
to the favorable exposure, and other physical advantages above 
described. To the well ventilated, yet well protected, decliv- 
ity of the eastern and western slopes, ever basking in the genial 
warmth of the sun, when the heat is tempered in summer by 
the proximity of the cool water of the Atlantic, and in winter 
permitted to shed its mild caloric, unchilled by the cold north- 
westerly and westerly winds. Among those dwelling in such 
locations the diseases springing from foul air, cold and damp, 
are rare, and pneumonia, never, as it is often elsewhere, widely 
epidemic. Pleurisy is latent, only the result of individual 
imprudence, exposure, or proclivity. In many parts of the 
District the longevity of the natives is remarkable. In my 
own neighborhood, within a radius of three miles, the writer, 
during the last ten years, has prescribed for six persons over 
ninety years of age, and can reckon up eight others yet living 
between eighty and ninety. These are survivors of a popula- 



200 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

tion of not more than five or six hundred. Surely the seed 
of death can not be very thickly sown, or the soil a poor one 
for it to thrive, or else the Grim Anatomy, with the ever- 
moving scythe, would have included these ripened stalks in 
his human harvestings. In this respect the whole District is 
alike ; throughout it, old ege is a common spectacle. Can there 
be a more reliable criterion of salubrity ? In admitting the 
wide spread influence of this endemic,. I am far from acknowl- 
edging it to be a curse, or even a detriment. Its mildness, 
the total absence of malignity, render it easily guarded against, 
speedily overcome and surely curable. More than this — ^it is 
the creed of many physicians whom I have conversed with on 
the subject, and assuredly my own, that this prevailing in- 
fluence ameliorates the disease on which it impresses its type ; 
— ^that in relieving the periodical phase of the sickness you 
relieve the sickness "pain passu;" that if you cut short the 
tendency to stated excerbations, you eliminate the co existipg 
malady. It is the fashion among the people of bordering states 
to load New Jersey with manifold accusations of unhealtM- 
ness. The truth is, that it is (I apfi speaking of our por- 
tion of it) far less liable to grave and epidemic disorders than 
most of those adjoining. 

We are not subject to the typhoid and lung fevers, to the 
diphtherias which claim their yearly hecatombs in Ae 
climate of New England. Nor are our intermittcnts the 
obstinate, the occasional malignant, unmanageable ague of 
the lower Hudson. "While, merely, the miasms, the typhdid 
diseases, the cholera infantum, and the ghastly catalogue of 
pulmonary complaints, which claim their thousands from the 
filth and vice-polluted purlieus of the cities of New York and 
Brooklyn, make the balances of wholesomeness preponderate 
vastly in favor of the far purer air of the hills and valleys of 
Essex, even though it does possess, in a degree, an endemic 
power of its own. Faucis verbis — we have malarious in- 



REPORTS OF DIBTRICT SOCIETIES. 201 

flaences at work in oar District, and it seems rather to protect 
from the ravages of disease than to increase them, and it is 
solitary and feeble. Can any one, having in his possession the 
knowledge of the use of the innocuous product of the Peruvian 
tree, the Calibar of medical science, the God-gift medicine, 
say otherwise than " If I must be sick, let mo have an inter- 
mittent or remittent ; for quinine will cure it. Save and de- 
fend me from all others, for no one medicine will certainly 
cure any of them !" 

Medical Topography of Bloomfield. 

The township of Bloomfield forms part of Essex County, 
and is bounded on the north by Passaic County, on the east 
by Belleville township, on the south by Orange township, and 
on the west by a range of trap rock, known as First or 
Orange Mountain. Its average length is four and a-half miles, 
and its average breadth, from east to west, three and a-half 
miles. 

The geological formation upon which this township reposes, 
is known to geologists as the red standstone. It has an unin- 
terrupted range from the western part of Massachusetts, 
through Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Virginia and North Carolina. And in all these States has the 
same characteristics, and presents the same perplexing prob- 
lems to the geologist. 

It comprises about one-half of the area of the northern part 
of this State, which it crosses in a northeast and southwest 
direction from the Delaware River to the New York State line. 
Its southeastern boundary is formed by the Hudson River, 
New York and Raritan Bay, and Raritan River to Lawrence's 
Branch of the Raritan, from which point it proceeds southwest 
to the Delaware River at Trenton. Its southern boundary is 
formed by the Delaware River to near Millford, from which 
place its course is northeast, coinciding in its limit with the 
26 



202 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

base of .MusconetcoDg Mountain, Union Mountain, Mount 
Trowbridge, Pompton Mountains ; and with the line of the 
Bamapo Biver, from Pompton, its general direction being 
from the Delaware Eiver to New York State line northeast 
It has a length of about seventy miles, and its average breadth 
is twenty miles, embracing in its limits the principal manufiic- 
turing districts of the Stata 

This formation consists ot dark reddish brown argillaceous 
sandstone, the strata dipping toward the west^ at angles rang- 
ing from 15 deg. to 25 deg. A greater part of this formation 
is covered from view by beds of gravel and soil. In our own 
vicinity fine opportunities for examining the strata, are offered 
in the quarries near Newark, Belleville, Passaic Falls, and 
between Bloomfield and Montclair ; and we find them to be all 
of the same general character, varying in texture, however, as 
they are near or remote from the effect of the trap projection. 
In these localities have been detected pieces of trees, appa- 
rently mechanically converted into the sandstone. The trees 
are of a tropical character, and taken in connection with the 
discovery of fossil feet at Little Falls and Pompton, in the 
same strata, and of bird tracks in the analagous formation in 
the Connecticut Valley, we are almost certainly justified in 
referring these localities to the Jurassic period of European 
geologists. The cause of the peculiar deposition of this for- 
mation has been the subject of much discussion among geolo- 
gists. Prof Bogers* advocates the theory that the strata have 
been deposited at the same angle, we now find them 10 
to 20 deg. analogous to the present mode in which our rivers 
are forming deltas at their debouches into the sea. He be- 
lieves they were deposited along a narrow trough, which had 
its source as far south as North Carolina, and its outlet to the 
ocean at the present position of Baritan and New York BaysL 
Other geologists, on the contrary, hold that the strata were 
deposited in a horizontal position, and their present dip is to 



RKPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 208 

be accounted for by the upheaval of the trap, at a subsequent 
period We can find many examples to sustain both of these 
theories, and it is to be hoped that our geologists will find the 
solution of this difficulty in our immediate vicinity, as involved 
in its solution, lies a great sanitary question — water and its 
economical supply. 

Traversing this sandstone formation in a longitudinal direc- 
tion fixjm north-northeast to south-southwest, we find numerous 
ridges and dikes of trap rock. These ridges are nearly paral- 
lel in their course, and of heights varying from 300 to 600 feet 
above the beds of the rivers. 

A fine example of this rock and its peculiar character can 
be seen in the palisades of the Hudson, and in the comtinuation 
of the same range at Bergen Hill. 

The western boundary of our township is formed by First 
Mountain, one of these trap ranges, and to its formation we 
owe the peculiar topography of our township. This range 
commences near Paterson, and traverses in a southwest direc- 
tion to Bound Brook, where it turns abruptly northwest and 
loses its identity in the vicinity of Pluckemin, in Somerset 
Co. In this course, it presents every variety of structure to 
be found in rocks of the class. In our immediate vicinity it 
is an elevated range of 580 feet above tide water, and displays 
in some places fine wall-like escarpments, similar to those on 
the Hudson Kiver. The summit and sides of this mountain 
abound in springs and running streams of the purest water, 
and is fast becoming a fevorite building site. 

That the trap was formed subsequent to the deposit of the 
sandstone, we have sufficient evidence in its superposition to 
the stratified sandstone through which it has intruded. Its 
age we cannot certainly determine, neither can we say whether 
all these ranges in New Jersey are of cotemporaneous origin. 
In the intrusion, then, of the trap through the sandstone 
formation, we have the Causes that have operated to give this 



204 MEDICAL SOOlEl'Y OF NBW JERSKY. 

township its distinct topography, causing those undulations of 
the surface from the base of the First Mountain to the Passaic 
Eiver, and giving us our beautifully diversified scenery. The 
soil overlying the whole township is derived from the sand- 
stone, and consequently is an argillaceous sandy loam of a 
reddish brown color, varying, however, in some localities, 
depending upon the greater or less proportion of vegetable 
mould. Parallel with First Mountain, and distant respectively 
two and three miles, we have two ridges, running nearly the 
entire length of the township. 

Distributed over this township we have several springs, fur- 
nishing an abundant supply of water for domestic use and 
manufacturing purposes. The principal source of supply 
has its origin in the northwestern corner of the township, at 
the base of the mountain, from which it proceeds in an irregu- 
lar course in an easterly direction, to the eastern part of the 
township, where it joins Notch Brook, from Passaic County ; 
thence turning south, waters nearly the whole eastern portion ; 
thence entering the township of Belleville, and empties into 
the Passaic Eiver above the town of Belleville. At the south- 
western part of the township, several small springs and 
branches issue from the sides and base of jFirst Mountain, and 
form by their union what is known as Tony's Brook, whicli 
flows in a southeasterly direction to Watssessing La]^e — a sheet 
of wateir near the village of Bloomfield, and having an area 
of about forty, acres. Parrow's Brook, from Orange township, 
also flows into the lake from the soutL The outlet of Wats- 
sessing Lake is Second River, which flows through Belleville 
township into the Passaic River, below Belleville. 

Entering the township from the east, and at about its mid- 
dle third, is the Morris Canal, which skirts along the eastern 
border of the township, until its exit at the northern bounda- 
ry. In the extreme southeastern corner of the township is a 
large spring, bubbling up from the sandstone rock. From its 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 205 

bubbling up so freely, it is called the Boiling Spring. It is 
the principal source of supply of the city of Newark. 

The sources of all these springs are supplied by water fall- 
ing from the clouds on the First Mountain, and upon the soil 
from which it finds its way down to the surface of the sand- 
stone, and traversing the strata finds its outlet again to the 
surface through some fissure. This water is of an excellent 
quality, perfectly free from the deleterious agents which are 
frequently met with in the waters of other localitiea This is 
owing to the geological character of the rock and soil. All 
water is derived from the clouds, which are formed by vapor 
rising from the oceans, lakes, rivers, and all collections of 
water, and is distributed throughout the atmosphere by the 
winds, and thus precipitated as rain, snow, &c., &c. The 
winds in our locality which bring rain, are generally from the 
east, and as they come from the ocean we should naturally 
look for saline properties in the meteoric water, in addition to 
the gasses absorbed from the atmosphere. Such is the case. 
The foreign substances which we find in the springs and wells 
are taken up by water as it percolates through the rocks, soil, 
&c. The sandstone formation has very few of these sub- 
stances, and we are therefore not surprised that our wells fur- 
nish water so free from mineral substances, and consequently 
so well adapted to domestic use. A bountiful supply of water 
is obtained by digging thirty to forty feet, at which depth we 
reach the sandstone — in the fissures, and on the surface of 
which, flows an abundance of water. 
Population. The population this year is as follows : 

1. Natives — 
a. White. 

1. Males 1,866 

a. Females 2,119 

h. Colored. 

1. Males 86 

2. Females 60 



206 MEDICAL SOCtBTT OP NEW JEBSEY. 

n. FOKEIGSBBS— 

1. Males 460 

2. Females 616 

Total 5,146 

The following are the vital statistics of the township from 
the 1st of May, 1864, to the Ist of May, 1865. This period 
is taken because the statistical returns for this year are not as 
yet available. They include an epidemic of scarlet fever, 
which prevailed in the fall and winter of 1864, causing an in- 
creased mortality. The greater number of the deaths from 
this disease occurred among the foreign population, in whose 
dwellings hygiene is unknown. The whole number of deaths 
from all causes, 101. The number of deaths under five years 
of age were 50, almost 50 per cent, of the whole mortality. 

The deaths from scarlet fever were 20, and from phthisis pul- 
monalis, 8. Nine deaths are reported as from unknown causes ; 
of these, seven were children less than one month old. The 
general rate of mortality from all causes is one death to 50.95 
of the ^population, or 1.96 per cent, of the popiiJation. The 
mortality from phthisis pulmonalis, is one in 643.2 of the pop- 
ulation ; ditto from scarlet fever, one in 257.8 of the popula- 
tion ; ditto from diphtheria, one in 785.1 of the population. 

The following is the nosological classification, condensed in 
this form for convenience of reference:' 

I. Zymotic Dibbases 36 

IT. Sporadic Diseases — 

1. Diseases of Uncertain and variable seat 16 

2, " Brain and nervous system 8 

8. " Respiratory Organs 17 

4. " Circulatory Organs 2 

5. " Digestive Organs 12 

6. " Urinary Organs 2 

7. " Generative Organs and Childbirth , 1 

8. Old Age 3 

9. External causes 4 

Total 101 



REPORTS OF DISTRIOT SOCIETIES. 207 

Climaiic Influences. In other words, wliat are all the physr 
ical circumstances in this township that exert considerable 
influence on living beings? The average variation of the 
temperature during the year is about 50 degrees — the mean of 
the winter months being 29, the mean temperature of the sum- 
mer months 79, and the mean during a series of years being 
58.78. The extreme heated term of summer, and the extreme 
cold terms of winter, each produce their effects on the health 
of the people. The qualities of the soil, the availability of 
the water courses for natural and artificial drainage, are such 
that continued rains are either speedily absorbed or rapidly 
carried o£^ leaving, no matter what the temperature, no dele- 
terious influence behind. 

Situated from ten to fifteen miles from the Atlantic coast, 
we have at times daring the year a strong and perceptible 
current of sea air passing over ; this necessarily induces or in- 
creases affections of the respiratory organa The prevailing 
winds during the year are &om the west. As to the fitness of 
the climate of this township, as a ^residence for invalids, it 
will compare favorably with that of any township in the 
country. Situated on the mountain slope, with high rolling 
ridges of land intersecting it, at an average height of two 
hundred feet above tide water, with an abundance of pure, 
bracing atmosphere, a dry soil, good water, and a mortality 
leas if not equal to the smallest of any township of its popu- 
lation in the Stalp ; with an almost total absence of malarial 
causes, it presents attractions which demand the careful con- 
sideration of those seeking healthy country residencea 

Hygienic Influences, Among natural influences that exist 
for the preservation of the health of this community, are good 
water from springs and wells — chiefly the latter — natural 
drainage, dry soil, an. elevated situation, and an absence of 
marshy or sandy plains. The great majority of the native 
population live in good, substantial, well drained, well ven- 



208 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

tilated houses — many of them built and fitted with all the 
modern appliances of civilization. Among this class the laws 
of health seem to have obtained a good degree of attention. 
This is not the case with the majority of the poorer classes, 
especially the poor of our foreign population. They live 
chiefly in good houses, but in crowded apartments, with no 
ventilation, no drainage, not observing in the least any of the 
ordinary laws of health — ^the wonder being that when disease 
does invade their homes, the mortality is so small. 

A prolific cause of disease among us is the want of drainage 
and of proper sinks or cesspools, for the reception of the 
refiise matter which constantly is accumulating about every 
dwelling ; the neglect of those that are constructed and ill 
ventilated, poorly drained, or not drained at all, cellars and 
basements, and in the winter season decaying vegetable mat- 
ter in the cellars. 

These facts have received, hitherto, by far too little atten- 
tion &om our profession. It is through us that the public 
must Be enlightened on the laws of health, and it is only by 
their attention being constantly directed to these laws that 
people will give them any thought 

Prevailing Diseases. We have had during the year no epi- 
demics, and no one disease has prevailed to an extent to excite 
particular attention from our physicians; in a word, it has 
been a very healthy year. In January last several cases of 
small-pox were imported into the township, ^which soon pro- 
duced several other oases, to the amount of about twenty, 
including varioloid cases. A general vaccination of the peo- 
ple, and a strict quarantine of the affected ones, prevented the 
spread of the disease. The treatment was simple, and I think 
all recovered except two. 

During July, August and September, a more than usual 
number of cases of remittent fever were noted. I say more 
than usual, because pure cases of remittent fever, as a general 



BEPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 209 

rule, are very seldom seen. The fever, this summer, was of 
a mild type — ran its course in less than seven days, and a 
majority of the cases under proper medication, made a good 
recovery ; the treatment was the same as is ordinarily used. 
The very wet spring, followed in early summer by a long dry 
spell, may have contributed somewhat to the production of 
this disease. 

There prevails here now, and has for several years — and I 
hear of it from all parts of the country — a skin disease, popu- 
larly called " soldiers' itch," " army itch," " salt rheum," and a 
variety of names, but which I believe to be eczema — of the va- 
riety known as eczema rubrum — ^and that in very many cases it 
assumes the chronic form. It is in this form that physiciaiis 
are chiefly called upon to treat it. I think it is propagated by 
contact The disease is increasing, and has forced its way into 
the dwellings of the wejilthy and refined classes of society. 
Especially have I noticed it on travelers, and persons who are 
necessarily frequently from home. Many call it scabies, and 
treat it as such, but invariably without success. The * treat- 
ment, which in my hands has proved most successful, is the 
continued use of some of the preparations of arsenic, chiefly 
Fowler's Solution for adults, and Pearson's Solution for child 
ren ; for the latter I have also successfully used quinine and 
iodide of iron — externally alkaline baths and citrine ointment, 
and an ointment made of iodide of sulphur. A few cases that 
seemed to resist the above mentioned internal remedies yielded 
to liquor potassae', alternated with tincture cantharides. 

The number of cases of disease of the digestive organs 
during the summer months, was unusually small. 

Evidences of Malaria. Along the water courses heretofore 
described, around the edges of certain mill ponds, whose bot- 
toms were exposed during the drouth of summer to the sun's 
rays, for the first time in many years, a few cases of intermit- 
tent fever were noted. The cases were of the tertian form, 
27 



210 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY 

and undoubtedly caused by exposure to heat and moisture of 
the vegetable accumulations in the ponds. In the same local- 
ities were several cases of dysentery and diarrhoea, which were 
attributed to malarial causes. The township, as a whole, is 
remarkably exempt from intermittents. In a ten years' prao* 
tice I have never seen a single' case that originated here. 

The great majority of the people believe in and support the 
legitimate practice of medicine, whilst many give their support 
to practices which we consider not legitimate. Not one irregular 
practitioner has as yet received support sufficient to make 
them permanent citizens. 

I can recall no very interesting cases worth reporting, ex 
cept that in June last^ during the removal of an ovarian tumor, 
by an eminent practitioner from another State— tiie left ureter 
was accidentally divided. The accident was immediately 
noted — the cut* end ligated and brought up to the superior 
edge of the external wound, and there secured. On the sixth 
day after the operation, urine began to exude from the point 
at which the ureter had been secured, and continued to do so. 
The patient made a rapid and good recovery, excepting that 
she has a urinary fistula about two inches below the umbilicus. 
The query is, what became of the urine that we suppose must 
have been secreted by the left kidney during those six days ? 
Did the pelvis of the kidney contain it^ or was there no aeere^ 
tion ? During the time, there was voided from the bladder 
from ten to twelve ounces of urine daily. 

Jno. J. H. LOVBL 



HUDSON COUNTY. 

Chairman of Standing ChmmiUee^ Jtc. : 

Permit me, as reporter for Hudson County, to extend to 
you, and through you to the brethren throughout the State, 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIBTlKa 211 

ooRgratoktioDSy on the occasion of this, our centennial convoca- 
tion. 

The memories of the past crowd upon us with many pleasing 
recollections ; while in the future, bright anticipations arise of 
oar onward progress ; and while reflecting on the venerable 
hands which laid the foun<lation of our Society, let us, as the 
present keepers of the edifice, approach with reverence the 
place which gave it birth, and transmit to our successors an 
escutcheon without blot or stain, so that at the next centennial 
they may say of us, as we now say of those who have gone 
before us — " well done." 

Geographically, Hudson Oounty is situated on the eastern 
border of the State ; bounded on the north by Bergen Coun- 
ty ; east, by the Hudson River and New York Bay ; south, 
by Kill Von KuU, and west by Newark Bay and Passaic 
Biver. Its extreme length is about fourteen miles, and its 
breadth varies from seven miles to half a mile. The southern 
portion is flat, excepting a high ridge, commencing about the 
region of Greenville, and running north, along the eastern 
border, to the northern boundary, where it becomes continuous 
with the Palisades. The eastern side is, for the most part, ab- 
rupt, while its western slope is gradual, and is finally lost in 
the meadows which skirt the Hackensack Biver. The mead- 
ows alluded to are salt, and subject to the full influence of the 
rise and fall of the tide. The same character of meadow land 
is found in the southerly portion of the County, on Newark 
Bay, and also east of Bergen ridge, skirting the Hudson Biver, 
as J^ north as Hoboken, and south to Cavan Point, on New 
York Bay. A large portion has, within the last thirty years, 
been reclaimed, and what was once an almost impassable 
marsh, is now covered with substantial buildings. 

The geological structure of the ridge alluded to, is most 
prominently marked by the "trap rock" of the Palisades, 
which in the northern part of the County, rises to a height of 
i 



212 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEKSKY. 

one hundred and fifty feet. In the vicinity of Oommunipaw it 
is gradually lost, and again crops out at Bayonne, while in the 
interval it underlies a large tract of country, being covered by 
but few feet of soil. The eastern face of the ridge is for the 
most .part bare. The strata are vertical, as shown by the de- 
velopments made by the excavations of the New Jersey Rail- 
road and Transportation Company and the Bergen tunnel The 
structure would be favorable for drainage were it not for the 
clayey retentive nature of the soil, and the peculiar formation 
of the table land, which is higher at either brow than in the 
centre. Besulting from this fact, and also on account of the 
existence of shallow pockets, stagnant pools are found in 
abundance all the way from Hudson City, through Waverly, 
West Hoboken, and Union Hill, to the northern boundary of 
the County. At Castle Point, a great quantity of magnesian 
limestone is found, being the only place in the vicinity where 
it is known to exist At Greenville and Salterville, red sand- 
stone exists in abundance. The soil on the ridge, and its east- 
ern side, is gravelly clay, which characteristic is found to exist 
to the extreme southern part of the County, while on the west- 
ern slope, and the fiat lands, until you come to the meadows, 
it is sandy and much lighter. This is well marked on Bergen 
Neck (where, as before remarked, the trap rock occasionally 
crops out) the eastern part, or that portion bordering on New 
York Bay, is a heavy retentive clay, while on the west, or that 
portion forming the shores of Newark Bay, it is sandy and 
much warmer, and the houses much dryer. I am informed 
by old residents that there is a difference of two weeks in 
favor of the western side in the opening of vegetation in 
spring. The neck ranges from one mile to half a mile in 
breadth. Its surface is level, and elevated slightly above the 
level of the sea. 

Having thus rapidly glanced at the geological formation of 
our County, I now proceed to consider the relation it bears to 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 213 

disease, also the popalation and their industrial pursuits, and 
the results to be anticipated &om the rapid increase as to num- 
bers, and the changes incident to our rapidly increasing com- 
mercial and manufacturing interests. A casual visitor would 
suppose from the amount of meadow land found, especially in 
the vicinity of Jersey City, that fevers of an intermittent and 
remittent type would abound. Such is not the fact. The 
perfect saturation of the marshes with salt water, and the effect 
of tidal influences, are our safeguard That this proposition 
is not hypothetical is demonstrated by the following statement 
of my friend, Mr. John J. Serrel, a civil engineer of thirty 
years' experience, who has kindly furnished me some valuable 
hints for this report : " The large meadows behind the city 
of Hoboken extending to the foot of the Palisades, from the 
Newark turnpike on the south, to the old Hackensack turn- 
pike on the north, had been ditched and dyked for the pur- 
pose of reclaiming and making a fresh meadow of it, and 
floodgates prevented the entrance of salt water. This state of 
facts was known to me when Dr. Julian, of Hoboken, in social 
conversation, referred to the fiict that the tenements in Ho- 
boken near the meadow, were so unhealthy, and the inmates 
so badly afflicted with fever and ague, that Mr. Stevens (the 
owner) had ordered the houses to be vacated and closed. I. 
suggested to Dr. J. the cause, and ventured the opinion that 
if the floodgates were allowed to stand open for a week, and 
the sea water to soak the meadow, that village would be free 
from fever in t^ days. Dr. J. suggested to Mr. Stevens that 
day to try the experiment, and it was done ; and the place was 
healthy and the tenants returned to their former homes within 
two weeks." 

In Jersey City, prior to the introduction of the Passaic wa- 
ter, intermittents were seldom met with— never from endemic 
causes. The year following, owing to the insufficiency of our 
drainage, and the presence of a large amount of fresh surface 



214 MEDICAL SOCIBTT OF NBW JBBSEY. 

water standing in a number of sunken lots, we met with a 
few cases of intermittent fever, which have since disappeared, 
owing to suitable provision being madei for the carrying off of 
the surplus water. Not so, however, on the highlands on the 
ridge. Dr. Talson, of West Hoboken, (which is situated one 
hundred and fifty feet above the level of the sea) writes: 
<< The prevailing diseases of this section are intermittent and 
remittent fever." In fact, the type of disease, of whatever 
character, occurring along the ridge, is marked to a greater or 
less extent by a tendency to periodicity, and after running its 
course, ends in some masked form oJf intermittent^ requiring 
for its relief the administration of anti^periodics. 

Dr. Payne, of Bergen Point, writes : " Its hygienic condi- 
tion will compare favorably with any part of the County. 
The malarious influence still exists with us as the railroad and 
other improvements are being constructed, the Ipng hidden 
substrata of the earth is being upturned to the action of the 
atmosphere and solar influence, thus generating the subtle 
poison of malaria, affecting all that come within its influence, 
some with intermittents and others with remittent fever. 
Many other diseases will also partake of this influence, as- 
suming, oflen, an intermitting character, and are benefited in 
addition to the special remedies, by the addition of quinine." 

Dr. F. E. Noble, of Hudson City, writes: ** Intermittent 
fever has been more general, is not confined to particular 
localities, as it has been the preceding four years." The ex- 
citing cause for the more diffuse prevalence of* the disease ob- 
tains in Hudson City as it does at Bergen Point The city is 
growing rapidly, and new streets and avenues being laid out^ 
rendering a large amount of grading necessary, and conse- 
quently calling into activity the elements of malaria. 

Dr. Wilkinson, of South Bergen, writes : " Intermittent 
fever has not prevailed to the extent of the last two y^ars, 
which circumstance is due, no doubt, in a great measoie, to 



lU^^KTS OF DISTRICT 90CIBTI1S. 815 

ike &ct tJiat the people are becoming more eognmnt of the 
evil resolts which follow imperfect drainage, especially of cel- 
lars, and an effort is being made to obviate this prolific source 
of febrile disease, by extending a large sewer through the 
town, and thus establish a systematic drainage ; for we are 
possessed of a soil through which water cannot penetrate, and 
hence tiie absolute necessity of a more thoraugfa system of 
drainage. It may not be out of place to remark that a large 
portion of Hudson County, for a number of years, had been 
singularly free from miasmatic disease, and probably would 
have remained so, had it not been for the march of (so called) 
improvements 

Independently of endemic influences we are subject to dis- 
eases incident to "sea-board" localities. Our winters are 
usually mild, but damp. The cold sea fog entails upon us 
croup, bronchitis, pneumonia and rheumatism, while in sum- 
mer although the excessive heat is delightfully tempered by 
the breezes from the ocean, the supersaturation of the atmos- 
phere with watery vapor, depriving the respired air of its 
normal proportion of oxygen, is productive of cholera infan- 
tum, which is only remedied oftentimes by a removal to a 
dryer climate. In fact, it is marvelous, the beneficial results 
often obtained in the disease just alluded to, by a removal to 
a mountainous district. 

In this immediate locality, (Jersey City) from its proximity 
to the city of New York, and the floating character of a large 
portion of the population, we are subject to many causes of 
disease which do not obtain in other parts of the county. 
The eruptive fev^ especially variola, are more frequent; and 
typhoid fever, impressing its type on all co*existent disease, is 
fipequently prevalent This has been progressive, keeping 
pace with our increase of population. The filthy, crowded 
condition of tenements germinating disease of an infectious 
character, renders the masses in the locality victims to its in* 



216 MEDICAL SOCIBnr OF NKW JERSEY. 

fluence ; and at times in many of the more densely populated 
districts, the mortality &om scarlatina, variola, and measles is 
great, while in summer, cholera in&ntum and dysentery swell 
the list Although the younger portions of the population are 
usually fat and apparently robust, they do not possess the 
recuperative power of those of a higher station in life. They 
succumb frequently to the first shock of disease, or reacting 
imperfectly, are carried off by the sequelae. Added to the 
causes, filth and a dense population, are unhealthy food, in the 
form of unripe and decaying fruit and vegetables, tainted meat 
and deficient clothing. Too often is it that unscrupulous ven* 
ders, taking advantage of the poverty of the inhabitants, by 
offering inducements in the way of cheapness, foist upon their 
needy customers articles of food not fit to nourish swine. 

The population of Hudson County was, in 1840, 9,486; and, 
according to the last census, (1865) amounts to 86,530. The 
old Dutch settlers, who, prior to the last twenty-five years, con- 
stituted the almost entire population, have gradually lost their 
identity, by intermarriage with new residents, and the over- 
whelming influx of immigration. The Rev. Dr. Taylor, pastor 
of the Reformed Dutch Church, at Bergen, writes : " It is 
now more than thirty-seven years since I took up my residence 
in Bergen, and of course I have become familiar with the 
entire district of country over which my parochial duties have 
been discharged. During the earlfer part of my ministry, the 
northern part of the district referred to had but a small pop- 
ulation, and the inhabitants were industrious, frugal, laborious 
people, and a goodly number of them lived to the advanced 
age of from 70 to 80 years. The town of Bergen has been 
well known for the healthfulness of its inhabitants. I never 
saw so many very aged people together in any place as I used 
to see in my church in the early part of my pastorate here. 
Almost every pew had in it at the Sabbath morning service, 
one or two who were firom sixty-five to ninety years old, and 



EEPORTS OF DIBTBICT SOCIETIES. 217 

I have buried many of them who were from ninety to one 
hundred years of age — very many between eighty and ninety." 

During the period alluded to, the population were almost 
exclusively engaged in agricultural pursuits; but with the 
increase of population the agricultural character of the people 
has been gradually changing to a manufacturing and commer* 
cial community, and those who still adhere to an agricultural 
life, are turning their attention to gardening, and the raising 
of vegetables for the New York market. This change in the 
industrial pursuits of the people has not as yet advanced to a 
sufficient extent to produce any radical change in the type and 
character of disease, and when such influences are felt, they 
will be confined to the eastern part of the County or that 
washed by the Hudson Eiver. Already the New Jersey Cen- 
tral Bailroad Co. has commenced reclaiming lands ordinaiily 
under water, and the " cribs " sunk enclose an area of several 
hundred acres. The substance used for filling in, is the garb- 
age and sweepings from New York City. The odor arising 
firom decaying vegetable and animal matter was during the 
past summer, at times offensive in the extreme ; and as the 
prevailing winds during the summer months are from the 
south, the inhabitants of Jersey City were subjected to its full 
influence. In the lower wards of the city, in the immediate 
proximity to the place, many severe cases of dysentery and 
remittent fev^r occurred, the result, no doubt, of the miasma 
generated. The Company have a contract extending over a 
period of years, to receive the refuse matter from the city of 
New York for the purpose of filling in, and have not yet de- 
posited one fiftieth part of what will be necessary to reclaim 
their property. The result may be easily foreseen, if not pre- 
vented by suitable legislation. 

Another danger to be apprehended, is the shutting off of 
the access of tide water firom the large tract of meadow land 
lying back of these bulk-heads and newly reclaimed grounds, 

28 



218 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY 

and also from the stoppage of the natural drainage, which con- 
tributes largely to preserve the healthfiilness of this part of the 
County. The alluvial deposit of the river and mud becomes 
packed, hove up and indurated while under water, until it 
becomes a mass as impervious to filtration as the puddled 
banks of a canal, making ultimately many hundred acres of 
new land whose surface will not be more than six feet above 
high water mark. Into this will fall annually an average of 
about forty inches of rain, besides a water shed from a large 
tract of country back of it. This form of made land will ulti- 
mately extend from Weehawken Bluff, in the rear of Hobo- 
ken, to Kill Von Kull, forming a perfect hot-bed for the gen- 
eration of disease. 

This process of reclaiming lauds has become absolutely in- 
dispensable on account of the rapidly increasing commerce of 
this section, and while recognizing its necessity on account of 
the shallow depth of water which characterizes this shore of 
the Hudson, we should not lose sight of the necessity of guard'* 
ing against the evils alluded to, which can only Be done by 
a system of proper and efficient sewerage, and covering up of 
the primary deposit with fresh earth to a depth sufficient to 
prevent at any future period, the liberation of the results of 
vegetable decomposition. 

The sanitary condition of the past year will compare fevor- 
ably with the two years preceding, so far as the average 
amount of sickness is concerned, but there has for the whole 
period been a marked tendency to asthenia, an intolerance of 
antiphlogistics in the various phlegmaria, and an early demand 
'or support. During the latter part of the winter and early 
^spring, scarlatina and erysipelas in an epidemic form prevailed, 
and during the same period many cases of anthrax were met 
with. In this connection I beg leave to record my testimony 
(fortified by another year's trial) in favor of the alkaline sul- 
phites in diseases depending on zymosis. Dr. Wilkinson 



REPORTS OF DISTBIOT SOCISnE& 219 

writes : ^In reference to the beneficiai effects of the alkaline 
sulphites in zymotic diseases, I think T can add my voice in 
their favor, especially in scarlatina. In the cases of scarlatina 
in which I have had an opportunity of testing the remedial 
eflfectof sulphite of soda, I have found that the sequelse are 
considerably modified as to severity, and in some cases pre^ 
vented altogether." The prophylactic properties in reference 
to scarlatina seem to be confirmed by further experience, and 
in respect to therapeutics, I have not seen a single fatal case 
that was treated by their free administration. Their effect in 
cases of erysipelas and anthrax is no less marked. 

The summer months produced nothing worthy of note,* ex> 
cept the prevalence of dysentery and remittent fever, in cer- 
tain localities alluded to in a previous part of this report. The 
cases of dysentery were marked by a decided hemorrhagic 
tendency in the latter stages, which in many instances was the 
immediate cause of death. Several cases of cerebro-spinal 
meningitis are herein reported by Drs. Payne and Wilkinson. 

Dr. Payne's Cases. 

" Lhave to report four cases of cerebro-spinal meningitis, 
or spotted fever, occurring among a class of persons who live 
constantly violating the laws of hygiene. By a singular co- 
incidence all the cases were attacked in the same night, strick- 
en down with scarcely a premonitory symptom. All the cases 
proved fatal, one in six hours, one in ten, another in forty- 
eight hours, and the last languished for five days. I give yon 
a record of one case which will serve for all, as the character- 
istic symptoms were present in all. 

" L W. JEt 20, laborer, up to the time of the attack, was 
apparently in robust health ; March 28th, was attacked with 
a severe and prolonged chill, accompanied with intense pain 
in the head, neck and extremities, nausea and vomiting; 
when seen by nie at 7 A.M., there was an imperfect reaction, 
the extremities were cold, the head hot, pulse very feeble 



220 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

and irregular — ISO ; the expression of the countenance pecu- 
liar, the eyes staring, suffused and glassy,, with congestion of 
the conjunctival membrane; answered questions abruptly; 
complains of severe pain in the head, neck and extremities, 
and of soreness of the entire surface ; constant anorexia, and 
vomiting. To meet the indications of treatment, were to es- 
tablish reaction, relieve the congestion and quiet the nervous 
excitement. For the first applied external warmth, sinapisms 
to the extremities and epigastrium ; administered brandy and 
Hoffman's Anodyne; and for the others, prescribed one of 
the following powders every two hours : 
' R Quiniae Di Sulph. grs. x. 
Hyd Proto Ohlor. grs. iij. 

CamphorsB gr. s.s. 

M. 

1 P.M., reaction still imperfect, partially delirious; would 
answer questions when loudly and distinctly spoken to, then 
relapsing into delirium ; pulse 100; thirst and vomiting con- 
tinues ; with great difficulty the patient could be kept in bed ; 
the head was inclined backwards and to the right side ; no- 
ticed over the surface petechia, irregular in shape, small and 
of a dark red color ; difficulty of deglutition. 8 P.M., great 
restlessness, talks wildly, answers questions when firmly 
spoken to, complains of pain over the abdomen, soreness of 
the skin, feet cold, rest of the body warm ; the spots at this 
time were much enlarged and of a darker hue ; vomiting and 
thirst still continues ; a peculiar musty, offensive odor was ex- 
haled from the patient ; at this time a tendency to rigidity of 
the extensor muscles of the extremities ; died at 10 P.M., and 
in a few minutes the rigor mortis was remarkable." 

Dr. Wilkinson's Case. 

"A case occurred at Greenville, of a widow lady aged 
twenty-eight years, who was seized with a severe continuous 
chill, great anxiety and despondency of mind ; constant sigh- 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 221 

ing, respiration soon followed bj muttering delirium; and a 
peculiar stare, and a wild expression to the countenance ; pe- 
culiar spots resembling purpura, showed themselves all over 
the body ; pulse 120 ; jactitation was excessive, feet drawn up, 
tenderness along the spine, vomiting from the beginning, tym- 
panitis to a considerable extent, diarrhoea, clammy sweats, sub- 
sultus, headache, was present from the inception of the disease 
till its close ; great tenderness existed alpng the cervical ver- 
tebras, from the base of the cranium to the dorsal region ; the 
spots remained and became of a purplish appearance as the 
heart's action became weaker ; the sighing respiration, indica- 
tive of stasis, were present till twenty-four hours before death, 
when coma, almost total, supervened, and stertorous breath- 
ing. The treatment from the beginning, consisted of diffusive 
stimuli and essence of beef; counter irritation along the 
spine ; camphor and opium held the diarrhoea in check, which 
showed itself the last three days. But, notwithstanding that 
brandy, ammonia, quinine and essence of beef were given very 
freely, reaction never came on after the inceptive chill, nor 
was the pulse at any time less than 120 per minute. The re- 
traction of the head and contraction of the flexor muscles of 
the thigh were well marked ; patient lived till the ninth day ; 
I made a post-mortem thirty hours after death, assisted by 
Dr. T. R. Varick. Cerebro-spinal meningitis, accompanied 
with profuse effusion under the anachnoid and excessive con- 
gestion of the pia mater, were found. On examination of 
abdominal cavity, no disease was found. Peyers patches were 
healthy and normal, and no inflammation or ulceration along 
the ileo caecal valve was discovered." 

The medical profession in this county are, as a mass, char- 
acterized by some practical common-sense, and are governed 
in their practice by the received pathology of the day, con- 
servative in the treatment of disease, discarding the heroic, 
and content to let the vis medicatrix naturae have full sway. 



222 MEDICAL SOOIJSTT OF NSW JERSEY. 

untrainmeled by iDJudicious medication. The lancet and mer- 
curial ptyalism, once viewed as inseparable from the success- 
ful treatment of the acute phlegmasia, are now almost totally 
discarded. Viewing inflanunation not as a conglomeration of 
the symptoms of redness, swelling, heat and pain, and the 
pathological condition an accumulation of blood in the part 
impeding the function of the organ implicated ; but in the 
language of Bennett, " a disease of nutrition, governed by the 
same laws that determine the growth and function of cells, as 
they exist in the embryo and in healthy tissues," or " an ex- 
udation of the normal liquor sanguinis." The effort is not 
to cut off the " vis a tergo," but support nature in the trans- 
formation of the exudation thrown out, into pus, whereby the 
irritating cause and its results are both got rid of." 

A recognition of these principles has led to a corresponding 
change in practice, with a decided diminution of the rates of 
mortality. In surgery a similar conservative spirit is man- 
ifest, and the aim is not who can most rapidly and elegantly 
amputate, but who is most successful in avoiding an operation. 

Specialists are few, while quackery is rampant. The de- 
ciples of Hahneman, discarding their patronymic, have adopted 
the title of HonioiopatJiicians, and in the language of that prince 
of satirists, Butler: 

" For mystic learning wondrous able, 
In magic talisman, and cabal, 
W^hose primitive tradition reaches 
As far as Adam's first green breeches ; 
Deep-sighted in intelligences. 
Ideas, atoms, influences ; 
And much of terra incognita, 
Th' intelligible world would say, 
A deep occult philosopher. 
As learned as the wild Irish are, 
Or Sir Agrippa, for profound 
And solid lying much renowned." 



REPOBTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 223 

We have another claas of practitioners, a sort of hybrid, or 
cross between a parson and doctor, who edify their flocks on 
Sunday, and practice medicine the balance of the week, leav- 
ing it an open question as to whether the service of Gtod or 
Mammon, occupies the first place in their affections. 

In closing this report it is proper that a tribute should be 
paid to the memory of the pioneers in the practice of medicine 
in this county, whb have been gathered to their fathers. The 
recollection of Hoi'nblower, Gautier and Ellis is still green, 
and the remembrance of their genial kindness in the sick room, 
and the ^mndness of their practice, consonant with the re- 
ceived doctrines of the day, is still cherished by many who 
knew them when in their prime, and Cornelison still lives, 
bearing the " sear and yellow leaf" with manly vigor. 

Theodore R Varick, M.D., Reporter, 



HUNTERDON COUNTY. 

Chairman of Standing Committee^ dc, : 

Typhoid" and intermittent fever, pneumonia — generally of a 
typhoid character — rheumatism, paralysis, and affections of 
the liver — producing icterus — have been the most prevalent 
diseases throughout this County, during the past year. At 
least, this inference is drawn trom a perusal of communications 
received, few of the members of our District Society having 
furnished reports. My own practice has been corroborative 
of this statement. 

Diphtheritis and scarlatina, have been rare, except in Lam- 
bertville, from which place Dr. George H. Larison reports fifty 
cases of the latter disease, which disappeared in March. 

Innumerable cases of scrofula, in its various forms, have 
been met with by your reporter, during the last year. This 



224 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

prevalence of scrofula is no doubt due, among other causes, to 
frequent inter-marriage among our people, without regard to 
the degrees of consanguinity; the excessive use of pork as 
an article of diet, and exposure to the depressing influences 
of a damp atmosphere. This strumous cachexia manifests 
itself during infancy and childhood by purulent opthalmia, 
scabby eruptions, enlargement of the glands .of the axill«e, 
groin, etc., swelling of the joints, enlargement of the upper 
lip, tumid abdomen, and in female children, by a leucorrhoeal 
discharge. 

These phenomena, neglected, generally result in so-called 
" white swelling," tabes mesenterica, or other more fully devel- 
oped scrofulous disease. Although we believe that any morbid 
condition by which digestion is enfeebled, or the healthy action 
of the alimentary canal is interfered with, favors the develop- 
ment of parasites therein, we have been greatly disappointed 
with anthelmintics, administered to scrofulous children, when 
every symptom was indicative of worms. We give a case in 

illustration : H , four years old, light hair, blue eyes (the 

color of the eyes and hair does not appear to exert any in- 
fluence — scrofula attacks persons without regard to organiza- 
tion or temperament, although some are, no doubt,, more sus- 
ceptible than others) and somewhat emaciated ; his upper 
lip was swollen, abdomen distended and hard ; his appetite 
was sometimes deficient, sometimes ravenous; during sleep 
he would jerk, and grind his teeth, and asleep or awake, he 
was continually rubbing his nose; his breath possessed an 
offensive odor. Supposing the difficulty to depend on worms 
in the alimentary canal, free utterance was given to this opin- 
ion. The mother, grandmother, and a room full of intelligent 
matrons joyfully concurring, anthelmintics were prescribed, 
with confidence of success. Santonin, spigelia, the oil of worm 
seed, and other vermifuges were tried in vain. Upon making 
a more careful examination of the patient, it was discovered 



BKPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 225 

that the tonsil glands were much enlarged, and that he , had 
been subject to discharges from the ear. The plan of treat- 
ment was changed: quinia, iron, and iodide of potassium were 
given. The case improved. The mother, however, was dis- 
satisfied ; insisting, that the worms must be removed, or the 
boy " would be eaten up alive." Accordingly, a bottle of some 
famous quack vermifuge, which " never failed to drive away 
the worms," was procured, and administered — clandestinely. 

In this case it did fail to drive away worms. The physician, 
however, has not visited the patient since. Wonderful effect 
of a quack medicine I The boy is now suffering from an ulcer 
upon the leg. His relatives informed me that he has a " white 
swelling" — ^the result of a fall. 

A large portion of this region is occupied by the swamp, 
which Professor Rogers, State Geologist, describes* as "an 
elevated table land, the surface of which is about four hundred 
feet above the Delaware, and which goes, in Hunterdon Coun- 
ty, under the name of swamp, owing to the wet character of 
the soil. Throughout this area, the rock preserves a moderate- 
ly uniform, external character, being a highly indurated, 
altered shale, and sandstone, the prevailing color of which is 
a very dark dull blue. It has a great tendency to split into 
rhomboidal fragments, with a somewhat splintery fracture ; 
and certain varieties yield, when struck, a clear ringing sound, 
which has procured it the name of clink stone, in the neigh- 
borhood." Paludal influences, generated in this swamp, 
certainly modify diseases, occurring in this region, and exert 
more or less agency in producing many of them. 

Fully developed fever and ague are seldom seen here, ex- 
cept near streams, or ponds, or after heavy rains. Yet most 
diseases occurring in this region exhibit a decided inter- 
mittent type, which is not so much the case in the country 
east, and southeast of us, where the soil is sandy, and the 

•Geological Beport of 1865, Page 9S. 
29 



226 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

country rolling. In a former report (Transactions 1863, page 
78) the writer makes the following statement : " Immediately 
to the north of us is the great Kingwood swamp, the soil of 
which is of a tough, argillaceous nature, almost impervious to 
water, and the surface of the land too level to permit efficient 
drainage. From a large portion of this swamp, the timber 
has been recently removed, exposing the surface to the in- 
fluence of the sun, giving rise to miasmata, with which the 
atmosphere of the surrounding neighborhood becomes more 
or less impregnated. This malaria is, probably, not sufficient- 
ly dense to produce fully developed intermittent fever, except 
occasionally, and under peculiar circumstances, as after heavy 
rains, etc. Yet it is evident, that all diseases appearing among 
the people of this region, are more or less influenced by this 
marsh miasmata. Several years of observation had greatly 
strengthened my faith in this view of the subject. My atten- 
tion was directed to this theory by the observation of the fact 
that intermittents appeared, and prevailed for a time, after the 
removal of timber from certain localities, and that typhoid 
fevers would follow. 

The conclusion was, that the peculiar condition of the soil, 
for a longer or shorter period, after the removal of the wood, 
was highly congenial to the production of malaria, and that 
malaria was generated in sufficient quantity, so to speak, to 
cause fully developed intermittent, but, as the peculiar con- 
dition was modified by cultivation, continued exposure to the 
sun, etc., the soil was rendered less fit for such production, 
and that, although miasm was still generated, it was in 
diminished quantity, and the atmosphere was not so highly 
impregnated with the poison, as under the circumstances first 
mentioned. 

While investigating this interesting subject, my pet theory 
received a mortal blow, in the following, which I found in 
page 263, vol. I, Wood*s Practice of Medicine : " Intermittent 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIEa 227 

being the mildest form of miasmatic fever, is that which ordi- 
narily occurs in situations, and at periods when the miasmatic 
influence is least intense, and in persons who, from habit, or 
any other cause, are least susceptible to injury from it." 

Dr. Gray, of Flemington, states: " The section of country 
in which my (his) practice lies, is generally diversified, the 
country rolling from a westerly to an easterly direction. On 
the west, rising to quite an elevation, forming on the top of 
ascent, a plain, known generally as the swamp, but the major 
part by no means deserving the cognomen. Portions of this 
section are very wet, and to all appearances the very spot for 
miasmatic diseases, from the extensive pools of water and vast 
amount of vegetable matter that lies exposed to action of the 
air and heat, producing decay. But, strange to say, little or 
no disease has existed there for several years past. Descend- 
ing from the apex of the hill, about a mile, we have a beauti- 
ful farming country sloping to the south, highly cultivated, 
and free from all apparent causes producing disease. In this 
portion of our town during the whole season of summer and 
fall, there were a great number of cases of dysentery, and sev- 
eral cases of intermittent fever. The cases of dysentery were 
of the intermittent form, and only yielded to such treatment 
as is adapted to such forms of disease. Now, the question 
arises — how were such diseases generated in this locality? 
No stagnant pools, no decaying vegetable matter, none of the 
usual causes prevailing to produce such disease. My solution 
of the matter — whether right or wrong, I will not say — is, that 
they were generated in the section first spoken of, and by the 
cction of descending currents, conveyed to this locality. It 
uv-as very remarkable that during all the summer, the slope 
and valley were covered with a dense fog, night and morning, 
while the apex of the hill was entirely clear, and free from the 
diseases mentioned." 

May not the descending currents have rendered this higher 



228 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

locality uncongenial, while the plain below possessed the con- 
ditions necessary for the development or production of inias- 
mata, which is probably caused by one or more species of 
microscopic fungi, or other minute cryptogamic vegetation ? 
Dr. Gray reports a case to " illustrate the character of these 

diseases, their violence, treatment, etc" " Mrs. E , aged 

35 years, mother of two children, lymphatic or phlegmatic 
temperament, habits active, though laboring beyond her 
strength, having a large family to care for ; her husband farm- 
ing largely, and having a large quantity of peaches to gather, 
had an attack of bilious diarrhoea during the early part of the 
summer, though not sick enough, as she supposed, to be con- 
fined to her room. The disease gradually yielded to the ordi- 
nary treatment, though her system was left in a weak and re- 
laxed condition, and liable to disturbing causes. On Wednes- 
day, August 23d, Mrs, E was seized with a quotidian 

intermittent ; saw her on the 29th, 7 A.M. ; had a chill about 
2 P.M. — the usual time ; skin intensely hot, pulse 110, high 
febrile excitement, intense thirst, loss of vocal powers, and 
great depression of nervous system ; gave her cal. gr& vi., 
ipecac gr.j., podoph. gr.j., to be repeated every four hours, 
until the bowels were freely acted upon ; ordered sinapsism to 
spine and lower extremities, and frequent ablutions with tepid 
water, to reduce febrile action ; August 30th, 9 A.M., very 
slight abatement of febrile actions, more control of vocal 
organs, though loss of muscular power of extremities, pulse 
90; gave quinia grs, ij., cal. grs. iss., ipecac grs. ij., every three 
hours ; 6 P.M., trismus, subsultus tendinum ; applied a large 
blister to nape of neck, and ordered friction of the extremities, 
with strong mustard water. This state of things commenced 
about the usual time for chill, about 2 P.M. In endeavoring 
to pry open the mouth, T luckily found a broken molar, 
through which space I inserted a full dose of morph. sulph^ 
by moistening the tip of the finger, rolling it in the powder 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 229 

and passing it in upon the tongue. At the end of two hours, 
general relaxation was produced ; the patient fell into a quiet 
sleep ; the spasmodic action subsiding about 12 M., ordered 
attendants not to arouse her, but to watch carefully, and as 
soon as she awoke, give quinia grs. ij., strichnia gr. i, every 
lour hours, and apple whiskey every hour ; Aug 31st, 6 A.M., 
had a quiet rest until 5 A.M., the morphia having had the 
desired effect: system relaxed, pulse 75, skin natural. The 
blister had drawn well ; ordered it dressed with bread and 
milk poultice ; powders of quinia and strychnia to be con- 
tinued, counter-irritation also ; 4 P.M., no chill, no return of 
trismus ; gave sulph. morph. gr. iss ; September 1st, 6 A.M., had 
a good night's rest, pulse 70, skin natural, continued treatment 
as day previous ; September 2d, improving, omit strichnia ; 
September 3d, cathartic; fer. cit. et quinii; September 8th, 
convalescent — case dismissed. 

This, to me, was truly an anomalous case. Had it ap- 
peared in a highly malarious region, as some portions of 
the west or south, it could have been easily accounted for. 
Such cases having occurred in our army while on the Penin- 
sula, and in the early days of my medical life, whilst residing 
on the Maumee Eiver, in Ohio, I had frequent opportunities 
of seeing and prescribing for just such cases. Some yielding 
readily, but many succumbing to the effects of such an active 
and virulent poison. 

"It is a singular fact that not a single case of intermittent 
fever has originated here for many years ; but during the past 
season, every case that I have been called upon to treat has 
assumed this form. I have been a resident of this County 
twelve years, and not a single case, originating here, has fallen 
into my hands, untU during the past season. At this time 
(December) all the cases bear disiinciive marks of this characUrJ^ 
It will be remembered that this month has been unusually 
"warm and damp. 



280 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

Dr. C. W. LarisoD, of Bingoes, informs me that intermittents 
and remittents do not appear in my [hisj practice, except oc- 
casionally, some individual from a miasmatic locality happens 
to be attacked with it, while on a sojourn in our neighbor- 
hood." The Doctor sees more cases of '' rheumatism during 
the month of March, than in all the rest of the year together." 
His ^'treatment for this ailment consists in the free use of 
citric acid, nitrate of potash, opium and the saline cathartics. 
The external application that gives me [him] the best satisfac- 
tion, is cotton, with which I [he] completely cover the aflfected 
parts, and keep them so, until the inflammatory stage is past*' 

Dr. C. W. Larison reports the following case: "On the 
1st of March I was called in consultation with Dr. Hunt, to 

the case of Mrs. M , thirty years of age, who had been 

suffering very muA for two or three weeks from an extreme 
irritability of the stomach, and a profuse flow of saliva. It 
seemed almost impossible to keep any aliment in her stomach 
long enough to do her any good. There was tenderness of 
the abdomen — no doubt from the constant retching ; a weak 
pulse — one hundred and twenty in a minute ; dry skin and a 
furred tongue. She was discharging about eight pints of 
saliva a day, but very little urine. Dr. Hunt informed me 
that the state of things above mentioned had existed to his 
certain knowledge for the space of two weeks, and that almost 
every remedy that would seem to promise any benefit had 
been tried, but did not seem to ameliorate the symptoms. The 
lady was then in the sixth week of pregnancy. We con- 
cluded to try the oxide of bismuth and aqua cresota, with. 
which we succeeded in checking the emesis, but i^ade no im- 
pression upon the flow of saliva. The appetite soon grew 
strong, and in due course of time, the lady was upon her feet. 
But, in about two weeks, emesis set in again, and she was 
again prostrated. Champagne was recommended in small 
quantities, and frequently repeated on which she rapidly im- 






REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 281 

proved, as regard to her stomacli; but the flow of saliva 
seemed to remain uninflaenced. The lady soon became as 
strong as usual, and in the course of two months, notwithstand- 
ing this profuse ptyalism, there was a great increase in the 
quantity of adipose tissue. I saw her frequently between this 
and the time of her confinement for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing the quantity of saliva discharged per day. There seemed 
to be very little difference in the quantity daily thrown off. 
Digestion and assimilation seemed to go on vigorously, as was 
shown by the condition of the patient. She frequently told 
me that she felt better and stronger than she had in several 
years, and was able to be upon her feet much longer at a time 
than before she became pregnant 

On the 2d of November she gave birth to a lifeless child, 
whose weight was eleven pounds, and whose length was twen- 
ty-four inches. The death of the child probably occurred 
about the commencement of labor. The Doctor adds, that for 
two days after delivery, there was no diminution of the saliv- 
ary secretion ; that in about twenty days it gradually reached 
the natural quantity, the patient in good health. " From the 
second week of pregnancy till about the third week in the 
third month, the salivary glands poured out about eight pints 
per day, and from the first week of the fourth month, until 
parturition, about six pints per day " besides that physiologi- 
cally consumed. Dr. Cramer reports numerous cases of jaun- 
dice, occurring during the fall, four being in one family. The 
stools being clay colored, he gave calomel, until the faeces 
presented evidences of biliary admixture, following with qui- 
Tiia. 

A case of blood poisoning, reported by Dr. Cramer, is re- 
markable : General John T. Seargeant, aged S6, of temperate 
and industrious habits, a prominent man in our community, 
and a useful citizen, was attacked November 19th, with severe 
headache and intense pain in the back. In the night he had 



232 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

a hard chill, and soon began to vomit an exceedingly acid 
fluid; delirium supervened, and in a few days he lost all con- 
ciousness, the skin having assumed a deep yellow color. Dra. 
Tilley, Schenck, Gray, and your reporter, saw the case, in 
consultation with Dr. Cramer. A dose of comp. catL pills 
was given in the beginning of the attack. Alkalies were 
administered to neutralize acidity. Calomel was freely given, 
and it was thought by some of the attendants, that a slight 
mercurial odor could be detected in the breath, about forty- 
eight hours before death occurred. The bowels were moved 
several times during the week, the evacuations being deficient 
in bile. Urine was occasionally passed, highly tinged with 
billions matter, staining everything it touched, a deep yellow 
color. The patient swallowed fluids without serious difficulty, 
and appeared to retain the sense of taste after the organs of 
sight and hearing had lost their functions. 

The General expired on the 26th, having been sick one 
week. During the last two days of his existence, he could not 
be aroused from the coma. Yet, if a spoon, containing cold 
water, was placed to his lips, he would swallow its contents, 
sometimes retaining it in the mouth for a few moments, (before 
swallowing.) He would sometimes seize the spoon in his 
teeth with such power, that it could not be removed without 
difficulty. A post Tnoriem was made, conducted by Dr. Sulli- 
van, in the presence of the physicians above named. The 
liver was found to be somewhat • diminished in volume ; at 
least, it was rather smaller than usual ; in other respects, its 
external appearance was natural, except in color, which was 
of a pale yellowish brown. Its parenchymatous texture was 
completely disorganized. Upon cutting into the liver, and 
pressing its substance between the fingers, no traces of acini 
could be detected ; in short, the glandular structure of the 
organ wa5 entirely destroyed, presenting a mushy homoge- 
nous appearance. 



BSPOBTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 233 

The report of Dr. George H. LarisoD, at his request, is 
transmitted as received. Br. Blane^s commanication does not 
admit of compilation ; I forward it entire. The papers of 
Drs. Lilly and Stnddiford being principally reports of cases, 
and of considerable interest, accompany this report. 

H. B. Nightingale, Beporier. 

BoSEMONT, near Stockton, Dec. Slst, 1866. 

Communication by Dr. Jno. Blank. 

The health of the inhabitants of the' part of the County in 
which I reside and practice, has been unusually good during 
the past year; there has been no epidemic with us during that 
time. It is true we had such diseases as are incident to the 
diflferent seasons of the year, but in sporadic cases only. We 
have had several cases of jaundice (more than we ever had in 
the same length of time) well marked and rather more obsti- 
nate to treat than usual, and I learn this has been the case with 
many of my neighboring practitioners. The disease, however, 
yielded to the remedies usually used in such cases. 

Paralytic affections are more frequent than usual. There is 
nothing new with us in the treatment of diseases. The most 
remarkable fact connected with the practice in this vicinity is 
that during the past year, as in 1830 and '81, we have scat- 
tering cases of intermittent fever, and these in the most healthy 
situations. In 1831, 1 treated several cases where intermit- 
tents had never been known to exist ; they were remarked as 
being entirely new by the oldest people in the neighborhood. 
In 1832, cholera made its appearance in our country, and we 
had no more intermittent fever, except solitary cases following 
and closing up remittent and other fevers. 

We have again intermittents just as we had them in 1831, 

and this I am told is the case with some (and perhaps all) of my 

neighboring practitioners, and the cholera is approaching as 

it did then. These may be accidental coincidences, but they 

80 



234 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

seem to argue that there is some change that precedes it and 
renders the system more susceptible to its attack. In the 
other years of that disease, namely— 1849, 1854, 1858, the 
predisposition to intermittents forerunning them, were not 
so well marked as to cause particular notice at the tima But 
at this time, the state of health, and particularly as it regards 
intermittents, is very similar to what it was in 1881, the year 
preceding the first visitation of that fearful disease ; so much 
so as to attract my attention particularly. 

I regret that I have not kept a record of these cases, as it 
might assist in determining whether intermittents generally 
precede cholera in this country, and whether there was not 
more of them previous to the years 1849, 1854, and 1858, 
than I now recollect One circumstance which tended to pre- 
vent my observations in these years, was the fact that the free 
use of lime in agriculture had a short time before (1881) come 
into use among the farmers in this vicinity, and being fre- 
quently questioned by the people as to the cause of the inter- 
mittents among them, I could find no better answer than, that 
by the free use of lime, their crops did not ripen as early as 
they would have done without its use ; which produced a con- 
dition in the soil and vegetation similar to that in districts 
where miasm abounds. This satisfied me at the time, and my 
patients also, but my last year's experience unsettles that 
opinion. 

What is the experience of the members of our profession on 
that subject? Does not the free use of lime (over a wide dis- 
trict of country) tend to produce intermittent fever? If this 
should prove to be the case, then intermittents preceding 
cholera, may be considered accidental coincidents. 

The hygienic and climatic influence of this part of our favor- 
ed County is certainly very &vorable, as may be inferred from 
our having so few epidemics, and the great age to which many 
of our inhabitants attain. Our township (Union) is a small 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT S0CIET1E& 235 

one, containing less then twenty square miles, and by the last 
census, 1217 inhabitants ; 1193 of whom are white, and 24 
colored. There are now living in the township five females 
over 90 years of age, one of whom is 91, another 93, another 
94, another 96 years old, in the enjoyment of good health and 
intellect; and one male, colored, nearly 100 years old, and 
but a short time since we buried a colored female who died 
in her 99th year, and a white male in his 89th year. This 
might further be inferred from the length of time that domes 
tic animals live to ; horses frequently live to 30 years and 
over. I had one died in her 34th year, and her death was 
accidental ; I have seen them 37 years old, and they had been 
worked hard the greater portion of that time. I have known 
a milch cow sold at vendue, being in good condition, and 
bringing a good price at 21 years of age— and she made fai 
heef^X over 22 years old. 

The water, whether in springs (of which we have many) 
brook or well, is good and wholesome, and needs not to be 
analyzed by the chemist to prove it so. Horses are our best 
judges of water, and man may freely drink where a horse 
does, and particularly where they prefer to drink — ^all horses 
drink our waters freely, and let their condition be as it may, 
they are very seldom, if over, injured by so doing. 

What has been si^d of Union township, will apply to Le- 
banon, including Clinton, from which it was taken a few years 
ago ; Bethlehem, from which Union was taken, and Alexan- 
dria, forming the north end of the County, each of which 
are crossed by the Musconetcong mountain, (on which, but a 
short distance east of Lebanon township, on a part of this 
range known as Schooley's Mountain, is situated the far-famed 
Schooley's Mountain mineral springs, so much resorted to in 
warm weather by the fashionable people in our cities, for their 
health) and having for their northern boundary the Musconet- 
cong Creek, which divides them a distance of twenty-four 



236 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSET. 

miles from Warren County ; the Delaware River on the west^ 
which divides it from Pennsylvania. It has Kingwood, Frank- 
lin, and part of Beadington on the south, and Tewksbury and 
part of Morris County on the east, and contains about 200 
square miles ; and according to the last census, 14,942 inhab- 
itants, which allowing for the usual increase of our population, 
will at this time be 16,628, principally engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, generally an industrious and thriving people. 

This district of country is drained by the water shed from 
the Musconetcong range of mountains to the -north into the 
Musconetcong Creek, and from the same range south into the 
south branch of the Baritan through Spruce Bun (which has its 
head in Morris County), and other small streams. The Baritan 
runs in a south-westerly direction through Lebanon and Clin- 
ton, and then constitutes the west boundary of the latter town- 
ship, receiving all the drainage of that township ; on the west 
by small streams draining Alexandria, and flowing into the 
Delaware Biver ; on the south there is but little outlet for 
streams, the water mostly passing in an easterly direction to 
the south branch of the Baritan, principally through Albert- 
son's branch or big brook, (its Indian name was Munselougha- 
way). All these streams run rapidly, and furnish abundant 
water power to grind all the grain raised in the district, and 
along the Delaware to saw lumber, with a large surplus, that 
may some day be converted to manufacturing purposes. The 
land is well adapted to graining and grain raising, producing 
good crops of grass, wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, &c. 

The greatest part of this district overlays a bed of limestone, 
which is much used as a fertilizer. The limestone comes to 
the surface all along the Musconetcong Creek, and at Clinton, 
on the south branch of the Baritan ; at the Union farms in 
Union, Bum's Valley ; in Alexandria and many other places ; 
and burning lime is a source of employment to some of the 
inhabitants. 



REPOKTS or DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 237 

In the range of mountains there is much iron ore — some 
mines were worked many years ago ; one at Solitude, on the 
south branch, and one at ^' Mine Holes," on the line between 
Bethlehem and Union townships, and other places. They 
supplied a forge at Solitude and Union furnace, and Norton 
furnace with ore; but they were stopped many years, the 
wood for charcoal, with which the iron of that day was made 
having given out Since the use of anthracite coal, they have 
renewed mining operations in these "and other places with a 
vigor which promises good results. 

There is no town of any magnitude in the district — Milford 
and Frenchtown in Alexandria, containing about 900 inhab- 
itants each, and the borough of Clinton, containing, say 600 
inhabitants, are the principal ones. The diseases of the in- 
habitants are such as are incident to agricultural districts of 
the same latitude in other parts of the State ; I know of none 
that belong to it exclusively. The mode of treating diseases 
is much the same, allowance being made for country air, diet, 
&c., as the same class of patients would receive in our neigh- 
boring cities of New York and Philadelphia, the practitioners 
of medicine being nearly all graduates of the schools in one 
or the other of those cities. As it regards the people's opinion 
and love for the profession and science of medicine, it varies 
exceedingly. There are those who have a just appreciation of 
both, and abhor quackery ; but there are still many men who 
pass by the intelligent and educated physician, to seek relief 
from some quack, if there be one in their reach. Patent med- 
icine is sold in nearly every store, and some of the taverns ; 
people purchase it, and of course use it, and the practitioner 
rarely hears of its eflTects, as patients will attribute their dis- 
eases to any but the right cause. That the treatment of our 
diseases is of the legitimate kind is, perhaps, owing more to 
the scarcity of quacks than to the love the people have for the 
regular practitioners of the profession. There is but one 



238 MEDICAL SOOIBTY OF NEW JERSEY. 

" irregular " in the whole district. Many of the people here, 
as in other places, love to be humbugged, and the oftener they 
are deceived the more they incline to resort to quacks and 
quack medicines, on the principle, I suppose, that " where 
you lose you must afterwards seek to find." Nor would I 
wish to be understood that as a people, we are more ignorant 
or have more esteem for quacks than others. We are very 
much improved of late years, and I believe still improving. 

All over this district of country there formerly were females 
who attended to obstetrical cases. They were of all grades ; 
a few intelligent, and wishing to do their duty, and as averse 
to humbuggery as any of the profession. Others again, as 
ignorant and superstitious as nature ever makes people. I 
know one who practiced several years quite succesisfully ; she 
used ergot with some superstitious notions ; her rule was to 
wait until the os uteri was pretty well dilated, and then to 
give the fresh decoction of nine grains, then wait a while and 
if need be, to repeat in a larger dose. But at all times she 
used an odd number of grains ; she laid great stress on the 
odd number of grains ; she told me she learned it from her 
grandmother, who had brought the knowledge of it with her 
from Germany. Another of these, when called on to officiate 
in such a case, caused every lock in the house to be unlocked ; 
if there was a loaded gun in the house, it had to be " shot off;" 
and then if the case did not progress according to her wishes, 
and there were any bags in the house, they had to be untied, 
emptied, &a This, with much dosing with " yerb lea," trying 
to tempt the womb to act in sympathy and discharge its con- 
tents. One who went a little further into general practice, 
being called to a case of retention of urine, caused every pail, 
pot, cup, barrel, tub, and every thing else that would hold 
water, to be placed in such a manner that they could hold no 
water, and averred that she by that means, and some others 
equally as preposterous, had cured many. At another time, 



REPORTS OP VlfffRlCT SOCIETIES. 289 

being called in a case of cholic, she arranged all the eatables 
in the house in such manner and in such position relative to 
each other, as she said would prevent the person partaking o 
them' from being attacked with pain. 

Nor was this kind of practice confined to females ; there 
were 'males, whose practices were more shocking to common 
sense — such, for instance, in consumption, as making patients 
drink their own urine ; in dyspepsia, prescribing a tea made 
from the dry excrement of the hog ; and in colic, a tea made 
from the dry excrement of the cat ; and poulticing ulcers with 
human excrement, which was termed "the rale underfoot 
salve;" and shutting the patient up in a tight room until they 
were nearly suffocated with stench ; and many other practices 
equally disgusting. All this they not only suffered and tol* 
erated, but paid for liberally, proving what I said before in 
regard to humbuggery. This kind of practice is now done 
away with; the last case that I witnessed, was twenty years 
ago ; the practitioner was brought from " an onder schate," 
and turned the contents of the house completely topsy-turvy. 

As I said before, that the practice being of the legitimate 
kind, may be as much from not having irregulars or quacks 
much within their reach, as from any liking for or reliance on 
our profession. One thing that inclines me to this belief is the 
rush that takes place every first Friday in the new moon, to 
" Sailors," who lives across the Delaware, and professes to heal 
diseases by rubbing the patient and talking to the disease. 
There was in the district of country of which I write, in the 
early part of the present century, and before that time, a 
number of practicing physicians, whose biography has never 
been written. 

In January, 1828, I entered into partnership in the profes- 
sion with my friend. Dr.- W. A. A. Hunt, at Clarksville, Le- 
banon township. We were the only physicians in the north 
part of the township ; in the south part Dr. John Manners was 



240 HEDicAii soGiirnr of new jebsey. 

located, near Hamden, and the following spring Dr. Coning- 
ham Crawford settled at " Hunt's Mills"— since Clinton. The • 
township of Bethlehem had two physicians ; one in the ex- 
treme northwest corner, Bloomsbury, Dr. Hugh Hughs ; and 
in the southwest corner, Pittstown, Dr. Ferguson. The town- 
ship of Alexandria had two ; in the north and central, at God- 
ley's Mills — since called Spring Mills — ^Dr. John McGloughen ; 
and in its south central part, Everittstown, Dr. Henry Hol- 
combe. 

These eight practitioners were all who at that time at- 
tended to the state of health of this district, besides doing 
considerable business out of it. Before this time there had 
been located in Lebanon, as I heard my patients often relate, 
near New Hampton, Dr. Morelan and Dr. Axford, and in 
1812 and for some time before and after that year. Dr. Fell, 
who commanded the Washington Greens, in the war of 1812, 
and died not long after of disease contracted in the camp ; and 
in the south end of the township, near Hamden, Dr. John F. 
Grandine resided and practiced, who died, as I learn from his 
tomb stone in the cemetery of the Presbyterian church, now 
known as the New Stone, in Union township, on the 21st 
July, 1811, aged 50 years, 10 months and 29 days. 

At Hunt's Mills was located Dr. Benjamin Hunt, who emi- 
grated to Ohio. In 1820-21-22, Dr. Henry B. Pool was 
practicing in that vicinity, and he with Dr. Belville of Tren- 
ton, and Dr. William Johnson of Whitehouse, were the first 
delegates of the District Medical Society of Hunterdon County 
to the Medical Society of New Jersey ; in 1822 he was its third 
vice president. 

About this time Dr. "William P. Clark resided and practiced 
in this neighborhood, he afterwards moved to Belvidere and 
died there. 

Prior to the time above stated, there had been located in the 
township of Bethlehem on its north border Jugtown, Dr. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 241 

Holmes who resided and practiced there for several years, I 
can find but little of his history, and on its south west 
corner, Pittstown, resided Dr. John fiochhill, he was born in 
Burlington County, New Jersey, 22d day of March, 1726, 
studied his profession with Dr. Thomas Cadwalader of Phila- 
delphia, moved to this place as soon as he acquired his profes- 
sion, where he practiced fifty years, he died 7th day of April, 
1798; his remains rest in the Friends' Burying Ground in 
Quakertown; he was descended from an English family in 
Lincolnshire, England. His practice was very extensive, be- 
ing confined only by the Blue Mountains on the north, the 
Delaware on the west and meeting the practitioners of Tren- 
ton, Somerville, &c., on the south and east 

He was succeeded by Dr. Wm. D. McKissack, in 1805 ; he 
moved to Millstone in 1807, where he practiced many years 
and died there. 

Dr. John Wall from Bucks County, Pennsylvania, succeeded 
him and practiced very successfully for several years, he died 
there and his remains were intered in the aforementioned cem- 
etery, where I find inscribed on his tomb stone, " In memory of 
Doctor John Wall, who departed this life September 12th, 
1826, Aged 39 years, 7 months and 22 daya" He was suc- 
ceeded by the aforementioned Dr. Ferguson. 

In the township of Alexandria there had resided and prac- 
ticed Dr. Campbell, he lived on a farm adjoining Everittstown 
where he died say 1808 or 1810. 

And near Millford Dr. McGill, he died there say 1818 and 
was succeeded by Dr. Harris, who in 1821 moved to Mount 
Pleasant, where he stayed about three years and moved to 
Sussex County, New Jersey, and died there. 

At Frenchtown in 1821, and for some years before and after- 
wards. Dr. Porter lived and practiced, ho died there. 

The Reverend John Hanna, pastor of the Presbyterian 
Churches of Kingwood and Bethlehem, was likewise a practic- 
al 



342 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

ing physician ; he lived and died in Alexandria on a farm 
nearly equal distance from Pittstown and Everittstown, I have 
heard him spoken of as a successful practitioner ; his remains 
were interred in the aforementioned cemetery ;' on the slab that 
covers his grave there is nothing said of his medical career. — 
It reads " Sacred to the memory of the Reverend John Hanna, 
who departed this life, Nov. 4th, 1801, aged 70 years, he was 
a faithful] minister of the Gospel forty years in Bethlehem and 
Kingwood. 

There were of course other practitioners here prior to those 
mentioned, but time has blotted out even the memory of their 
names. Their history would be interesting not only to the 
profession, but to many others, but it is gone ! 

Of the eight who were there in practice in 1828, Dr. Crawford 
moved to Mississippi and died there, and Dr. Henry Field suc- 
ceeded him and is still practicing in Clinton. Dr. Ferguson 
moved to Doylstown, Pennsylvania, where he practiced several 
years and died ; he was succeeded by Dr. H. H. Abernethy, 
who is now practicing in Warren County, he was succeeded by 
Dr. George Mawlsby, who left and went into the naval service 
where he is still. He was succeeded by Dr. Gagen who re 
moved to Philadelphia, and who afterwards went to the south- 
west and died there, and he was succeeded by Dr. Little Os- 
mun, he removed to Virginia and was succeeded by Drs. Mann 
and Henry Race, Dr. Mann staid a short time only ; Dr. Race 
is there still. 

Dr. McGloughen died on his farm near Spring Mills. 
day of September, 1836, 1 suppose he was over 75 years of 
age, his remains were intered in Stulls burying ground on the 
bank of the Delaware, between Freuchtown and Milford. 

Dr. Manners died the 24th day of June, 1853, in Clinton, in 
his 67th year, his remains were taken to Trenton and interred 
in the city cemetery, where a handsome monument inscribed 
with all his titles is erected over him ; he was succeeded by 
Dr. Sylvester Van Syckel, still practicing there. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIKa 248 

Dr. Hughs died at Bloomsburg the 2d day of April, 1856, 
in the 63d year of his age, his remains were deposited in the 
cemetery of the Greenwich Church, Warren County, where a 
handsome monument is erected to his memory. For a short 
biographical notice of him see page 413 of 9th volume of the 
Medical and Surgical reporter. 

He was succeeded by Dr. Stewart, whose residence and office 
is in Bloomsbury, on the Warren County side of the Muscon- 
etcong. 

Dr.Holcomb died at his residence in Everittstown the 7th day 
of April, 1858, in the 61st year of his age. He was a gradu- 
ate of the college of New Jersey, of the class of 1818, and of 
the Medical Department ,of the University of Pennsylvania, 
class of 1821, he was an honorary member of the Medical So- 
ciety of Philadelphia, and had practice nearly 87 years in that 
vicinity ; he studied his profession in the office of Dr. George 
Holcombe in Allentown, New Jersey. The remains of Dr. 
Holcombe were interred in the cemetery of the Presbyterian 
Church at Mount Pleasant, where a handsome monument 
marks his resting place. 

He was succeeded in 1858 by Dr. N. B. Boileau, who is still 
thera 

My friend Dr. Hunt, now in his 70th year, and myself, in 
my 64th year, are all that remain of that number ; " relicts 
of ourselves." 

Since 1828 new locations have attracted the attention of the 
profession, and old locations have increased their help ; thus 
Perryville to which I moved in 1831, and where I had as a 
partner in the profession Dr. Lewis Randolph Needham, from 
1835, when he was licensed by the Medical Society of New 
Jersey after his examination at Morristown, until late in the 
year 1841 when he died ; his remains rest in the before men- 
tioned cemetery where a stone bearing this inscription marks 
the place " In memory of Doctor Lewis R Needham, who 



244 MBDlOAti SOCIETY OF KEW JBJRSfit. 

died Nov. 12tli, 1841, aged 35 years and 4 months." He was 
a native of East Haddam, Connecticut. 

This cemetery contains likewise, the remains of one eminent 
in the profession, a resident of Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 
who when the yellow fever broke out in Philadelphia, hastened 
to the scene, to lend his aid in arresting its destructive course, 
where he contracted the disease, and having full faith in the 
hygienic influence of our hilly country, was hastened to 
Schooley^s Mountain Springs attended by his wife and a faith- 
ful domestic, when death overtook him near this place, he died 
in his carriage and was buried here ; the inscription on the 
stone marking the spot is " Sacred to the memory of Dr. Jon- 
athan Ingham, who fell a victim to the yellow fever on the 1st 
day of October, 1793, aged 49 years. 

Soon as Man expert from time has found, 
The key of life it opes the gates of death." 

Perryville has now two other physicians, namely. Dr. Joseph 
Bird and Dr. Levi Farrow. 

New Hampton, where Dr. Eastbum from New Brunswick 
was located for a short time, and Dr. Allen Wilson from Tren- 
ton for a short time. They were succeeded by Dr. Robert M. 
McLenahan, he died there and was buried in the Cemetery of 
the Baptist Church in Union township ; the inscription on his 
monument reads, ** R M. McLenahan, M.D., died April 28th, 
1864, aged 46 years, 6 months and 9 days." 

He is succeeded by Dr. Howard Servis still there. 

Mount Pleasant, where have been Dr. Junkin, who moved 
to Pennsylvania, and was succeeded by Dr. Field, who now re- 
sides on Long Island, he was succeeded by Dr. Winters, who 
removed home to his parents in Warren County and died 
shortly afterwards, and was succeeded for several years by Dr. 
Thomas M. Bartolette, who is now in Milford. 

Clarksville has another practitioner, Dr. T. E. Hunt 

Hampden has again a practitioner, Dr. John Grandine, 
grandson of the beforementioned Dr. John F. Grandine. 



Reports of district societies. 245 

la Frenchtown Dr. Merrick practiced in 1831, he moved 
away shortly after and was succeeded by Dr. Wm. Taylor, who 
left and located in Milford on the decease of Dr. Hedgea Dr. 
Taylor was succeeded by Dr. John Purcell, and he by Dr. 
Huff, who moved to Bahway, Middlesex County, N. J., and he 
was succeeded by Dr. Purcell again, who is still there ; and at 
the same time Dr. Eosenberger located there, he moved to 
Philadelphia, in 1856 and is still there, he was succeeded by 
Dr. Wm. Eice, who is now practicing there. 

In Milford Dr. Hedges practiced several years, when he died 
(say 1837,) he was succeeded by Dr. Wm. Taylor and Dr. 
Mann. Dr. Mann staid but a short time, and went to Pitts- 
town ; Dr. Taylor staid longer, and went with Dr. Moore to 
Schooley's Mountain Springs, where they built a large health 
establishment, from there he went to California, and is now in 
Philadelphia ; Dr. Taylor was succeeded by Dr. Charles Bart- 
olette, who is now practicing there. 

In Clinton, Dr. Moore practiced for some time and left for 
Schooley's Mountain Springs, where in Company with Dr. 
Taylor, as I before said, they erected a large building for a 
health establishment, from there he went to Texas. 

In Little York, Dr. Mann located, he removed to Milford on 
the decease of Dr. Hedges, and thence to Pittstown, thence to 
Philadelphia, and when last heard from was in Minnesota, he 
was succeeded by Dr. Eoseberry, he went west I think to 
Iowa, Dr. Moses D. Knight is the practitioner there now. 

In Lebanon, Dr. J. Blackfan located and is now practicing 
there ; Dr. Barclay likewise located there and died there. 

There may have been others who staid for short periods but 
the foregoing contains the history ^of most of them at least, 
and who have been located any length of time among ua 

Thus on the ground where 37 years ago we had eight prac- 
ticing Physicians, we have now 18, and have had part of the 
time 40 others to participate with us in the practice, six of whom 
are dead as already related, besides six of the original corps of 
1828. 



246 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

Of these 18, Drs. K B. Boileau, C. Bartolette, M. D. 
Knight, Levi Farrow, and John Blane, are members of 
the District Medical Society of the County of Hunterdon. 

And Drs. Henry Field, Sylvester Van Syckel, Henry Race, 
Howard Servis, John Blackfan, I. C. Stewart, William Rice, 
John Purcell, T. M. Bartolette, T. E. Hunt, John Grandine, 
Joseph Bird and W. A. Hunts are not members of said So- 
ciety. 

Perryville, December 20th, 1865. 



Dr. G. a. Larison's Communication. 

The past year has been marked by a variety of diseasea 
Small-pox, which has been prevalent for the past fourteen 
months, disappeared early in April last; there being in all 
about 170 cases, 99 of which came under my treatment, with 
4 deaths. 43 were genuine small-pox, 22 confluent, 3 malig- 
nant and the remaining 31 were modified or varioloid. 

Scarlatina which had prevailed for the past nine months, not 
altogether as an epidemic, disappeared in March last, having 
treated over fifty cases in all its forms, with but one death, an 
adult. The most effective treatment was ipecac, chlorate of 
potassa with saline laxatives and the sequelae by Tr Ferri 
Chlord. in full cases, with calomel and gamboge when re- 
quired. 

A few cases of cerebro spinal miningitis were treated in Jan- 
uary and February with the usual symptoms and results. 

Pneumonia which has been prevalent for more than two 
yeara, has since last March quite subsided. 

Fevers of a periodic type commenced with the summer 
months and became more grave till the present, being confined 
more particularly to a locality south of the town, equally on low 
and elevated grounds. In June, July and August the remit- 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 247 

tent form predominated, the lesion being in the liver, Hydg ; 
Chlord. Mit. ; in small repeated doses with Quin. Sulph with 
moderation would promote convalescence in two or three weeks. 
In many cases jaundice seemed to be a common sequela when 
calomel was most effective in large and repeated doses. In all 
cases without exception the supporting treatment was not to be 
omitted. In the same locality from early in September to the 
present there have been many cases of enteric fever of the graver 
type, some effecting the glands of Peyer and Brunner to a 
marked degree, accompanied by a dry tongue and much delir- 
ium. Mercurials in the outset were required ; ol. Terebinth 
and Argt. Nit, Quinia, beef tea, brandy, &c., were the princi- 
pal remedies in their turn. 

I have found in all my practice since the early summer 
months, more of a tendency to torpidity of the liver, other 
glands in sympathy partly partaking the same nature, leaving 
the system more or less tainted with blood poisoning, which was 
in the beginning of every case to be well diagnosed, and ac- 
cordingly treated. 

Dysentery appeared in isolated cases throughout the bounds 
of my practice during August and September, mostly adults. 
All did well on the ordinary treatment after the action of 
mercurials, which seemed to be indispensible at the outset of 
the attack. During the same months I was called to see a few 
cases of dysentery about eight miles east of this place, in the 
vicinity of New Market, where it raged to an alarming extent, 
exempting scarcely a family in a district of four square 
miles, through which ran a small stream of water with a mill 
pond about midway. I regarded the disease as originating 
from malaria which had been made rife by a rain that fell here 
in July, being the greatest fall of water ever in that locality 
on record. I learned that most of the cases were bad and 
many died. 

Through the past year I have been called to witness 
the effects of the abuse of morphine and opium eating. I was 



248 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

called to see the wife of a mechanic who had recently removed 
to this place. On entering the chamber I found her in the 
first stages of labor, perfectly under the influence of this drug, 
in which condition she died in less than an hour without relief 
or delivery. On inquiry, I learned that she had been an 
opium eater for yeara, and was constantly giving it to her 
two children, whose respective ages were five and seven 
years. I was handed the package of the drug as pre- 
pared for the children and found it the opium of the shops, 
and by weight in pills of 11 grains each, which was given night 
and morning to each child. Early in April last I was called 
to see a female who had then just removed to this place from 
an adjoining town, her age being 50 years, had the appearance 
of one at 70. On investigation I found she had been using 
immense quantities of sulphate of Morphia and her need of a 
physician as the family supposed was that in this advanced 
stage of poisoning, she was not able to regulate the quantity 
in order to bring the system under its influence, so as to pro- 
duce the desired effect. I found that in her case it would be fatal 
either to add or diminish the quantities, and left the case as I 
found it, except noting the quantity she took and the end of 
life, which terminated in 7 months afterwards, talcing regularly 
one drachm every eight days. 
LambertvillEj Dec. 21st, 1865. 



Communication by Sam'l Lilly. 

On the 13th day of April, H. , a lad of 17 years 

was caught in the machinery of a flax factory. He received a 
severe scalp wound, the thumb of the left hand was torn from 
its socket, and the right arm fractured and torn in a most hor- 
rible manner near the insertion of the deltoid muscle ; the up- 
per fragment of the bone was entirely denuded for two to 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 249 

three inches. The integuments and muscles were torn into 
shreds, presenting a most unpromising case for the formation of 
a stump. The hemorrhage which was not very great was readi- 
ly controlled by pressure on the subsclavian artery. The pa- 
tient having been put under the anaesthetic influence of chlor- 
oform and ether, I proceeded to operate. Cutting through 
the OS humeri about one and a half inches below the head, the 
muscles and integuments were trimmed up and a very pretty 
stump formed, which healed without any untoward symptoms 
in about four weeks. The metacarpal bone of the left thumb 
was amputated and dressed, the scalp wound properly stitched 
with silver wire, and the patient recovered rapidly. 

The most nteresting point in this case was the selection of 
a point for amputation of the arm. At the first examination 
it was thought best to remove the head of the humerus, but. 
upon reflection and a close examination of the upper frag- 
ments it was found that a portion of it had not been denuded of 
its periosteum, it was therefore decided to save as much of the 
bone as possible, and thus preserve the rotundity of the shoul- 
der. The result of the case proved the soundness of the de- 
cision. I must not omit to state ftiat I was ably a.ssisted in 
the operations, after dressing and treatment, by Drs. G. H. 
Larison, I. H. Studdiford and T. Fill, all of whom I found in 
attendance when I was first called to the case. 

Another case illustrating the recuperative powers of nature 
occurred on the 22d day of April. J. B n, a laborer em- 
ployed in the wood yard of the Belvidere Railroad Company 
at this place, was caught by the circular saw used for cutttng 
wood. The lower ends of the metacarpal bones, and the heads 
of the first phalanges of the two middle fingers of the left hand 
were fractured and comminuted, a portion of each being car. 
ried away ; the integuments, muscles, tendons, and ligaments, 
were torn through, the whole presenting a ragged ghastly 
wound. The first question presented was whether the hand 
could be saved, as from the character of the injury tetanus 
82 



250 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

was greatly to be feared. I decided to give the case a trial— 
the lacerated ends of the tendons and ligaments were trimmed 
off, the roughened and fractured fragments of the bones were 
smoothed with the bone nippers, and the hand and arm placed 
on a proper splint, cold water dressings were applied. Close at- 
tention to the case was rewarded with a cure by which the 
motion of the two last phalanges of the injured fingers is pre- 
served and the whole hand made useful. 

You will remember that I called the attention of our dis- 
trict Medical Society to the treatment of dysentery as prac- 
ticed in India. 

As this has never been published I hope a repetition at 
this time will not be deemed inappropriate, or unacceptable to 
the State Society. In order to illustrate the treatment I will 
detail the particulars of my own case. 

In the month ol February, 1862, 1 resided in Calcutta. In 
company with some friends I took a trip to Monghyr, about 
300 miles by rail and about 1200 miles by the river Ganges 
from Calcutta. My health previously had been very good. — 
While at Monghyr without any premonitions, I was attacked 
with profuse bilious diarrh Aa, accompanied by severe pains, and 
I took anodynes in the form of morphine solut. pulv. dov., Ac, 
which aflforded temporary relie£ Returning to Calcutta the 
disease increased and soon degenerated into a profuse dysen- 
tery, the discharges from the bowels were frequent, very free, 
composed of bloody mucus and attended with severe tenes- 
mus and pain. I took calomel and dover powders followed 
by 01. Ricin., with some relief, but the disease continued and my 
strength failed very fast. I then called in Dr. Archer, an em- 
inent physician and^surgeon, who immediately prescribed pulv, 
Ipecac in 20 grain doses repeated once in four hours. I took 
four doses and had no more dysentery. No nausea followed 
the administration of the medicine, but profuse billions 
discharges from the bowels were produced, in other words the 
Ipecac acted as a free chologogue cathartic. A mild tonic 



REFOBTS OF DISTRICT SOCIBTIB& 251 

treatment soon restored me to my nsnal health. I was inform- 
ed by Dr. Archer and other India physicians that small doses 
of the medicine were worse than useless in such cases. They 
had tried it in 1 to 6 grain doses, but nausea and other un- 
pleasant symptoms with no abatement of the dysentery fol- 
lowed, and it was only on the exhibition of 20 or 30 grain 
doses that its usefulness was apparent I made up my mind 
if called to a case of dysentery I would try this treatment — 
I hope this statement will induce my professional brethren to 
give it a trial and report the result. 
Lambkrtville, Dec. 11, 1865. 

Cases by J. H. Studdiford. M.D. 
Paralysis of the PneuTnogastric Nerve. 

On the 9th day of April, I was called to see Mr. , a 

man about 40 years of age ; of a nervous temperament Found 
him laboring under a light attack of bilious remittent fever, so 
light indeed, as only to confine him to his bed during the 
febrile exacerbation. It readily yielded to treatment and, in 
about ten days, the patient was able to leave his room. 

Being of a restless disposition and the cares of an extensive 
business weighing heavily upon him, he was led to exert him- 
self beyond his strength. In the course of two or three days 
after leaving his room, he drove in a sulky six miles into the 
country and returned the same afternoon. On the next mom 
ing, the 24th, I was again sent for, and found his upper ex- 
tremities completely paralyzed. I immediately prescribed for 
him nux vomica and iron and applied magneto electricity. — 
In the course of two days more, I found the paralysis creeping 
over his lower limbs; and the man was soon perfectly helpless. 
On the 28th he complained of some difficulty in deglutition, 
which he attributed to an elongated uvula. After examining 
his throat, I assured him that there was nothing visible that 
would account for the difficulty, and expressed my belief that 



252 MEDICAL SO0IET7 OF NEW JEBSSY. 

it was owing to a slightly paralyzed condition of the muscles 
of the pharynx. The dysphagia rapidly increased and in the 
course of two or three days, he was utterly unable to swallow 
anything, either solid or liquid. A hypodermic syringe not 
being accessible, the back of the head was shaven from the 
occipital protuberance downward; a blister applied and strych- 
nia sprinkled upon the raw surface. At the same time a sup- 
|X)sitory of nux vomica was introduced into the rectum three 
times a day and injections of beef tea soup and milk punch 
freely used. The patient rinsed his mouth frequently with 
cold water, which process he fancied, tended somewhat to 
relieve his thirst On May 4th, encouraging signs of the re- 
turn of sensibility and the power of motion to the muscles of 
the aims began to be manifested. On the 5th he could move 
his feet a little, and on the 6th-i-eight days from the time the 
difficulty of deglutition made its appearance — ^he was able to 
swallow, although with considerable difficulty. On the 7th I 
found he could swallow with comparative ease ; the palsied 
limbs seemed rapidly recovering their lost power, and we con- 
sidered the patient out of danger. Saw liim again in the eve- 
ning but found him much worse and in an alarming condition. 
I ascertained from his attendants that he had insisted at noon 
upon getting out of bed, and that he had sat up about three 
hours. I found. his arms again completely paralyzed, but deg- 
lutition quite as easy as when I left liim in the morning. 
Respiration, however, was considerably impeded and the signs 
of pulmonary congestion and deficient arterialization of the 
blood were beginning to manifest themselvas. 

It now became painfully evident that the laryngeal and 
pulmonary branches of the pneumogastrics were becoming 
affi)ctcd and that ,tlie patient would probably die. The 
blister was irritated and strychnia and stimulants admin- 
istered internally, but without eSect Respiration became 
gi'adually more embarrassed ; the lungs more engorged with 
blood, the bronchial tubes filled up with mucus ; the face as- 



BEPORTS OF DISTRICT SQCIETISa 253 

sumed a dusky aspect and at 8 o'clock the next afternoon the 
patient died. 

The sudden termination of the case was attributed by the 
patient's friends to his persistency in sitting up so long on the 
previous day. How much this contributed to the result, I am 
unable to say. My impression is that it would have been the 
same, had he remained quiet 

The pharyngeal branches of the pneumogastric were first in- 
volved and the patient became imable to swallow. In about 
a week they recovered their tone and the paralysis then crept 
down to the larjnageal and pulmonary branches, and before 
any plan of treatment had time to take effect, life became ex- 
tinct The cardiac branches were not affected ; the sounds 
of the heart were normal and the pulse regular until the last 

Experiments performed by cutting the laryngeal and pul- 
monary branches of the pneumogastric of animals, have 
demonstrated that the mode of death is precisely similar to 
that which occurred in the present instance. 

dancer of tJie Stomach vnth Ascites, 

On Sept 16th, I was called to visit E W , aged 

about 45 years; occupation, shoemaker; just returned from a 
service of one year in the army. I found him suffering in- 
tense pain, apparently of a neuralgic character, in the right 
hypochondriac region, extending to the umbilicus and up the 
right Hide of the chest Upon inquiry, I ascertained that 
while absent with his regiment, he suffered for a long while 
from chronic diarrhoea, and that although the bowel affection 
had for some time been entirely relieved, yet the pain in the 
side and abdomen had never entirely ceased. 

It was soon alleviated at the present time by morphine, and, 
as the patient was in a feeble anemic condition, I prescribed 
for him a preparation of iron. In a few days he was able to 
attend a little to his occupation and I discontinued my visits. 

In about three weeks I was again sent for; found the same 



254 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

severe pain in the region of the liver, and the abdomen consid- 
erably swollen from serous eflfusion. Having been, until the 
last two years, a man of very intemperate habits, the case was 
supposed to be one of ascites from organic disease of the liver. 
Accordingly a blister was placed over the affected organ and 
the ordinary diuretic pill of calomel, squill and digitalis ad- 
ministered three times a day, together with solution of bitar- 
trate of Potassa freely as a drink 

The patient's appetite was good and his stomach able' to re- 
tain food. The pain soon became greatly relieved and the ab- 
dominal distension somewhat reduced. In about ten days 
considerable irritability of stomach began to be manifested. 
This I considered at first, merely the ordinary dyspectic trouble 
that frequently follows the administration of the above men- 
tioned remedies, and they were accordingly abandoned. But 
it soon increased to such an extent that everything in the 
shape of medicine and food was rejected. All efforts to re- 
lieve it proved of no avail. The abdominal enlargement be- 
came greater; the stomach could retain nothing but ice; the 
patient rapidly emaciated, and in about two weeks died from 
exhaustion. The vomiting was attended with no pains; all 
his distress was referred to the lower part of the bowels. 

I made an autopsy sixteen hours after deatL Previous to 
opening the cavity of the abdomen, a puncture was made in 
the side and the fluid, amounting to about five gallons, drawn 
off. Examination revealed the peritoneal coating of the 
bowels in a high state of conjestion ; a profuse fibrinous exu- 
dation existed upon its surface, forming in some places a false 
membrane more or less organized, which glued together the 
convolutions. The liver was normal or very nearly sa The 
root of the evil however, was found in the stomacL A hard 
scirrhous mass about the size of an egg, occupied the lesser 
curvature near the pylorus, but not involving that orifice. The 
organ was much contracted; its muscular and cellular coats 
being converted into an indurated semi-cartilaginous mass ; its 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 255 

mucous membrane softened and almost in a state of gangrene ; 
while along the greater curvature, the shrivelled omentum 
formed a dense cord an inch and a half in thickness and of a 
well marked scirrhous texture. The result of the examination 
was of course an unexpected one. Owing to the entire absence 
until shortly before death, of any of the diagnostic signs of 
cancer of the stomach, the real nature of the disease was not 
suspected. Upon making inquiries of the family, I ascertain- 
ed the patient had, for two or three years, been subject to oc- 
casional attacks of^indigestion. They were light however, and 
looked upon as merely a functional disorder. Why the dis- 
ease remained latent so long is certainly a mystery difficult to 
penetrate. 

Case by Dr. Glenn. 

In December last Mr. Leonard K Higgins, of Lambertville, 
a married man about 45 years of age, and of temperate habits, 
became the subject of a railroad accident He was employed 
as brakeman to the passenger train on the Flemington road. 

As the morning train was leaving the depot he attempted to 
step from the car to the platform of the depot, but his foot 
slipped and he fell between them, a space of eight inches in- 
tervening in which ha revolved, passing from the front to the 
rear of car. 

When first seen, he complained of little pain, pulse 120. 
On examination there was found to be considerable discolor- 
•ation of the skin over the left hip, and in the iliac and part of 
the lumbar regions. It was ascertained by manipulation, dur- 
ing which he complained of much pain, that no fracture of the 
femur existed. Pressure over the pubis was not very painful, 
and there did not appear to be any indication of a fracture of 
that bone. 

The feces had been expelled from the rectum, by the pres- 
sure to which he had been subjected. My impression was that 



256 MEDICAL 800IKTY OF NEW JERSEY. 

a fracture of the pelvis existed which eluded discovery, prob- 
ably of the al» ilii 

Patient complained of a desire to pass his urine, with inabil- 
ity to do so. The catheter was introduced, but no urine fol- 
lowing, it was withdrawn and the eye found to be obstructed 
with a clot of blood. It was again introduced, and about 
three or four ounces of very bloody urine drawn off A dif- 
ficulty was experienced in depressing the free end of the cath- 
eter after its introduction, it being impossible to bring the 
straight part of it parallel with the bed. Owing to this, all the 
fluid could not be collected, a considerable quantity flowing 
down the side of the instrument Three compound cathartic 
pills were directed, to be followed by a table spoonful of liquor 
ammonias acetatis every three hours. 

Called again at 7 P. M., patient much the same. Bowels 
had not been moved, catheter introduced, relieving him of 
about half a teacup-full of bloody urina 

Dec. 80th. Sent for this morning at 5 o'clock, patient re- 
ported to be suffering extreme pain from inability to evacuate 
his bladder. When I arrived found him much easier than I 
had expected. Used the catheter^ urine less bloody but small 
in quantity, expressed himself as much relieved. 3 P. M., 
pulse 120, skin cool, no perceptible febrile action, very little 
pain, partial paralysis of left limb, catheter introduced, nothing 
but blood and serum. Rested through the night 31st, pulse 
the same, small and feeble, paralysis of the bladder, catheter 
used. P. M., bowels moved by injection, natural color, urine 
grumous blood, scarcely any secretion, pulse almost imprecep- 
tible. Jan; Ist, pulse failing, stimulanta 11 A. M., reacted. 
1 P. M., pulse 120, small. 9 P. M., pulse 110, more volume, 
greatly improved. Monday, 2d, pulse 110, excessive tympan- 
itis, vomiting. 9 P. M., same as in the morning, bowels dis- 
charging blood. 8d, great jactation, pulse 120, small. Bowels 
moved during the night natural, tympanitis les& 11 A. M., 
the same. 9 P. M. same but rather more quiet. 4th, stupor, 



REPOBTS OF DISTBICr 80GIJETIS& 257 

pulse 128, same daring the day. 5th, died at 1 A. M. On the 
seventh, Dr. Gray and myself held an autopsy. A large quan- 
tity of bloody serum was found in the peritoneal cavity. The 
convolutions of the intestines were adherent in a number of 
places by partially organized clots of blood. The left kidney 
presented a fissure which must have been the result of the 
accident The fundus of the bladder was found to have been 
ruptured, permitting of the introduction of the four fingers. 
The horizontal ramus of the pubis on either side, presented a 
fracture. From the ramus of the right side a fragment of 
bone about the size of a hazel nut was detached. 

The peritoneum presented no injection. Here we have an 
accident looked upon as one of the gravest character, in which 
the most acrid secretion of the body is brought in contact 
with the delicate peritoneal membrane, in which slight irritants 
very frequently give rise to an extensive inflammation. And in 
cases of this kind speedy death usually results from the inteiise 
irritation and inflammation set up by it Yet in the present in- 
stance no peritonitis occurred, although the patient survived 
the accident seven days. Erichsen mentions a case of this 
kind where the patient survived ten daya 

Cases of this kind are usually the result of external violence, 
and are especially liable to occur when the organ is distended, 
at which time slight degrees of accidental violence, as running 
against a post or falling from a bed, may occasion its rupture. 

The gravity of the case depends in a great measure upon 
the part which has given away or been wounded ; if a portion 
' invested with peritoneum, the urine escapes into the abdomin- 
al cavity, producing the most disastrous result If it be a por- 
tion not covered by peritoneum, the urine will infiltrate into 
the cellular tissue between this and the abdominal wall and 
diflftising itself widely, produce destructive sloughing under 
which the patient commonly sinks. Still we must not consider 
all these cases as necessarily fatal, as many of the latter variety 
have recovered, especially from gun-shot wounds. Mr. Stanley i 
33 



258 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

an English surgeon, mentions a remarkable case in which the 
ureter was ruptured by external violence, and in which the 
patient recovered, a veiy large accumulation ct fluid forming 
on the injured side of the abdomen with considerable circum- 
scribed tumefaction and fluctuation, and which required repeat- 
ed tapping. 

In another case in which the pelvis of the kidney was rup- 
tured, a similar collection of urine took place within the abdo- 
men, requiring tapping, as much as six pints being removed at 
one sitting. On examination after death, which occurred the 
tenth week from the accident, a large cyst was found behind 
the peritoneum communicating with the pelvis of the kidney. 

A very interesting case in point is mentioned in Brathwait's 
Eetrospect, Part xiv. Page 235. 



MEEOEE COUNTY. 

Chairman of the Standing Oommittee : 

The records of the Standing Committee of the New Jersey 
Medical Society, I bdieve will show that the District Medical 
Society for the County of Mercer has not been heard from 
through a District Reporter for several years. The feet is that 
the Society has been for a long time in a low and feeble condi- 
tion, holding its meetings irregularly, and the members mani- 
festing but little interest in them. I am pleased to be able to 
I'eport that things have changed with us ; that meetings are 
now held regularly, and that the members manifest somewhat 
more interest in them than formerly. The Society has been in 
a measure reconstructed, and still claims a recognition of its ex- 
istence from the State Society. It has not been dead, only 
sleeping. The cause of the past neglect of its members would 
be difficult to account for ; but two of them were absent dur- 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 259 

ing the war, and they not the most prominent ones. The 
membership of the Society is limited almost entirely to practi- 
tioners who reside in Trenton, but three physicians who reside 
in other portions of the county having any lot or part with us. 
Your Committee will therefore see that I can report for the Dis- 
trict only in a very general way. Physicians who manifest so 
little interest in the local medical organization, your Committee 
can readily conclude, can with great difficulty be induced to 
take any interest in a Medical Eeport from their District to the 
State Society. 

Even the members of the District Society fail to take any 
interest in, or cooperate with their reporter in the discharge of 
his duties They seem religiously to ignore any claims he 
may make upon them for assistance in procuring data. When 
they look over the transactions and see the meagreness of his 
report, it will not serve to recall them to a sense of their own 
dereliction, but perchance awaken only a feeling of sympathy 
for his incompetence. 

I am able to report the last year has been one of more than 
usual good health within the limits of this district The ordi- 
nary diseases of the season have prevailed, but they have been 
marked by their usual characteristics. During the winter and 
spring we had scarlet fever, measles, whooping cough, and 
catarrhal affections. I neither met with or have seen others 
who met with anything unusual in the cases. The spring 
months were healthy. During the later summer and autumn 
months we were visited by intermittents as aforetime. They 
are quite prevalent about Trenton, but do not prevail to any 
extent in other portions of the County. The city of Trenton 
is peculiarly situated with reference to water courses. The 
Assanpink Creek runs near the north-eastern border of the 
city, and finally through the centre of it, from east to west, 
until it empties into the Delaware river. Through the eastern 
part of the city also runs the Delaware & Earitan Canal, and 
through the northern part the feeder of the latter. Along the 



260 MSDICAIi SOOIETT OF NEW JBBSET. 

water limits runs the Trenton water power, which, when it 
has reached a point opposite the city, diverges and runs through 
the middle of the southern half of it The Delaware river 
skirts the western and southwestern bordera Here the river is 
broad and shallow, mach of its shore which is low and flat is 
subject to overflow, and here at ordinarily dry times, are many 
stagnant pools. The Assanpink Creek is dammed for mill pur. 
poses near the centre of the city and back-waters for a long 
distance up the stream. A part of its banks are quite low and 
marshy, subject to frequent overflows, and during the dry 
seasons there are along it many marshy pools. . Thence can be 
discovered the origin of the intermittents which afiect us. 

During the summer we have no more than the usual propor- 
tion of gastro-intestinal affections which ordinarily prevail at 
that season. They are manageable, yielding to the treatment 
usually adopted in such cases. 

During the autumn remittent fever and a few cases of 
enteric or typhoid fever occurred through the district In a 
portion of Hamilton township, adjoining the southeastern part 
of the city of Trenton, an unusual number of cases of the lat- 
ter disease occurred. In this locality it affected whole fEtmilies, 
in some instances, not a single member escaping an attack of 
the disease. I visited on one occasion in consultation with mj 
friend. Dr. C. Shepperd, five members of a family ill with the 
disease at the same time, one member of it having died the day 
previous , and but one, the husband and &ther remaining un- 
affected. The disease was as amenable to treatment as usual* 
I have nothing particular to note in the treatment, quinine 
and stimulants were fireely given. The disease was confined 
chiefly to the locality mentioned, which is less than half a mile 
square, and not very thickly settled, being a suburb of Tren 
ton. The origin of the disease is obscure. The ground of the 
locality is considerably elevated above any water course and 
quite level. It was formerly known in sporting days as the 



BXPOBTB OF msTRicrr sooiETisa 261 

Trenton Bacing Course. The soil is a fine sandy loam and 
without a hard subsoil No diseased or decaying vegetable 
matter was known to exist in the vicinity. Tlie disease was 
not conveyed from that locality into the city. The U. & Draft 
Bendezvous for the Stfite of New Jersey was located in the 
immediate neighborhood, but nothing was known to exist 
about it to account for the occurrence of the diseasa The 
rendezvous was under the medical care of your reporter, who 
can answer for its hygienic condition ; but one case of enteric 
fever occurred among the garrison of the post 

In the department of surgery your reporter has but little of 
interest to note. An interesting case of Fistula in Ano occur- 
ring in a child four years of age, having existed for three 
years, occurring in his practice, and was cured by operation* 
Also a case of rupture of the Perineum, from the improper 
and unskillful use of the obstetric forceps. The patient 
was operated on by the Physician, who accomplished the 
delivery but without success, the latter operation having been 
as unakillfully performed as the former. The same practitioner 
had two similar eases occurring about the same time. The 
deduction we would make is, that the forceps are safe only in 
safC) that is, educated hands. 

Wm. W. L. Phillips, 
Beporiar of Mercer Oounty Medical Society. 



MIDDLESEX COUNTY. 

Chairman of the Standing Committee^ Ac. : 

I regret that I am not able to furnish you any report upon 
any medical matters of interest, as I have received no com- 
munication upon the same, from any member of the profession 
in the county, except the following from Dr. K M. Hunt, of 
Metuchen, which is herewith transmitted 

A. Treganowan, Reporter. 



262 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSET. 

I)iL Hunt's Communication. 

The portion of Middlesex County, included in the townships 
of Perth Amboy, Woodbridge and Piscataway, is bounded 
south and west by the Earitan river, on the east by portions 
of Union County, having the general hygienic influence of 
the vicinity of Eahway, and on the north by the hill or moun- 
tain range running from Orange Mountain to a point in Som- 
erset County, where it spreads into a table land and is succeed- 
ded by another adjacent ranga Taking this surfiswe as a 
whole, its position makes it eminently favorable to natural 
drainage, and where the subsoil requires it, it is generally not 
difficult to secure sufficient fall for under drainaga The na- 
ture of the soil and subsoil is quite different in different local- 
ities. The parts of Perth Amboy and Woodbridge townships 
bordering upon the river, are of a sandy character, interspers- 
ed with a clay most valuable for furnaces, and with a kind of 
sand largely used for manufacturing purposes. The prevailing 
soil of the remainder of the township is a sandy loam, some- 
times intermixed with clay. Piscataway township^'is mostly 
made up, soil and subsoil, of red shale ; with the exception of 
Perth Amboy the population is largely agricultural The dis- 
trict is crossed by streams, generally leaving but little land up- 
on their borders capable of retaining stagnant water, and the 
enterprise of the farmers has underdrained much of such por- 
tions as seemed to require it It is not therefore, astonishing 
that with all these favoring influences it should be so healthy 
a portion of the County and the State. During a medical 
residence of fifteen years in this section, the only prevailing 
type of disease at all prevalent has been the miasmatic. This 
has been only occasionally, but enough to elucidate the great 
fact that the perfect system of drainage has much to do with 
health, and to show that even this aU-pervading extent of dis- 
eased action is dependent upon local causes. The removal of 
mill dams also near Eahway has favorably affected the eastern 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIEa 263 

portion, which was most subject to these forms of fevers, 
while the tilling of the land and drying up of stagnant water 
in other localities has resulted in marked benefit During the 
last season there was some recurrence to a tendency to the old 
form of bilious remittent fever, but it is now so &shionable to 
call every thing typhoid that in the hands of some practi- 
tioners, they were passed oflf as such. Two cases have illustrat- 
ed to mejhow important it is to distinguish between mere 
stinking water and stagnant water with decaying vegetation, 
as causes of miasmatic disease. T know a family who lived 
for years near a miserable looking pond covered with large 
leaves and many kinds of water plants, and always wondered 
that they kept so well, but examination showed it to be fed by 
springs from beneath, while the very growth seemed to absorb 
these gasses, which would otherwise have been obnoxioua 

In another case of large excavations made in this section, 
which became filled with water, and on the edges of which 
many Irish families had located, I had prophesied much in- 
termittent sickness, but was disappointed to find them enjoying 
usual health. There was no vegetation to decay and the sand 
itself seemed to exert a purifying agency upon the water. 

As to the types and modes of treatment of diseases I think 
we have but little new to oflfer. Much of interest might be 
said as to special cases, but those of the regular practice seem 
quite well agreed as to the general methods of treatment, and 
while I trust we are progressive we are not excedingly ex- 
perimental. A rural district is unfavorable to novel treat- 
ment, unless ignorance prevails, and hence we have to con- 
tent ourselves with reliance upon well established fiicts and 
grand marble-block principles, such as are well sustained by 
the experience of our medical fathers. 

As to the status of the regular profession, I think that it 
can in general be said to be in favor of orthodox practice. It 
is not unusual for some pretender to settle for a time and by 



264 MEDICAL SOCIETT OT NSW JBBSKT. 

tact and boasting secure some patronage, but these generally 
vanish after a due period. It is unfortanate that now and then 
a regular practitioner of good standing, in order to secure the 
passing favor of a few consultations, lends apparent encourage- 
ment to such, especially if they once had a regular diploma, 
but our practitioners in generfil judge of the gentleman phys- 
ician not so much by his past history as his present course, and 
so each in due time find their appropriate leveL So long as 
the people are ignorant of the merits of our science and art, as 
from necessity they must be to some extent, so long will some 
be misled and deceived, but where there is «self respect in the 
profession, and its members treat each other with that profes- 
sional courtesy due to themselves, to their profession and to 
the general principles of gentlemanly bearing, it aids much 
in securing for our calling, tiie esteem to which it is entitied. 
I can only add that the method at present pursued by our 
Standing Committee of eliciting definite facts as to local causes 
of disease and their endeavors to interest the profession of the 
State in all that relates to the Hygiene and sanitary condition 
of the people, as well as in matters of scientific research having 
reference to special disease, is doing much to benefit us all as 
citizens as well as physicians. 



MONMOUTH COUNTY. 

Chairman of the finding Chmmiliee, <tc : 

The climate of Monmouth is eminently salubrious, and in 
fact the country is almost entirely free from climatic diseases. 
A large portion borders on the ocean and Earitan Bay ; the 
southern abounds mainly in pine lands. 

There are no rivers or large streams running through the 
interior, and no swamps nor marshy lands to cause miasmatic 
diseases, and as a general rule, it may be claimed as exempt 
from attacks- of severe diseases of any kind. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOOIfiSTIBS. 265 

Trtie liace of the country is principally level and fertile. 

The population is about 40,000, and the occupation of its 
inhabitants is turned particularly to agriculture. 

Fevers, mostly of a bilious remittent character occur, but 
are not characterized by great severity, and seldom prove 
fatal though occasionally, typhoid symptoms supervene. 

This doubtless, is owing to the abandoning of the anti- 
phlogistic treatment of former years, and adopting the more 
rational as taught at the present day. 

Inflammatory diseases, when occurring, are also mild in their 
nature and generally easily subdued. 

Diarrhoea and dysentery occurred to a limited extent during 
the summer and fall months. The treatment generally adopted, 
and almost universally successful, was first a mild cathartic, 
and followed by astringents, and opiates, provided there was 
absence of gastric irritability. 

The common bowel affections, incident to the summer 
season, especially to children, were not as frequent as in the 
preceding year, and easily managed. 

Pertussis prevailed to a limited extent, and the bromide of 
ammonium was found advantageous in allaying the spasmodic 
cough. 

Scarlatina has not prevailed as an epidemic the past year, 
though a few sporadic cases thave been met. The treatment 
has been sustaining. 

Diptheria has not been so rife the past year compared with 
the preceding, though in my own district it seems to have 
taken the place in a great measure of scarlet fever, 

I will take it for granted the profession is sufficiently ac- 
quainted with its characteristic peculiarities, so as to render it 
unnecessary for me to give its complete history. 

It is evidently a constitutional disease, and in my opinion 
mildly contagious. 

The diagnosis is easy, but a due discrimination should be had 
34 



266 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

SO as not to cotnfound it with simple inflammation, or ufcer- 
ation of the fauces. The greatest success in the treatment is 
due to the avoiding of antiphlogistic remedies in the early 
stage, and adopting the supporting or stimulating plan. 
The local treatment should also be simple, and in my exper- 
ience, I have found topical applications to prove more injurious 
than beneficial. 

I have reference to the nitrate of silver, iodine or the zinc 
preparations. I believe mild gargles to be advantageous, and 
of these I am more in favor of the " permanganate of potash," 
used both as a gargle and administered internally, than any 
other preparation I have used or seen recommended. For- 
merly, the chlorate of potash was deemed almost a prophylactic 
but it has in a great measure lost taste. 

The antiseptic qualities of the Permanganate are greater and 
more enduring. 

In the American Medical Journal for Jan. 1865, will be 
found an article describing this treatment, and fully substan- 
tiates the opinion I held prior to its persual. 

Warmth to the neck is also advisable. 

Where the diptheritic membrane extends down the trachea 
causing croup, I do not advise the frequent repetition of emet- 
ics, though early they may prove beneficial by relieving the 
local congestion, but when persisted in, cause prostration, and 
hence fiavors the deposition of the membrane. 

The same might be said of the calomel treatment K on 
the other hand we can raise the vital powers, and restore the 
tone of the system the membrane will in due time be detached, 
and thrown off, and the healing process takes place. 

This operation often lasts through several days, in fact have 
had several cases where the membrane was from five to six 
days in being expectorated, and the patient finally recovered, 
though followed by aphonia lasting many weeks. 

I have never met a case where I deemed tracheotomy war- 
ranted. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETlEa 267 

There is one other disease which has recently attracted a 
great deal of attention in medical circles. I refer to " cerebro 
spinal meningitis." 

This prevailed as an epidemic in the spring of 1864, but I 
am unable to give the history of any case as it then appeared, 
nor am I sufficiently acquainted with any facts to warrant me 
to speak of the treatment as then adopted, for it was not my 
privilege to meet with a case at that time, it not reaching this 
locality. 

. I have however, since then met with a few sporadic cases, 
have seen a variety of treatment adopted, and with various 
results. 

An epidemic of this kind prevailed in my father's practice 
in 1852, and he at that time placed great confidence in opium. 

"We have tried it again and find its free use during the in- 
flammatory stage to be beneficial, and on the subsidence of this, 
to administer the quinine or other remedies as the case may 
require. 

There was recently an article published, (I think in the 
same journal as mentioned before,) on this same treatment, 
giving the theory that if opium was so beneficial in arresting 
inflammation of other serous membranes, why not those of the 
brain ? This gave renewed courage and we have yet to see a 
more plausible theory or meet with less success to abandon its 
use. 

Our county does not furnish a very large field for surgery, 
though accidental lesions such as fractures and the like fre- 
quently present tbemselvea In speaking of fractures I would 
make mention of this fact, that as a general rule, there has 
been greater success in treating fractures of the thigh on the 
double inclined plane, than with the straight splint, I refer to 
the shortening and bowing outward of the femur. 

The profession seems to accord to the established rules of 
Hygiene, and in their treatment, if disease have respect for the 



268 MEDIOAI. SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

power of nature, and a due discrimination between it and art, in 
their ability to cure. 

In reference to the present status of the science in its rela- , 
tion to the people, I wDl venture to say that the great majority 
have respect for and esteem the medical art and receive it as 
one of the greatest boons for their benefit ; while others are 
too apt to expect more, and because of its oftentimes uncer- 
tain results, are led to empiricism. 

The numerous race of imposters and quacks found in every 
age and country, have I presume, made the same inroads liere 
as elsewhere, and their publicly advertised nostrums oflFer in- 
ducements to a certain portion of every community to intrust 
themselves to their use. 

Homoeopathy, at all events, has not invaded to any great 
extent, and will not tresspass on our rights, so long as the true 
nature and powers of ordinary medicine are made to be appre- 
ciated and well administered. 

Dr. A. A. Howell, of AUentown, writes that the most prom- 
inent diseases he has been called to treat during the past year 
have been Pneumonia, Erysipelis, Intermittent and Typhoid 
Fevers, and a cutaneous disease resembling itch. Intermittent 
assuming a typhoid form after a few days, has been more pre- , 
valent, than for the past twenty years commencing in Septem- 
ber last and continuing to the present time. He assigns no 
cause, and says "nothing new in the treatment" 

During the month of January last, there was an unusual 
number of children suffering from catarrh with crampy symp- 
toms. Has had but few cases of scarlet fever or measles. 
Diptheria has prevailed to a limited extent among children, 
and says, " I very seldom burn the throat." 

Dr. Kelly of Perrinesville, (in charge of Dr. T. J. 
Thomason's practice,) says dysentery appeared as an epidemic 
in the months of August, September and October. During 
the months of October, November and December Typhoid 
Fever and Diptheria prevailed. 



BBPOBTS OF DISTRIOT SOCIBTIKS. 269 

He mentions a large number of cases, and few deaths occur- 
ring. Made no mention of the measles or treatment adopted. 

H. G. Cooke, Reporter. 
HoLMBEL, N. J., Jan. 7, 1866. 



PASSAIC COUNTY. 
Cliairman of the SUinding OoinmiUee : 

With the exception of Variola, which was continued from 
the latter months of the year previous, we have been unusually 
free from severe epidemic diseases during the past year ; while 
those diseases that are of most common occurrence with us 
have been generally mild and yielded readily to treatment 

The epidemic of Variola above referred -to, continued during 
the winter months and appeared to die out in the spring for 
want of food, nearly every person having had the disease in 
some of its various forms, or been rendered insusceptible to it 
by vaccination. Never was any fact in medicine been more 
clearly shown than the necessity of revaccination in the case of 
adults, during the prevalence of this epidemic. 

For the last four years, previous to which it was rarely seen. 
Typhoid fever has been more or less prevalent during all 
seasons. 

The disease is usually mild and is rarely fatal in young 
persons. The expectant mode of treatment with the careful 
use of stimulants and attention to free ventilation has been 
most satisfactory in my hands. The tendency to ulceration of 
the intestinal glands with diarrhoea being most readily checked 
by small doses of Acetas Plumbi and pulv. Opii. Sometimes 
daring the summer months the disease assumes a more serious 
form, with intestinal hemorrhage. In rare cases it is followed 
by extensive swelling of one of the legs, and in one case dur- 



270 MEDICAL SOClElT 0** NEW JERSEY. 

ing the past fall the right arm of a man about forty yeara of 
age, convalescent from the disease, became greatly swollen 
from the shoulder to the tips of the fingers. The latter case 
recovered under the application of warm fomentations in the 
course of twelve days. 

Intermittents of a mild character have been prevalent 
during the auturiin and winter months. 

Scarlatina has been of rare occurrence during the year. 
Occasional cases of Eubeola have occurred %nA at present the 
disease is increasing. It presents nothing unusual in its ap- 
pearance. During the summer the usual number of cases of 
bowel complaint among children were present, many of which 
were difficult to manage, during the extremely hot weather 
but showed a marked improvement when the weather became 
cooler. During the spring months Muscular Rheumatism in 
its various forms was prevalent, especially affecting the neck, 
back, and chest. Neuralgia of the head also appears to have 
increased in frequency. 

From the fact that so many of the inhabitants of this city 
are employed in factories and workshops. Phthisis is of frequent 
occurrence among them. Lately the disease appears to have 
increased. 

Well marked cases of Diphtheria attended by the character- 
istic deposit upon the Tonsils and uvula have happily been 
rare during the past year, while numerous cases have occurred 
under my observation and that of others of sore throat at- 
tended by all the symptoms of Diptheria with the exception 
of the deposit. In one ftimily a little girl five years of age 
was taken with a severe coryza ; in a few days the inflamma- 
tion extended into the throat producing enlargement of the 
tonsils and uvula. The tongue was coated, bowels torpidi 
pulse increased in frequency, skin hot and dry, and the patient 
refused to take food of any kind. After moving the bowels 
with a gentle cathartic, I give the hydro-chlorate of ammo' 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIE& 271 

nia with chlorate of potash every three hours, and subsequent- 
ly as the patient became weaker Quinine and Tinct, Ferri, 
Ghlor, Wine and Brandy, using the Chlorate of Potash as a 
wash for the throat Beef tea was also given, but it was with 
great difficulty that we induced her to take it. The patient 
sank on the thirteenth day, without the slightest appearance of 
diphtheritic deposit having been seen during the entire illness, 
although watched for with greatest care. A few days after- 
wards another child in the same family, eighteen months old, 
was taken in nearly the same way. The catarrh however was 
slight The disease run nearly the same course for five or six 
days, when a slight diptheritic deposit appeared over the ton- 
sils and nvala. This was washed with acid hydro chlor. dih 
and the same treatment given as in the former case, with the 
same result ; the child dying from exhaustion. 

In another &mily three children were attacked with sore 
throat, presenting the same general appearance as the one first 
described, there being no diphtheritic deposit upon the fauces 
One of them was taken suddenly with croup after the sore 
throat had existed about five days. This was treated prompt- 
ly with emetics and calomel, but without the favorable result, the 
child dying of the diseasa The other children recovered, at 
the same time both father and mother had the disease, the for- 
mer quite severely^ but with no diptheritic deposit The 
question arises, are these to be all classed as cases of dip- 
theria, if so I can safely say that the disease is quite prevalent 
in this vicinity. Three interesting cases reported by Dr. Bodgers 
of this city are herewith presented. 

R J. Whitely, Reporter for Passaic County. 
Paterson, Jan. 8th, 1866. 

Dr. a. W. Rogers' Communication. 

At the close of the year 1861, the writer reported a case of 
Periostitis then in progress, which appeared in the transactions 



272 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

of the Society for 1862, page 46. The patient, a previously 
healthy boy, 15 years old, had at that time been suffering be- 
tween four and five months, and had manifestations of the 
diseai5e in the upper part of both thigh bones, in the sternum 
and the right elbow. I see in the printed report the radius is 
named as the part of the elbow that suffered most, but it is 
now evident that the olecranon process and the contiguous 
part of the elbow also suffered. 

I am now able to give the result of this case and report it^ 
thinking it may be of some interest to others as well as myself. 
Those interested may refer to the previous report. 

April 1, 1862. The right Femur, the bone first affected, still 
suffers and especially in the vicinity of the great trocanter. 
The upper part of the thigh is much enlarged and the hip 
appears swollen so that the hollow between the trocanter 
major and the ischium is filled up on the right side, while 
owing to his generally emaciated condition it is very obvious 
in the left side, but the pain is now much lessened and he can 
bring his knees together. Before this, movement and especially 
that of passing the right leg above its fellow, was very painful 
and difficult The right limb appears lengthened. Although the 
Femur has now been affected full seven months, there is as 
yet no suppuration apparent. 

The elbow has well healed and the sternum over which an 
abcess formed in two places, first over the upper portion and 
afterwards over the lower, and from both of which there was 
exfoliation of bone, now appears likely to heal soon. 

The patient's general strength has continued feeble, and he 
has needed anodynes, especially at night. For this purpose ^ 
gr. sulph. morph. with a pill of ext. hyoseiam have been given* 
The Iodide of iron has been continued and also moderate doses 
of quinine have been given for some time past 

Jan. 5, 1868. During the latter part of the spring and sum- 
mer of 1862 the patient recuperated considerably in appetite 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCISTISS. 273 

and general strength, and got able to get out on cratches and 
to ride about a little. The local affection of the bones did not 
alter much, but in the early part of autumn suppuration took 
place and an opening formed two or three inches below the 
trocanter major. About two months ago he fell from a stoop 
and struck the sore part on a scraper, which was followed by 
much heat and swelling of the upper and anterior part of the 
thigh and resulted in an abscess and the discharge of a good 
deal of matter and several small pieces of bone. For the last 
fortnight the limb has become less swollen, the discharge less, 
now there appears to be no matter any distance from the open- 
ing. If the disease were now merely one attended with 
exfoUaJtim of bone as in case of the sternum and elbow, the in- 
dications are that the case is doing well. 

The treatment is in the main, as at last report in April, with 
the addition of some stimulants and more attention to provid- 
ing a nutritious diet The above are the only notes I have of 
the case, and I state the rest from memory. 

During winter and spring of 1864, the upper part of right 
thigh continued enlarged, tender and painful, and openings 
from the bone through to the surfeoe formed in two or three 
other places besides that before mentioned, both on the outside 
and anterior aspect of the bone, and from these a number of 
small pieces of bone were discharged, and dead bone could be 
felt with the probe through some of the apertures. Being un- 
certain whether the patient would have strength to endure till 
nature should remove the disease, I was anxious from time to 
time to have a considtation with some one having a larger practi- 
cal acquaintance with bone disease than myself, and that a 
thorough exploration should be made to see if there might not 
be considerable sequestrum of dead bone encased in new bone 
which might need to be removed by an operation, but the pa- 
tient, naturally sensitive and timid, would not consent to it, 
though assured that through the use of an anesthetic the ex- 
amination and if need be the operation could be made without 
35 



274 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

his suffering any pain ; and the last time I urged it he was 
rendered so nervous and feverish thereby, that with the advice 
of his parents I concluded to leave the case to constitutional 
means without surgical interference. 

During the summer the discharges lessened and the size of 
the bone somewhat also, and the thigh got so strong that he 
walked about considerably. Some time during the season the 
disease appeared more decidedly to affect the left thigh bone 
of which there had been intimations before, suppuration took 
place over the anterior part of bone about three inches below 
the groin. An aperture formed here from which a number of 
small pieces of bone were discharged during the course of two 
or three months ; but this did not confine him long to the bed, 
nor entirely to the house. It served to assimilate the appear- 
ance of the two limbs. 

By the autumn of 1864 the patient had much improved in 
flesh and strength, the discharge from the diseased parts had 
greatly lessened, and it became pretty certain that nature 
would master the disease. During the winter the condition of 
the bones continued to improve slowly, and his general health 
as well, with the exception of suffering for a time with sup- 
puration of one of the upper chain of glands in the groin. 

The last fragment of bone was discharged about the middle 
of summer, and all the sinuses have now firmly closed. 
Marked cicatrices are to be seen over the sternum, the olecra- 
non process and the upper part of both femora. The elbow 
joint is not the least impaired, nor either hip joint, except so 
far as the disease has interfered with the* muscles. This in- 
terference appeared to be manifest especially at the insertion 
of the Psoas Magnus causing in the early stage of the disease 
great pain in lying down, and as the disease became less, still 
making it difficult and painful, even to the present time, to 
straighten the body to a perfectly erect posture ; and with the 
insertion of the Triceps Adductor Femoris making it so diffi- 
cult during the active stage of the disease to draw the limbs 



BBPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 275 

together. The right leg appears somewhat bowed in the thigh 
and longer than the other, which may be supposed to arise 
from an excess of secretion of bone. This lengthened condi- 
tion of the limb makes the patient to limp a little, although 
when he stands the pelvis is even and the spine perfectly 
straight. 

The case is remarkable as showing the constitutional nature 
of some bone diseases that are neither scrofulous nor syphili- 
tic. The number of bones aflfected, and the identity of the 
parts affected, and that these were not the parts usually affected 
in scrofula nor those affected in syphilis, is worthy of atten- 
tion. 

It is also remarkable as showing what nature may do in 
overcoming disease of the bones. The duration of the disease 
was about four yeara The patient took a large quantity of 
quinine and iron during that time, also some cod liver oil, and 
was well nursed and had a good nutritious diet. The local 
application of Tina Iodine, appeared at times, considerably to 
lessen the periostitis in its subacute stages. 

On page 101 of the transactions of 1864, may be found re- 
ported a case of Cellulitis over the abdominal parietes, in 
which it was stated to be " a question whether it had any par- 
ticular connection with some hepatic malady." The death of 
the patient, and a post mortem examination, now enables me 
to answer this question. 

After continuing in a feeble condition through the winter, 
better and worse by turns, about the 18th of March the pa- 
tient became affected with sickntss of stomach and diarrhoea, 
which continued for several days and prostrated her very much. 
This was accompanied with considerable pain in the bowels. 
It was checked 'by opiates. Pain in the right side of the 
chest and over the hepatic region, followed with fever and 
much thirst, at the same time the patient could take no nour- 
ishment — the remaining strength failed — the bowels became 
tympanitic — the feet swollen and she died on the 28rd. From 



276 MKDICATi SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSEY. 

the beginning of the diarrhoea the discharge from the side less- 
ened, and for several days before she died ceased almost en- 
tirely. The discharges from the bowels were daring the 
diarrhoea at first of a light colored serous character, and after- 
wards darker and very offensive. The examination of the 
body was made twenty hours after death. 

Considerable adipose tissue was found over the chest and ab- 
domen. At an old point of discharge, above the umbilicus, 
the fatty tissue was dark and condensed, and the aperture en- 
tirely closed. One of the apertures, a little to the left of the 
median line and in a line with the eighth rib, passed through 
emerging opposite the pyloric portion of the stomach. The 
opening on the right side, between the eighth and ninth ribs, 
from which the most of the discharge for the last seven months 
took place, was the outlet of a sinus which was traced over 
the liver to its source near the left border of the great right 
lobe of the liver, near the outlet of the gall bladder. There 
were extensive peritoneal adhesions, some of them firm and of 
long standing. A great part of the liver was adherent to the 
abdominal walls and the lower part of the right lobe very 
firmly so. The stomach, and duodenum, and arch of the colon 
were all pretty firmly united by peritoneal adhesion. No fluid 
of account was found in the peritoneal sac. There was found 
considerable in the fissure of the liver, involving the capsule 
of Glisson surrounding that portion of the ducts of the liver 
contiguous to the gall bladder. The cystic duct on being 
traced from the duodenum was found pervious but apparently 
small (the probe filling it,) ind to pa^ through a mass of 
disease and pus. The gall bladder was of ordinary size and 
moderately full of bile of thin consistence. None of its con- 
tents were inspisated. There was a small calcarious depositr— 
the size of a small chestnut — ^in the edge of the liver near the 
disease which involved its ducts. The adhesions and points of 
suppuration extended downward, under the liver, to the lower 
part of the right lobe, where several inches square of its sub- 



REPORTS OF DlSTRlCrr SOOlETllS. 277 

stance had become disorganized and was of a dark yellow 
ochre color, being apparently amass of soft granules infiltrated 
with pus. Over all this and the adjacent portions, the adhe- 
sions to the ribs were very firm. The organ was not of inord- 
inate size and the larger part of it had a very healthy appear- 
ance on dividing its substance. 

In the chest were found pleuritic adhesions over the lower 
part of the right lung. 

The exact nature and place of the origen of this case of 
disease I suppose it would be difficult to decide. 

The Post Mortem of a man aged about 60, who died of 
jaundice, and who had been subject to attacks of very excruci- 
ating pain in the region of the diaphram for several years, 
but had only one attack of jaundice previous to the fetal one, 
revealed a chain of gall stones, the size of small hazel nuts, 
filling the common duct and closing] it from the duodenum. 
They had evidently "been there for a long time as they were of 
a very firm consistence and the sides which fitted to each other 
were finely polished as if from gentle attrition. There were 
one or two of a softer consistence, and less perfectly formed in 
the gall bladder with considerable inspissated bile. The last 
illness was of short duration. 



SALEM COUNTY. 

Ohairman of ihe Standing Committee^ Jkc. : 

Salem County is an irregular triangle, the western and larger 
base of which lies on the Delaware Eiver, from which the 
apex points due cast towards the Atlantic Ocean. The surface 
of the County is generally level, with slight elevations as you 
proceed inland from the Delaware. It is watered by several 
streams. The three largest of which are the Salem Creek 
which winds irregularly through the northern and central por- 



278 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

tions of Ihe Couilty ; AUoways Creek, running through the 
southern and central parts, and Old Man's Creek, which forms 
a part of its northern boundary, dividing it from Gloucester 
County. These are tide-water streams, and the lands border- 
ing on them, especially the first two, are low and marshy. 

The surface bordering on the Delaware is a continuous level 
of meadow and low ground. In the central and eastern parts 
of the County the surface gradually rises into low ranges of 
hills, the soil of which is either a rich loam with a substratum 
of clay, or sandy and covered with pine and oak timber. 
This central and elevated portion is watered by many small 
streams, most of which are dammed oflF, forming mill ponds, 
on the margins •of which there is stagnant water, which in 
summer and autumn is ofben a prolific source of miasmata. 

The largest part of the surface of the County is stripped of 
its timber, and under cultivation. Even the pine barrens 
are gradually yielding to the agricultural enterprise of 
the age. The low grounds lying on the tide-water streams 
are drained and under a high state of cultura The swamps 
and basins, which dot the high lands, have also been to a great 
degree reclaimed and are under tillage. So that from being at 
one time considered a pest-house for the generation of malaria 
and disease, Salem County is now one of the most healthy and 
productive in the State. 

The climate is variable with sudden alternations of tempera- 
ture. Our winters are generally open with alternate rain and 
snow. The range of the thermometer frequently varies 15 or 
20 degrees in the space of 24 hours. The atmosphere, especial- 
ly in the river townships, is heavy and moist. Dense fogs pre- 
vail in the summer and autumn. Yet this state of the atmo- 
sphere does not seem unfavorable to the health of the popula 
tion, except, perhaps, to those suffiering from pulmonary 
disease. The latter are often benefited by a residence in higher 
locationa 

The population of the County numbered 22,458 in 1860. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 279 

Of these 19,996 were whites, and 2,192 blacks. Of the for- 
mer 10,256 were males, and 9,740 females. Of the latter 
1,092 were males, and 1,100 femalea The number of native 
born residents was 21,420, of foreign birth 1,058. 

The original settlers were mostly from England and Sweden, 
and have to a very considerable degree impressed their phleg- 
matic temperament upon their descendants of the present day. 
Within a few years there has been superadded an infusion of 
the Irish and German elements Not, however, to such an 
extent as materially to modify the popular character which is 
staid and regular, manifesting but little of the diversified ex- 
citement and rivalry of commercial and manufacturing com- 
munities. 

The type which most decidedly impresses itself upon the 
diseases of the County is the miasmatic. Functional derange- 
ment of the liver and alimentary organs is the prominent 
feature in all our diseases. These are becoming more asthenic 
in their character. Active depletion, whether by venesection or 
active purgation, is neither so much required, nor so beneficial 
when resorted Jx) as formerly ; indeed, venesection has been al- 
most abandoned by the profession among us. 

The rigid system of diet, formerly practiced, has given place 
to a more generous nutrition. The Alterative and Tonic plan 
of treatment has, to a great extent, supplanted the heroic prac- 
tice of former times. The Mercurials and Quinine, with 
Opiates and Stimuli, are more frequently used than all other 
remedies combined. General bleeding is rarely, perhaps too 
rarely, practiced in inflammatory affectiona We have learned 
that Pleurisy and Pneumonia, even in their severest forms, 
can be cured without the aid of the lancet. 

The- health of the County during the past year was below 
the average of former years. Sickness prevailed to a greater 
extent during the. summer and autumn than for many years 
previous. In the spring, catarrhal affections and pneumonia 
prevailed to some extent ; scarlatina and measles were occa- 



280 MEDICAL SO0IST7 OF NEW JEBSEY. 

sionally met with ; diphtheria was sometimes, though not often 
seen; intermittents and remittents were more frequent than 
usual at that season. A peculiar eruption resembling psora or 
prurigo prevailed very generally throughout the whole year. 
It seemed to be contagious and obstinate in its character, re- 
sisting treatment tor a long time in many instances. 

In all the above diseases a marked tendency to derangements 
of the bowels manifested itselt With the approach of sum- 
mer, diarrhoea and cholera morbus made their appearance and 
soon became very prevalent. In the early part of autumn 
» these were succeeded by dysentery, which, with intermittents 
and remittents, now usurped the place of all other forms of dis- 
ease. Intermittents were most numerous, remittents next in 
frequency, and dysentery third in the scale. The latter dis- 
ease, though not so frequent, was more severe than either of 
the former. 

Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the medical history 
of the County for the year, next to the very great and unpre- 
cedented prevalence of intermittents and remittents, was the 
predisposition to dysenteric symptoms which distinguished 
both these forms of fever. They were generally of a mUd 
type, and whenever they assumed a more aggravated form the 
intensifying cause was almost invariably dysenteric 

Typhoid and congestive or spotted fever were seldom met 
with. During the month of December hooping-cough made 
its appearance, and is still increasing in frequency. 

The treatment of the above mentioned diseases differed in 
no essential particulars from that ordinarially pursued. Tbey 
readily yielded to the usual remedies. Indeed, the readiness 
with which almost every form of acute disease yielded to ortho- 
dox methods of treatment deserves special notice as a leading 
fact illustrating the sanitary history of the past year. Perhaps 
the only exceptions to the above remark worthy of note were 
those cases of intermittent and remittent fever complicated 
with dysentery, a few of which terminated fatally. The great 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 281 

majority of such cases were easily managed by mercurials and 
quinia with opium. 

The most effective method of administrating quinia and its 
congeners has long been a debated question among the profes- 
sion of the County. Two modes are advocated. The one of 
giving large doses of these remedies at long intervals. The 
other of giving small doses at short intervals. Dr. Kirby of 
this city, with others of similar views, prefers the former 
method. His practice is to give 6 or 10 grs. two or three times 
during the intermission. Drs. Thompson and Sharp give 
preference to the latter mode. Dr. Sharp informs me that he 
administers 2 grs. every hour during the intermLssion with 
great success. 

Both these methods are in my opinion to be commended, 
while the first is most applicable to congestive or pernicious 
fever, or to those fevers in which the period of intermission is 
short The latter method should have the preference in the 
ordinary and milder cases of fever, and in those with longer 
periods of intermission. The weight of professional opinion 
would seem to be in favor of small doses given at short pe- 
riods. 

Ferrocyanuret of Iron and Indigo were used as substitutes 
for the preparations of bark by some of our practitioners, 
with what success I am not familiar. Fowler's solution and 
other preparations of arsenic are also popular and effective 
remedies. In those cases where quinia fails to exert its wonted 
curative powers, or where they are short-lived, I have wit- 
nessed highly satisfactory results from a combination of it with 
sulphate of Zinc. In such cases a combination of quinia 2 
grs., and of sulphate of zinc 1 gr., with ^ of a grain of opium, 
to obviate the emetic tendency sometimes manifested by the 
zinc, given every two hours, has been eminently successful in 

my practica 

QuiNTON Gibbon. 
Salem, January 3d, 1866. 

36 



282 MEDICAIi SOCIETY OF NEW JfiBSEY. 

SOMERSET COUNTY. 

Chairman of the Standing ChmmiUee, <tc. : 

The earlier months of the year 1865, were characterized hy 
the usual prevalence of inflammatory affections ; the respira- 
tory organs were the seat of disease in most of these cases, 
and their frequency and severity did not differ from the aver- 
age of preceding yeara. 

An epidemic of scarlatina occurred about Bound Brook 
during February and March. It was often followed by 
Anasarca, which was severe and obstinate. The treatment was 
chiefly by diuretics, and is reported to have been successful. 

The months of May and June were healthy ; but during 
the latter part of July and during the months of August, 
September and October, much sickness prevailed. This sick- 
ness closely followed excessive rains which inundated the 
country, destroying crops on the low lands, and tearing up the 
surface in some places to deposite it in form of mud and slime 
in others. 

The prevalent diseases of this period were dysentery, fever 
and diphtheria. 

The dysentery was general throughout the northern part 
of the county, which is hilly ; and it terminated in an abrupt 
manner at the foot of the mountain. In some plac^ it was 
severe and fatal. On the plain,^as seen by your reporter, the 
disease was milder, and no fatal cases occurred. Blood-letting 
was the remedy best adapted to the disease in this form, and 
was well borne. Indeed, in every case in which it was prac- 
ticed, speedy convalescence ensued. 

The fever prevailed pretty generally throughout the county, 
and was rather mild in its character. So far as your reporter's 
information extends, its type was typhoid. Many cases ex- 
hibited such remissions as to lead to the exhibition of quinine, 
but the remedy generally failed to arrest the disease. Expec- 
tant treatment seemed best adapted to most of the cases of this 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCISTlEa 288 

fever ; and a fiivorable cijsis was generally obtained at the 
end of the second or third week. 

Daring the hot months diarrhoDa complicated the latter 
stages ; but in the month of October, as the weather became 
colder, this was slight or wanting, and was replaced by bron- 
chial sympton& 

In some cases of children suffering from fever the cerebro-spi- 
nal system was involved. This was indicated by delirium, 
speechlessness, impaired powers of motion, coolness of surface, 
diminished secretion. One case terminated fatally from this 
cause. In another the power to articulate did not return until 
sometime after convalescence was established. The child's voice 
was strong and clear, it screamed frequently, but it did not ut- 
ter a word. After nearly two weekd the speech was somewhat 
suddenly and perfectly restored. 

Diphtheria has been prevalent in the vicinity of Somerville 
and Saritan from the month of July to the present time. 
Though not so malignant as some epidemics of which we have 
heard, its attack has been sufficiently severe to excite alarm in 
the conununity and cause solicitude to the profession. This 
alarm and solicitude have been deeper because the disease has 
not hitherto been felt to any extent in the locality now suffer- 
ing from it. About twenty per cent of the well marked 
cases have proved fatal. 

The symptoms and course of this epidemic have been as 
follows: The attack commenced with fever and soreness of 
the throat which on examination appeared red and inflamed. 
In a short time (generally in a few hours,) fiJse membrane was 
formed on the tonsils or soft palate, the fever increased, the 
tonsils and palate were much tumefied, and in severe cases the 
throat was swollen externally. Sometimes partial sloughing 
of the affected parts followed. After from two to six days 
the inflammation of the tonsils and palate subsided somewhat, 
the fever was less, and in the milder cases this improvement 



284 ' MEDICAL SOCIETT OF NEW JEBSET. 

continued and recovery ensued. But in many instances the 
disease remitted its violence only to return in a severer form 
and in another seat Somewhat suddenly the nostrils became 
involved, air could no longer pass through them, the voice 
was altered, and often water dripped Scorn the nose. The in- 
flammation and formation of false membrane extended back- 
ward into the pharynx, and forward sometimes to the external 
openings of the nostrils. The accompanying fever exacer- 
bated, and was of a lower form. Aft«r a day or two the dis- 
charge from the nose became puriform and foetid, and the throat 
was filled with similar offensive secretions. Sometimes the face 
was tumid, the nose being broader and the cheeks swollen. 
The patient often perished from the exhaustion and suffering 
of these symptoms. Your reporter believes the majority of 
the deaths to have occured from this cause. Not unfrequently 
the inflammation extended downward to the glottis, when a 
croupy cough and dyspnoea were added to the symptoms and 
death ensued from suffocation. 

Sometimes the disease pursued a different course. The in- 
flamation of the fauces was slight^ little membrane was effused, 
and that little speedily disappeard. The fever was slight and 
the disease appeared mild, when suddenly the symptoms of 
croup appeared and the patient soon perished. In one case 
your reporter left his patient as cured, and was recalled the 
next day on account of laryngeal symptoma On examining 
the throat, no appearance of disease was seen until after several 
trials the epiglottis was brought into view, when two very- 
small spots of membrane were seen upon it Except its occa- 
sional croupy cough the child appeared well, but it died that 
night from spasm of the glottis. 

Wlieu the disease did not extend beyond the fauces, the 
cases convalesced by or before the eighth day, except in one 
case where the recovery was made tedious by the sloughing of 
an entire tonsil. When the nostrils were involved the disease 



BSPOBTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 285 

was formidable and of doubtful issua When convalescence oc- 
curred it was protracted an5 incomplete. Only two instances 
of recovery from well marked laryngeal symptoms have come 
to my knowledge. In these the fortunate result seemed to be 
due to stimulating emetics and the use of ice externally and 
in the mouth. 

In the treatment of this epidemic of diphtheria, no benefit has 
been derived from the use of caustic and astringent applica- 
tions to the diseased surface. The removal of diphtheritic de- 
posit, when eflFected by these means, or by stripping it off with 
forceps, is not attended with benefit. The membrane is often 
reproduced and the inflammation is not mitigated. Besides, the 
parts where the disease is most hurtful can scarcely be reached 
by such applications, at least as they are commonly mada A 
large majority of our diphtheritic patients are children, and it is 
a severe proceeding to plunge a caustic probang down the in- 
flamed throat of a struggling child. Nor has the use of tinc- 
ture of iron, quinia, or stimulants seemed productive of ad- 
vantage, until the latter stages of the disease. 

The most successful treatment of diphtheria, known to your 
reporter, is this : At the onset, give an active cathartic and fol- 
low with diaphoretic doses of antimony or ipecac, alternated or 
combined with chlorate or bicarbonate of potassa. If there 
be much external swelling or if the inflammation runs high, 
leech the throat. Ice held in the mouth and allowed to dis- 
solve slowly is of much advantage, and counter-irritation to 
the throat by liniment or any irritant that will not bhster is 
useful. By this course we may hope to allay the inflammation 
while it is confined to the fauces and attain a favorable result 
When these means fail and the case approaches exhaustion, 
tincture of iron, quinine, stimulants and other supporting 
measures are required. Advantage has resulted from the in- 
halation of the fumes of burning tar in cases where the nose 
was involved. 



286 KEDICAL S0CIBT7 OF NEW JEBSEY. 

Your reporter can not refrain from mentioning in this con- 
nection, that about one hundred years ago a similar affection 
was epidemic, and is treated of by CuUen under the name of 
Cynanche Maligna. 

A case of cerebro-spinal meningitis of the kind lately 
known as spotted fever, was met with during the month of 
November. It terminated fatally on the sixth day. 

Throughout the year intermittents have prevailed somewhat 
in their usual localities, but it is believed that they have been 
rather less common that for the past two or three years. 

In reviewing the diseases of the County for the past year, 
it does not appear that they have differed in severity and fre- 
quency from the average of past years. Their type seems to 
have been somewhat more inflammatory requiring antiphlogis- 
tic treatment 

H. P. VanDerveer, RepoTier. 



SUSSEX COUNTY. 
Chairman of the Standing Committee^ Ac, : 

In assisting to furnish materials for the centennial report of 
the Standing Committee, it would be desirable to contrast, if 
possible, the condition of the County of Sussex and the posi- 
tion of its medical profession as they appeared one hundred 
years ago, and as they now stand. In regard to the first peri- 
od I have no reliable data, other than I shall presentiy men- 
tion. Although the County was settled 160 years ago, it is 
doubtful if in the year 1766 it contained a single physician. 

The original County (now Sussex and Warren) contained 
1,150 square miles, and 10,000 or 11,000 inhabitants at the 
time of the formation of our State Society. The present Sus- 
sex, which contains about 600 square miles, then numbered 



R£P0BT3 OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 287 

5,000 or 6,000 people. These were mostly of Huguenot de- 
scent, though Germans, Irish, and English were settled among 
them. They were engaged, as their descendants mostly are to- 
day, in agriculture and mining. They were hardy and indus- 
trious, of good morals and simple habits, with well-formed, 
healthy bodies, seldom requiring, therefore, the aid of the phy- 
sician, surgeon or obstetrician. Indeed, even to a compara- 
tively late day, women in confinement ordinarily relied on a 
midwife. 

Medical men were consequently few. Says Mr. Edsall, edi- 
tor of the Sussex Begister, in his centennial address of 1863, 
speaking of Johnson's-l^or log jail, — the first seat of justice 
of the old county — " Here Doct. Samuel Kennedy, the first 
practising physician we have any word of, fixed his location 
His practice extended so far over the County, that professional 
rides* of twenty or thirty miles were common events in his 
career. He was an able practitioner and prepared a great 
number of students for the profession. Docts. linn and Ev- 
eritt, and several other physicians of the last generation, de- 
rived their first knowledge of the healing art from this Escula- 
pian veteran of old Sussex. Dr. K died at an advanced age 
in the year 1804. I may as well remark here as elsewhere," 
continues Mr. E., " that the practice of medicine has never 
been a lucrative business in this County. The air of our 
mountains is peculiarly favorable to health and longevity." 

In the year 1824, when Sussex was restricted to its present 
limits, the population was about 19,500, who, like their ances- 
tors, were hemmed in by the mountains, and separated from 
the vices of the city, and though further advanced in national 
prosperity, were still like them in morals, social habits and 
occupations Their plain food and dress, their well ventilated, 
because poorly built houses, their open fire-places, their free- 
dom from the intoxication of trade, and their observance of 
the day of rest, so necessary to physical comfort and mental 



^/ 



288 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

well-being, rendered them infrequent subjects of the physi- 
cian's art Accordingly, although the ratio of physicians was 
quite respectable, the most of them were also engaged in other 
occupations ; whilst with some the practice of medicine was a 
mere incident The roll of physicians then contained eleven 
names, as follows : David Hunt, Samuel Hopkins and Jacob 
Sharpe, of Newton township ; Elijah Everitt, of Greene ; Ja- 
cob Roe and John B. Beach, of Frankford ; Samuel Fowler 
and Elias H. L'Hommedieu, of Hardyston ; Barrett Havens 

and Heman Allen, of Wantage ; Jacob Hombeck and 

Van Duzen, of Montague. Of these, not one is now in the 
land of the living. 

The leading mind was Dr. Fowler. He came into the 
Countj a few years prior to its division, and soon compelled 
all its physicians either to take license or retira Into his 
hands speedily passed the consultation busmess, and his opin- 
ions may therefore be taken as a fair indication of the scienti- 
fic status of the profession at that time. A very able practi- 
tioner of the present day, who was cotemporaneous with the 
last years of Dr. F., says of him, " he was by far the best 
naturally endowed practitioner I ever knew." Of acute per- 
ception, vivid imagination and yet of judicial mind; an origi- 
nal thinker ; his native talents placed him far in advance of 
his day, when CuUen and his disciple Gregory shaped the the- 
, ory and practice of the country. • Q[)a4^C(ri<A, 
7 V. ' r ' V He was as familiar with Brown and DwkoM i as with Cullen, 
and with the other writers of Bis time. "He knew the institutes 
of medicine and could formulate, as well as practice them. 
There are indeed very few practitioners of experience, though 
of defective education, who fail to acquire a set of principles 
which they act upon, if they cannot express. But it is equally 
true that some remain mere empirics in the midst of all the 
rubbish as well as seeds of thought with which reading and 
observation have furnished them. But Dr. Fowler was neither. 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 289 

To use Bacon's simile, he was neither an ant nor a spider — 
neither a mere collector of others ideas nor a weaver of his 
own fancies — ^but a bee, who by proper mingling and analyzing, 
elaborated and utilized the various products of his industrious 
observation. He was fond of saying that " the whole art of 
medicine consisted in knowing when to stimulate and when to 
deplete ; " an aphorism that requires but slight modification to 
be level with the present knowledge. 

" The District Medical Society for the County of Sussex " 
was formed in 1829 by Samuel Fowler, Samuel Marshall, 
filias H. L'Hommedieu, John B. Beach and Stephen Hedges, to 
whom were added Francis Moran and Jno. R Stuart. Thus 
constituted, the Society continued for several years, at first 
with feeble vitality, though always holding its Ommamst But 
since the year 1843, when the State Society virtually demitted 
the licensing power to the counties, it has had a far more vig- 
orous existence. All the practitioners of the County, except- 
ing three, are either members or in process of becoming such, 
and those members exert so salutary an influence upon each 
other, and upon the public, by the mere momentum of their 
organization, that no irregular practitioner has remained in 
the County. And yet the only official act regarding license, 
that the Society has ever done, has been to point out to those 
regularly licensed physicians, who had encouraged quackery, 
their infraction of the law, and the danger of losing their li- 
cense. 

The year 1854 marks a new era in the history of Sussex, 
commencing with the opening of railroad communication with 
the city and speedily followed by the establishment of the 
telegraph. Previously agriculture and mining had been the 
empjoyments of the people, who generally exchanged their 
products with the city in person. The difficult transportation 
confined the marketable products of the soil mainly to meats, 
and butter or live stock, into which other things were trans- 
ST 



4iY^ 



290 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEKSKY. 

muted. But now the factors are a separate and important 
Slass, dwelling in the country and making a cash market for 
every thing the soil can produca The coarser manufactures of 
wool, iron and wood, now beginning to be established, are de- 
veloping other products of our hills, and thus the County is 
rapidly growing in wealth ; though like all settled agricultural 
regions, its growth in numbers is comparatively slow. The pop- 
ulation of Sussex is now about 28,000 of whom 5,500 are gath- 
ered in villages. Thus whilst the growth of the whole Coun- 
ty has been 18 per cent, of the population, the increase of the 
villages has been 100 per cent This is a proof of the change 
')^ -// of pursuits o/ the addition to them which railway and tele- 
^ graph have made. With this 'increase of the population ol 
the villages has appeared a consequent increase of vice and its 
diseases. This is true of licentiousness ; and it is true of in- 
temperance, though whiskey is not manufactured in the former 
proportion, owing to the fact that there are other things than 
ardent spirits that can be more profitably produced in the 
County now that the market is so accessible. 

With the changes in industrial pursuits, the rapid develop- 
ment of our resources, and consequent increase of wealth, 
have come a growth of luxury and increasing quest of ma- 
terial gratifications greater even than the general average of 
the country. It is true of the whole nation, that great physi- 
cal and mental evils as well as immoralities have arisen from its 
inordinate advance in material prosperity, at the expense of 
its intellectual and moral growtL Thus have the tendencies 
to disease kept pace with the improvements in therapeutics, 
given employment to a larger proportion of physicians^ and 
prevented a more striking diminution of the death-rate than 
even what has attracted the attention of statisticians and life- 
insurera Thus the growth of wealth and luxury has not 
only directly increased vice with its attendant perversions of 
functions and engrafted diseases, but has induced emulation in 



REPORTS OP DISTRICTT SOCIKTlEa 291 

vulgar display, at the expense of physical comfort and mental 
peace. At the same time, the want or neglect of educational 
advantages, and consequent ignorance of the first demands of 
mind and body, have prevented the healthful location and 
construction of dwellings, and the destruction or avoidance of 
animal poisons in air, water and food, the proper selection and 
preparation of food. These causes, with the injudicious use 
of stimulants and narcotics, have conspired to disturb both 
mental and physical functions, to injure the various organs 
and cramp and distort the intellect and affections by narrowing 
their outlet and ignoring the final cause of their creation. 

From this picture, I hope the inference will not be drawn 
that Sussex, in common with the whole country, is considered 
to be either a Sodom, a New Zealand or a Greenland. But 
every well instructed citizen and patriot must confess that the 
report is generally trua Whilst there are highly educated 
men and women, whilst we exceed other countries in the num- 
ber of churches and common schools, it must be confessed 
that in this country, where people are continually and directly 
sitting in judgment and determining the executive power 
upon the most obstruse questions of social and political science, 
education is rudimentary, reading is confined to partizan top. 
ics, to exciting news items, and to the emanations of diseased 
imaginations, whilst its religion too often dispreads itself on 
the mere church organization, and has its final cause in self, 
stopping short of the great God to Whom our race must be re 
ligated — be religious — to be happy. At the same time, the 
rapid advance in material wealth, the ceaseless stimulus thus 
given to mind and body, and the encouragement thereby fur- , 

nished to dimmed nature, must necessarily become a fruitful ifkn^^bt^ 
source of di^ase, and be the most efficient cause of its remark- 
able typical change within the last thirty years. 

The enumeration of prevalent diseases is unnecessary, both 
because it has always constituted the topic of district reports, 



292 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

and has, besides, been given above by implication. Suffice it 
to say, that whilst the influences above named have increased 
the tendency to and complication of zymotic disease, disorders 
of nutrition, perversions of special functions, and derange- 
ments of the general balance, the same efficient causes have so 
improved the face and soil of Sussex that malarious affections 
are jnanifestly diminishing. 

It remains for your reporter to show the present status of 
the profession in the County, and thus to assist in settiug up 
a way mark at the end of the first epoch of the State Society — 
the close of that period during which she earnestly sought to 
dignify the profession and bless the country by the authorita- 
tive regulation of the practice of medicine — ^a period during 
which this idea of legislative interferenee has pervaded the 
/ ^m^ minds of very many moral and religious reform^ The medi- <^ 
cal profession in New Jersey now enters upon a new course, 
and henceforth will appeal to reason and not to prejudice — 
will entrench itself not behind the easily battere-d walls of pro- 
hibition, but in the impregnable earthwork of hearty public 
approval. 

And first, what position does the profession occupy in re- 
' gard to prevention of disease — ^both general and special prop- 
phylaxis? As to special preventives, which must remain in 
its hands, the profession here, as well as throughout the whole 
country, fails in not more strenuously turning public attention 
to the fact, that these measures are more to its pecuniary ben- 
efit than ours. The position of the faculty in the city of New 
York is almost the only exception to this general statement 
We ought to take the position in regard to vaccination, for 
example, that no child should enter a week-day or Sabbath 
school without a certificate of this. 

But the whole profession has neglected this important duty 
of formally instructing the people as to necessary reforms of 
material sanitary conditions and regarding the prevention of 



RSPOBTS OP DISDRlCr SOOtETISdi 298 

mental and moral morbific agencies. True, the majority are 
individually in the line of reform, and in daily intercourse 
with their patients fail not in pointing out sanitary errors and 
abusea But in an organissed capacity, the influence of the 
profession ought to be decided in regard to all that promotes 
social and individual well-betng. And now that, in this State, 
it is seeking the endorsement of public opinion instead of le- 
gal enactment, it is high time for it to show itself a benevolent • 
scientific institution, to bear to the very firf front of the sani- ^ iO--^ 
tary battle our banner, " Opiferqueper orbem dicor.^^ It ought 
to come before the public statedly, with instructions as to posi- 
tive prevention of disease. 

Secondly, what are we doing in Sussex in regard to the re- 
cognition and classification of diseases? So fsur as meteorology 
or any external gauses are concerned, we are simply leaning 
on others: endeavoring to avail ourselves of their labOTS. 
The same may almost be said as to pathological anatomy, al- 
though a very little is being done by autops^he scalpel, the 
test tube and the microscope. But in rural>aistricts, sparsely 
inhabited and not in easy communication, where professional 
remuneration is ridiculously inadequate, the struggle for mere 
existence is too great to admit of a high degree 'of scientific 
attainment Suffice it to say, however, that in availing our- 
selves of others' labors, we recognize in dietetics the division 
of the labor of digestion among the different portions of the 
alimentary canal ; we are locking for the discovery of new 
pathological eflfects of derangement of the comparatively 
newly discovered pulmonic and hepatic secretions; we are 
fully awake to the manifold baneful eflfects of albumenuria, 
and are anxiously awaiting further discoveries in regard to the 
septic influence of ozone, and of hydrogen compounds 

Thirdly, what is our scientific position in regard to therapeu. 
tics? This is neither the time nor the place for an essay on 
pathology or medical institutes. Let a few hints in regard to 




294 MEDICAL SOCierr OP NfiMT ;rERSBY. 

subjects naturally prominent in the professional view, suffice. 
"iSc uno disce omma.^^ And first, as to our methods of dealing 
with simple inflammations, excited db eocira. The guide to its 
successful, scientific treatment is to be found in the nature and 
condition of the capillaries. Passing by the question as to 
the true seat of the first morbid phenomon following conges- 
tion — whether it be the tissues, the vessels or the blood — dis- 
regarding also the other important question^as to the efficient 
cause of congestion — or finally ignoring the great question, 
what is inflammation ;: it is sufficient to know that it cannot 
exist without capillary distension and some degree of stasis, 
and that these cannot long exist without exudation, abolition 
of functions, and finally, either transformation from degenera- 
tion, or from absorption and heterologous deposit, or disinte- 
gration, or local death. 

In treating inflammation then, we first seek the exact stage 
of the process, and its tendency — ^whether towards limitation 
and recovery, or to permanent abolition of functions or «s-- 
truction of tissue. If we find it in the stage of congestion or 
commencing exudation, we remove the tension upon the capil- 
laries by taking away the cause, and by direct or indirect de- 
pletion, or by such sedatives as will diminish the vis a iergo^ 
among which are included all evacuants of obstructions Vq 
the general circulation, of irritants of the sympathetic system, 
or of reflex excitants, or by sedative derivatives, both exter- 
nal and internal, or by all these •gencies combined in several 
agents, or the manifold action of one or two. This course, if 
it does not cut short the disease, limits the vast majority of 
cases, and gives the unaided absorbents time and energy for 
the cure. 

; But in pursuing this course, we are careful of the vital 
powers, lest we induce a powerless, morbid activity, the influ- 
ence of which is most baneful, leading often to immediate 
death of the part. This principle of acting upon the capilla* 



REPORTS OP PISTRIOT SOCIETIE& 295 

ries directly and indirectly is precisely what actuates the sur- 
geon when he bandages a limb, or when he applies cold and 
pressure in an iritis. t^ 

But when the exudation seriously threatens a vital funcion 
or to become a dangerous general irritant, we take the matter 
out of nature's hands by resorting to some one of the vanous 
stimulants or sorbefacients, both external and internal. Here 
there is a wide range for choice of agents, between the general 
and diflfusible stimulants, the tonics and the permanent special 
agents, such as mercury and iodine, in the choice of which we 
are guided by considerations regarding the known general con- 
dition more than the imperfectly known specific effect of the 
agent 

All the foregoing is indeed but the beaten track followed 
alike by men of science and mere professional artizans. I 
have rehearsed it in order to show the grounds on which we 
place it, and as an introduction to another practice often fol- 
lowed empirically and quite as often thought by its opponents 
and by some of its advocates, to contradict the foregoing prin- 
ciples. 

We continually meet cases of which I might give many il- 
lustrations, where, owing to some temporary or permanent de- 
pressing influence, the capillaries, in common with other 
organs, have lost their tone and cannot recover. 

Here we follow the same principles, viz : the unloading of 
the capillaries by sedation, depletion and derivation. But 
inasmuch as the want of general tone renders the balance of 
the circulation prone to disturbance, (just as a weak minded 
man is irritable and impulsive,) as the capillaries are here want- 
ing in tone and the absorbents in power, we deplete by stimu- 
lants, just as in the other case, we stimulate as well as deplete 
with the lancet Here the old practice was to stimulate with 
small doses of calomel and opium — now we resort to quinine 
and iron, because they have fewer pathogenic effects, coupled 



296 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

either with local depletion or revulsion. Sucjh is the practice 
also in many inflammations caused ab intra, either from me- 
chanical obstruction, error loci, or depraved nutrition. As for 
example in pneumonia, from valvular disease, in the consecu. 
tive inflammations of albumenuria, or the strumous diseases, 
or whenever any kind or degree of unhealthy nutrition threat- 
ens special transformations of disease. 

I will not trespass by stating the modifications of the fore- 
going practice by which it is adapted to the various tissues. 
The consideration of the dermoid system alone, in its whole 
extent, offices and sympathetic relations would require an 
essay. A few words, however, in regard to the major exan- 
thematous diseases, external as well as internal, in which I 
use the word to signify, not only eruptions upon the ex- 
ternal dermoid system ^r inflammations of its follicles, but 
internal exudations, as well, together with the whole class of 
fevers attended with lesion^ of the intestinal canal. I shall 
not speak of the special indications in some of these cases, 
which are fulfilled empirically, as in the use of turpentine in 
typhoid fever. 

These diseases, doubtless, all have their lesion in the exhal- 
ents, and their cause in the effort at elimination. V They are 
self-limiting, and their exciting cause is unknown. The sole 
indication in their treatment is to obviate their tendency to 
death, from shocl^or asthenia, when it exists. This, howeveri 
is not so oflen as the fear of many lead them to suppose, and 
is often induced by injudicious interference. 

I will remark, however, that the exudative condition of 
typhoid which is benefitted by turpentine, induces me to sug- 
gest a trial of this agent in diptheria, by any one who has the 
opportunity. 

I pass over rheumatism with the confession that our treat- 
ment of it is purely empirical, notwithstanding the many 
hypotheses that have been advanced concerning it 



BEPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 297 

It is unnecessary to go further with this statement of general . ^/^J 

therapeuticsji" Whilst the half is not told," enough has been ly/ ^A 
said to indicate the position of the reporter, and this is the 
common ground on which the District Medical Society of Sus- 
sex stands. Nor is it necessary to allude to those parts of 
surgery and midwifery not coming under the above principles. 
What remains of them is either mechanically, or otherwise 
almost capable of demonstration. I can not let slip this op- 
portunity however, to record the fact that we seem to be in- 
creasingly inadequate to checking the disorders of the repro- 
ductive functions, the social causes of which have been suffic- 
iently indicated. 

In conclusion I will venture the assertion that if success be 
the criterion, the practitioners of Sussex enjoy a fair share of 
it. But this is not a true basis for determining our professional 
attainments. We long for a higher standard of fitness, not to 
say excellence. And whilst we feel that the man is best assist- 
ed who helps himself, y^t we feel that in the department of 
original investigation, our wide-spread practice prevents the 
ascertaining of general causes, and our large share of mere 
labor and the consumption of much time by professional inci- 
denfc^lona deprives us of the opportunity to investigate the 
resuRs of disease in their morbid anatomy. But we hope ever 
to be in full support of the skirmishers and the great guns of 
the profession. *■ 

Thomas Ryerson. 

Newton, Jan. 10th, 1866. 



WARREN COUNTY. 
Chairman of the Standing Committee : 

The physical contour of this county presents great similarity 
over its whole surface. Four prominent ranges of mountainsj 
88 



298 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF K£W J£&SBY. 

« 

the Schooley's MountaiQ on the aouth-east^ Allamuchy and 
Scott's Mountaiii with the Jenny Jump through the interior, 
and the Blae Bidge, which cats off a narrow strip of its north- 
western border, from the intermediate valley of Mosconetoong, 
Pequest, Beaver Brook and Paulins Kill, so named fix>m the 
larger streams which wind their way through them to their 
several points of discharge into the Delaware river. These 
wider intervals cat up into smaller vales by minor ridges, but 
all mountains, streams, ridges and valleys have the same gen- 
eral direction, from the north-east toward the south-west The 
streams mostly run in swift course, famishing firequent water 
powers, which are used for milling purposes ; the main exer- 
tion is the Pequest, which in the northern part of the county 
sluggishly winds its way with scarcely appreciable descent 
through an extensive marsh of thousands of acres, called the 
Great Meadow. I am not aware of the existence of any other 
extensive marshes in the county, although about every town- 
ship has its local swamps and wild meadow spots of a few 
acres each. 

The soil of the county is celebrated for its great natand fer- 
tility and the ease with which it is kept under cultivation. Its 
variety consists of rich loam, limestone, clay, gravelly and 
slate formations often intermingled in unusually dose apposi- 
tion, each soil being so generally diffused through the county, 
that it would be difficult to assign a particular soil to any 
section. 

The main occupation of the inhabitants is that of farming, 
and it is only recently that manufacturing has been established 
to any extent in the larger towns. 

The population, according to the census of the last summer 
is slightly in excess of 28,000, of which number 20,000 are 
mainly supported by the tilling of the soil, as I do not esti- 
mate the aggregate of the inhabitants of our villages to exceed 
the remainder. These habits of life, with good soil, comfortable 



RBPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETlBa 299 

Style of living, and a climate genial as can be found in the 
state, fiiYor the physical development of the people, and the 
general health has been extremely good; in confirmation of 
which I will here introduce an estimate made, that during the 
most sickly season I have known, and over a district compris- 
ing the three north-western townships, with parts of adjacent 
ones, the proportion of sick to the whole population was only 
one in sixty, whilst the more ordinary rate of sick requiring 
visitation is as one in two hundred, and at times lower than 
that 

The answer to your inquiry relating "local facts illustrative 
of the past and present history of medicine, present status, the 
prevailing diseases, their type and modes of treatment," will 
consist of eome historical tsicts that I have been fortunate to 
collect within a few days, and will be interspersed with com- 
ments and comparison of the ideas of our predecessors with 
the favorite doctrines of this day. 

The first practitioner in this county, of whom we have rec- 
cord was Dr. Samuel Kennedy, who fixed his location at 
Johnsonsburg, near the dividing lines between the counties of 
Sussex and Warren. As the latter was not set off into a sep- 
arate division till the year 1824, he was the sole physician of 
all then comprised in Sussex County. His practice extended 
so far over the county that professional visits of twenty or 
thirty miles were common events in his career, and were some- 
times extended beyond the borders to the neighboring state of 
Pennsylvania. He was an able practitioner and prepared a 
great number of students for the profession, who were the 
physicians of generations that have almost passed away. It is 
probable that the southern portions of the county were sup- 
plied from Baston, Pa, and the northern firom Orange Co., N. 
Y. Dr. Hampton was a cotemporary of part of his career, 
be practiced at Hackettstown, but of him I have no particular 
information. The next generation of doctors were those of 



800 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

whom our immediate ancestors, and some now living tell, who 
by lives of toil and arduous devotion to duty, founded solid 
and lasting reputations as practitioners, and were as highly 
esteemed as the most prominent of the day. Throughout the 
county the names of Gwinnup, Leeds, Palmer, Kennedy, Sloan, 
Hughes, Stewart, Green and Clark are familiar to many a 
household. To the first named, by the kindness of his imme- 
diate descendants, I am indebted for means to give any interest 
to the historical part of the paper. The maternal uncle of the 
late Dr. Jabez G. Goble of Newark, Dr. Gwinnup, was born in 
the year 1773, and studied medicine with the elder Dr. Canfield 
at Morristown. In 1793, he presented himself as a candidate for 
licensure to the New Jersey Medical Society at its annual ses- 
sion held at Burlington, and after a whole days satisfactory 
examination by the censors, came near being rejected by rea- 
son of youth. Being licensed, he settled at Belvidere, and aft 
this place and within a few miles, he spent a life of profession- 
al toil, extending through nearly fifty years, until his decease 
in 1842. ' Blunt and decided in his opinions, yet a model of 
dignity, self-possession and propriety at the bed-side, and 
earnestly availing himself of all the advantages of his day, he 
was a leader in his profession for a long time. At the first 
court held in the new County of Warren, after its separation 
from Sussex, he gathered his medical brethren and formed the 
District Medical Society, near forty years ago ; he was its first 
president and deemed it part of his duty to address the society. 
I have now in possession two discourses written whilst he held 
his office, in which he gives his own positive views on the sub- 
jects discussed, which are interspersed with information on the 
medical history of our county, as well as his views of pathol- 
ogy and practice then in vogue. 

In his first address he discussed the question of " febrile cod- 
tagion as connected with Typhus Icterodes or Yellow Fever, 
and whether it was of imported or of domestic origin," and 



BSFORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIE& 801 

handles the favorite theory of the late eminent Dr. Hosack of 
New York, with severity, asserting " with most perfect confi- 
dence that yellow fever in this country is never contagious." 
I shall not quote his arguments, which are those of the oppo- 
nents of the doctrine of contagion in general, but will give the 
sum of his ideaa " This fever as well as intermittents of every 
description, arise from a particular atmospheric change, and 
have long been observed to commence their course, at the very 
same time that the Bulima or yellow fever as it is very improp- 
erly termed, makes its appearance in the city. As evidence of 
this, permit me for a moment to advert to the state of the in- 
habitants of this county, particularly during the latter part of 
the summer and fall of the year 1793, '94 and '95. The num- 
ber of deaths in '93, within fifteen or twenty miles of this vil- 
lage, were in proportion to the number of inhabitants nearly 
equal to those of Philadelphia, In '94 and '95, particularly in 
^95, they were severely scourged by the fever in the city of 
New York, and at the same time we were almost as severely 
handled by the same disease, and I positively deny that the 
yellow fever in its character is in any way distinct from the 
ordinary remitting, bilious or typhus fever of our county, and 
which for many years was our most common epidemic." 

He gives us an account of his own personal observations in 
the following language : 

" In the year '95 in the city of New York, I had a fair op- 
portunity of observing the character of yellow fever, and hav- 
ing from '93 entertained doubts of its being a specific disease 
and but merely an aggravation of our remitting bilious fever. I 
was determined to aid a number of the sick and notice partic- 
ularly the attending symptoms." 

Gk)ing to New York, he called on Dr. Stevenson, was intro- 
duced to Dr. Turner, and for fourteen days remained in the 
city closely watching the disease ; he names the- district in 
which it prevailed and thus sums up his conclusions j 



202 MEDICA^ SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSElY. 

"As I had anticipated, the disease commenced, progreased 
and terminated with the same symptoms, I had over and over 
observed attending the full remittents of this county." 

He enumerates the symptoms which are those ascribed to 
yellow fever at this day, and concludes by asserting " Ihat 
the yellow fever of the city and bilious fever of this county 
are the same complaint" 

Among his recapitulations of the points of argument is this: 
" The disease is but little more destructive to life in the city 
than in the country, and if so, probably only in proportion to 
the number of quacks there practicing." • 

As to the causes of fever he delivers his views of the etiol- 
ogy of our epidemic fever as follows : 

" From these facts we are under the necessity of abandoning 
putrid effluvia, particularly of animal production as the cause 
of fever. Marsh and vegetable effluvia as the cause of remitt- 
ing and intermitting fever is but little better supported. Up- 
wards of thirty years have I practiced in this county and have 
noticed this village (Belvidere,) entirely exempt from either 
kind of fever, when at the same time the stench of your mill 
pond from the decomposition of dead vegetable substances 
along its border was more deadly than that of any slaughter- 
house whatever. During the seasons to which I have referred, 
the inhabitants of Scott's Mountain, in the most elevated por- 
tion of the township, and generally healthy, and where they 
have neither rivers, nor creeks, nor lakes, nor pools of stag- 
nant water, were much affected with agues and fever, at the 
same time in this very place, where the inhabitants were liter- 
ally immerijed in the effluvia from morning till night, the pale 
visage of disease was not to be seen." 

It is proper here to digress to say upon the same topic of 
etiology, that at this day doubts of a specific malaria as the 
cause of our fevers are still entertained. Fifteen years of the 
phenomena leave me without definite ideas as to the rules by 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOCIETIEa 303 

which their causes operate. I know the seasons of their great- 
est prevalence and those of their almost total disappearance, 
but cannot definitely fix the season for either. When the 
meadows in the valley of the Paulins Kill have been over- 
flowed in summer, a peculiar pungent smell succeeds, which 
strangers call the fever poison, but I have not known this to be 
followed by any unusual prevalence of agues or fevers, either 
annoying old residents or new comers. It seems to me entirely 
probable that dampness succeeding frequent rains, succeeded 
by hot suns which debilitate, the blowing of winds from a par- 
ticular point of compass for a continuous period, are exciting 
causes when the cerebro-spinal system is more than usually 
susceptible to morbid impressions, quite as likely to produce 
febrile symptoms as any specific poison. Confirmatory of the 
remark quoted from Dr. G., I note the circumstance of the 
present season, 1865, that in the family of the Blairstown 
Presbyterian Academy, but one case of fever has been seen, 
previous to last August, at which time an epidemic fever of 
intermittent and remittent character affected two-thirds of its 
numbers, which were about sixty. The Institution is located 
on a hill above the village and the citizens along the street of 
the village but little above the meadows, were almost entirely 
exempt: Cases of the same kind were met with in distant and 
isolated portions of my practice, proving that the disease had 
no local origin. Dr. G. closes this address with an anecdote 
of Dr. Hosack, who positively pronounced a case of yellow 
fever in the Hospital and reported the same as such to the 
Board of Health, in which the patient recovered from intoxi- 
cation and walked back to Governor's Island, where he be- 
longed as a soldier, before the Doctor returned to the Hospital 
to see him. 

lu his second address to the County Society, Dr. G, in his 
positive style on the practice of Dr. Eusb, in yellow fever, 
comments with condemnation of the indiscriminate and ex- 



304 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

cessive use of the lancet and calomel by that eminent man. 
His personal observations and notes of some personal inter- 
course are interesting but will not be quoted, but I cite, as not 
foreign to this paper, the concluding part in which he gives a 
synopsis of the medical treatment of fever in this County for 
a period of thirty years, from 1800 to 1830, From his dis- 
cription, I think he met with many cases like our later styled 
typhoid or enteric fever, which he classes as bilious remittent 
and typhus. Abbreviating his description, it runs as follows : 
" Firat, and very important, gain the confidence of your pa- 
tient, use affability and mildness towards the sick and their 
friends and connections in general ; guard against dejection, 
anxiety and alarm, make few prognostications. The physician 
who is eternally predicting the issue of disease I have always 
considered a kind of would-be medical conjuror, who would 
be much better pleased by a sinister event than to see his skill 
in prediction baffled by a recovery." He rarely restricts the 
appetite of his patient, " but allows cold water, under certain 
restrictions. Beef, oysters, puddings, grapes, peaches and other 
kinds of fruit he allows with- the only precaution of using 
them in a rational way." He says nothing of venesection, 
but " gives an emetic, if called early, which often arrests the 
attack ; it does good in not only emptying the stomach but by 
completely emulging the biliary ducts and making a general 
impression on the neighboring organs and by increasing the 
secretions. They are good only in the forming stage, but later 
are injurious by producing too great a degree of debility." 
He gives " a cathartic of cal. and jal., and keeps the bowels 
slightly relaxed. Antimonials succeed to keep up slight nau- 
sea and act as diaphoretics, for if ever a crisis is effected in 
fever by any discharge it is by perspiration." He places great 
reliance on opium, using spts. nit dulc, and thebaia tina com- 
bined. Blisters ate highly recommended, saying, "they pro 
duce a new state of excitement in the system," reminding us 



REPORTS OP DISTRICT SOCIETIES. 305 

of the therapeutical idea of our later day, that blisters arc 
real stimulants and not to be used in too high a stage of excite- 
ment He never uses them " without the precaution of giving 
demulcent drinks to avoid strangury." As tonics, when he 
finds an intermission or remission he resorts to the plentiful 
use of Fowler's solution and tinct columb. I quote, **Our 
new remedy, the quinine, of which I have little experience, 
perhaps on trial may be found preferable to either." For the 
more alarming symptoms of the low stages, he gives as stimu- 
lants the volatile alkali, frequent draughts of tepid wine and 
water, or strong wine whey, and for subsultus tendinum, 
musk. I have looked through the Doctor's note book, in which 
he has industriously noted medical facts and ideas with for- 
mulas. He marks down the indications for the use of ergot, 
then a new remedy, mixes up his prescriptions for blacking, 
ink, pills, beer, with the new nomenclature of the materia 
medica and rules in cases of poisoning. A prescription 
for "neuralgia or tic doleru," reads thus: " Oil of turpentine 
given in doses of a scruple three times a day is said to be for 
this complaint a very effectual remedy, and generally cures in 
six or eight days." " For the red nose of drunkards, wash 
and rub the part frequently with soap and water, also mere, 
ointment." Toothache: " The lady bug mashed between the 
fingers and rubbed upon the gum and around it gives imme- 
diate and perfect ease." 

As an adjunct to these historical quotations on the febrile 
diseases of this County I now add a detailed statement of the' 
phenomena and treatment of the fevers of the summer of 
1865. 

The epidemic fever of the past summer was of a different 
type from any seen within the past fifteen years. Its fbrm 
was intermittent and remittent, these characters so plainly de- 
veloped in most cases as to cause them at first to be designated 
as the frequent visitants of former years. Their course, dura- 

39 



306 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

tion and the modified treatment required, however, establish 
their claim to peculiar considerations. Although isolated 
cases were met with early in the season, yet it was not until 
August that the epidemic was fully apparent In all cases the 
type of the fever was as before mentioned, the complication 
was always that of a mucous membrane. In the vast nmjon- 
ty of cases, that of the stomach was implicated, constituting 
a disease which in some respects might have the title "epidem- 
ic gastric fever," resembling in its descriptions that given by 
Dr. Cheyne, in Cyc. Prac. Med., and who observes that he has 
met with the disease three times within thirty years, up to 
1830. I do not claim exact similarity, but his description is 
as close as any detailed by standard authora In the next 
numerous class of cases, the lining of the colon bore the brunt 
of internal congestion and irritation with dysenteric symptomsL 
After these came in frequency aflfections of the bronchial mu- 
cous membrane taking the forms of capillary bronchitis, a dis- 
ease difficult to remove and not free from danger to the pa- 
tient I think I am justified in saying that pharyngitis with 
diphtherial exudation in a few cases was owing to the same 
morbific cause. This will seem a sweeping classification, but 
the fact of dysenteric, diphtherial and gastric symptoms occur- 
ing in the same or contiguous houses at nearly the same time, 
rather invites the conclusion, that they were owing to the same 
epidemic influence. 

The diagnosis of this gastric fever, was at first perplexing 
from the absence of the severer and positive symptoms which 
are laid down as indicating functional disease of the stoniach — 
vomiting was not frequent, nor much pain in epigastrium- 
no ejection of bilious matters, no great tenderness on pressure, 
what was thrown oif when emesis was pi^sent was a white 
glaisy mucus, or watery evacuation. The tongue was covered 
with a whitish cream like fur, the tip reddened, and the papills 
invariably enlarged and shining through the coat in the early 



REPORTS OF DISTRICT SOdXTIlBa 807 

Stage— as the tongue cleaned these, papillee were very promi- 
nent — the surface red, moist and watery, and in severe cases 
putting on a thrushy exudation, contrasting in most points 
with the smooth, shining, diy surface of enteric fever. The 
coat very rarely had the yellow color implying bilious com- 
plication. The patient admitted soreness rather than pain in 
the epigastrium, there was no preceding diarrhoea, nor were 
the bowels easily affected by character, scarcely any tympan- 
ites, no rose colored spots. In most cases the febrile re-action 
was not very great, the ^ulse ranging from 80 to 100 in near- 
ly all cases, but it had when first noticed the small thready 
contracted feeling which would be anticipated. Convalesence 
was established in many cases within the first week, in the 
majority in the second week, whilst a very few extended to 
the third and fourth week, but these were mostly relapsing 
cases from some new irritation. Brain complications and ner- 
vous symptoms were light and rare, contrasting the cases re- 
markable with those of past years in the less neuralgic charac- 
ter of their invasioa In my fifteen years experience, I have 
seen strongly congestive intermittants, almost cerebro-spinal 
meningitis, some near the algide forms of the south, others 
having the break bone character of Dengue, sometimes paraly- 
sis as the result of intense and exalted febrile manifestation, 
but these symptoms mainly absent this year. I feel quite 
sure that I have already indicated the diagnosis from enteric 
fever, namely in the isolation ot the gastric sjrmptoms and the 
freedom from indications of intestinal ulceration. Two or 
three cases in seventy might have been construed to that form 
but the irritation was secondary and not a primary manifesta- 
tion. I should state before leaving the description that, in a 
few cases of sudden invasion the tongue had a dry brownish 
streak through its middle, but this was temporary — disap- 
peared with its return of secretion and indicated acute erethism 
of the gastric mucous membrane. 



808 MKDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

As I have spoken of the plain intermissions and remissions 
of the disease, so these evidently invited the use of anti-period- 
ics. Experience showed not only their inability to arrest these 
paroxysms in most instances, but also a very evident aggrava- 
tion of symptons from their use, and was the guide to accurate 
diagnosis. I was confirmed in previous belief in the contra- 
indication of quinine when gastric complications exist, but am 
sure that to a greater extent than is admitted is the inappro- 
priate condition of the stomach for its reception the cause of 
disappointment in many cases in which it is given as a general 
tonic. There was no difficulty as to its retention in the stom- 
ach, but this was at the expense of prolongation of the local 
complication. Judging as well as I can, I think the pathology 
was that of a sub acute gastritis, possibly catarrhal in its char- 
acter, with congestion, dryness, suspension of the functions of 
absorption and secretion in the early stages of the attack 
I am confirmed in this view by a remark of Brinton, in his 
treatise on diseases of the stomach, seen since the epidemic is 
over, that such a condition (viz. sub acute gastritis) is present in 
cases of scarlet fever, and as the appearance of the tongue in 
the two diseases was so strikingly similar, the impression is 
not unlikely. For similar reasons are we disappointed in the 
chills of Phthisis, because quinine is illy adapted to ihe gas- 
tric complication often present. In support of these views I 
briefly cite a case of chills, which I saw before the epidemic, 
. in which quinine in form of pills, powder or solution was per- 
sistently rejected, but the paroxysm was broken when the 
medicine was given by enema, showing that a healthy mem- 
brane is necessary for its absorption and an irritated one is 
illy syited for its contact The plain indications of treatment 
were, to relieve the congested and irritated condition of the 
stomach, to restore secretion, and sustain the system by the 
early resumption of diet as soon as any degree of digestion 
was attainable. To fulfil these, I directed counter irritants by 



RKPOBTa OF DisMiar socifettES. 309 

mustard and liniments to the whole spinal column, bran poul- 
tices to the epigastrium. The mildest cathartics, as blue mass, 
Hy'c C. and Magnesia, Pil. Hyd. and Aloes, or simple enemas 
were used to regulate the bowels, whilst Ipecac and Bi-Carb. 
Soda, in doses small, so as to excite secretion without nausea, 
seemed to act happily upon the stomach. 

Opiates, even in small doses, seemed to delay the restoration 
of proper moisture to the mouth, and were given rather 
sparingly. The early resumption of diet as soon as digestion 
could proceed, happily sustained the system and I think hin- 
dered the accession of symptoms common to the lower stages 
of every form of fever, and did away almost entirely with the 
necessity for and use of stimulanta Without enlarging upon 
the propriety of their use, I have rather a confident belief that 
the gastric condition at times was aggravated by the exhibi- 
tion. But one case proved fatal in the whole season from fe- 
ver. In that the tongue indicated a condition approaching 
that of softening; under mild treatment the case held its own 
well for four days, but as some symptoms of failure of vital 
powers were manifest, stimulants were given, but the fatal 
event was not in the least postponed although he had them 
freely. 

I understand that at Belvidere intermittents have been 
more numerous than usual, and through the township of 
Knowlton many cases of typhoid fever have been met with. 
I regret that I have no detailed statements from my esteemed 
friends who occupy those districts. 

From the substance of this paper, both as it relates to the 
past and the present, one would suppose that fevers were the 
main sastenance of doctors ; but our practitioners have to deal 
with all the diseases incident to our climate, and the reporter 
is well satisfied if from the somewhat lengthened statement, 
the lesson is repeated, that we must ever watch the changing 
forms of our most familiar diseases. 



310 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JSR8EY. 

The present status of the profession in the county is en- 
couraging, the proportion of practitioners to the population 
varies not far from one to one thousand. Of my cotemporaries, 
I can bear cheerful testimony to their character and educa- 
tion, both as men and practitioners. The greater part of them 
are graduates of medical schools, or have received license un- 
der the regime of our state society, all as far as I know devote 
themselves singly to the duties of their calling, and have a due 
sense of its dignity and importance, and we need only more 
efficient organization and more frequent communings upon our 
topics of common interest to maintain that worthy reputation 
which the inhabitants of the county accorded to our predeces- 
sors. To the credit of the people be it said, that quackery 
does not flourish among them, as I do not know of an irregu- 
lar practitioner in our midst The matrons who officiated as 
practitioners of midwifery thirty years ago have passed away 
without leaving successors of their own sex, and common fame 
deals kindly with their memories, speaking of their general 
good sense and abstinence from ignorant officiousness. 

I send herewith, a record of a case of dislocation of the fe- 
mur into sciatic notch — ^reduction — secondary displacement 
into a new and anomalous position. 

Dr. Johnson's Case. 

February 1st, 1866, 1 visited F. B , a young man. nine- 
teen years of age, who, whilst in a stooping position, had been 
injured by a blow from a tree felled by his companions. Up- 
on the removal of the tree he recovered the erect positioii 
without assistance, but complained of severe pain in his 
knee which ceased before I saw him. An examination showed 
dislocation of the head of the femur into the left sciatic .notch, 
which was proved by shortening, strong inversion of the toe 
towards the instep of the right foot, the knee thrown almost 
into the right popliteal region, fulness of glutei muscles and 



BSPOBXS OF I»STRICr SOCISTIBa 811 

the head of the bone felt rather indistinctl j in its new position 
in the notch. After the administration of chloroform, efforts 
at redaction by manipulation were made and persisted in for 
a time, but they were unsaocessfal. Besort was had to exten- 
sion and counter extension when I passed the left knee over 
the right, and lifting the head of the lemur it passed readily 
into the acetabulum. A critical examination satisfied myself 
and all present that the reduction was complete. The patient 
was ordered to keep the recumbent position, and a lotion to the 
joint, and morphia was prescribed. 

July 2d and 3d, found the patient in good spirits, 
wanting to get up, which I forbid ; the hip was slightly swoll- 
en and sore, which I attributed to injury of soft parts. 

July 4th, omitted a visit 

July 5th, on entering the patient's room, found him sitting 
at a desk writing, with his clothes on — said he was getting 
along well, having placed himself there by his own help. 
Upon examination I found the left hip much larger, the leg 
strongly ever^, the heel across the right instep, a shortening 
of one and a half inches. Placing the patient on his back I 
found it impossible to rotate the limb inwardly and was 
quite certain that I felt the head of the femur just below the 
anterior superior spinous process of the ilium and where the 
great trochanter would be if in its normal position. The 
trochanter less 'prominent than usual. At no stage of either 
examination could I detect crepitus, but the present position of 
the limb was like that of fracture of the neck of the femur. 
Being without anassthetics I postponed further attempts at re- 
duction till 8 A. M. on the 6th, when T had the concurrence 
of Dr. C. V. Moore, as to the probability of the form of dis- 
location and absence of fracture. Chloroform was again in- 
haled and manipulation tried by myself and Dr. Moore with- 
out success, and resort was a second time had to extension and 
counter extension, without result, until I strongly rotated the 



312 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 

limb inward and with my right hand under the thigh raised 
the trochanter towards its right position when redaction was 
effected. Subsequently the patient was kept in bed for three I 

weeks, and in due time perfectly recovered the use of the 
limb. 

The secondary displacement most probably occurred on the 
night of the 8th of July, as he told me that his hip pained 
him severely at that time. 

Professors Gross and Hamilton both mention the anomalom 
displaceiineni of the head of the bone which took place in this 
case, but that the secondary dislocation should have varied so 
much from the first, is certainly among the rarer events of 
surgical experience. The case is instructive as showing the 
near concurrence of symptoms with fracture of neck of femur 
within capsular ligament. 

J. C. JOHNSOX. 

Blairstown, Dec. 27th, 1865. 



1866. 



Tha names printed in Capitals are FeUows of the Medical SoeUty (f New Jeraey; 
those marked thus (*) are Memden of JHttriet SoeUtiet. 

ATUUTTIC COUHTT. 



Jonathan Pitney, 


Abteeom. 


Samnel Edmonds, 




Jonathan Bay Pitney, 


it 


Job Somers, 


it 


Stacy Kirkbride, 


Port MywbUc. 








BEXOEH 


comrTT. 






Albert S. Zabriskie, 




*Ahraham Hopper, 


SadMuaek, 


Simeon J. Zabrlskie, 


SaddUMiwr, 


Wm.H.Hal], 


ii 


•Bernard Oblenis, 


tt 11 


•H. A. Hopper, 


tt 


John T. Demand, 


Sbhokus, 


•Charles Hasbronck, 


t« 


Stnart Morse, 




*JohnJ.Haring, 


aekraaUiUnirQh. 








BinujvoTOH comrTT. 




•Henry K. Longstreet, 




•Geoige Haines, 


MfiCLJoML* 


•James D. Yonng, 


«« 


Henry P. Bly, 


tt 


•L. P. JemlBon, 


«i 




•t 


•J. Howard Pogh, 


41 


Lewis P. Shaip, 


ti 


•Franklin Ganntt, 


it 


El^ahWoolston, 


ManUim. 


•FiankUnLippinoott, 


«« 


Samuel Woolston, 




BBNJ. H. 8TRATTON, 




•Alex. ElweU, 


tt 




tt 


•E. P. Townsend, 


JSteMKy. 


•Andrew B.Badd, 


tt 


John W. Bryan, 


tt 


Bamnel B. Bmalley, 


tt 


Wm. K. Woolsey, 


tt 


Lewis A. Hall, 


tt 


Wm. Bryan, 


tt 


ISAAC P. C0L1EBCAN, 


Pemderion, 


•Wm.L. Martin, 


StUMOOtUm 


•Aaron Bead, 


tt 


Phinneas HUUard, 


BassJHver, 


Jacob Grlgg, 


it 


•Wm.K. Mason, 


Tuekcrton, 


•Jonathan J. Spencer, 


Moontiowfit 


•Thea T. Price, 


tt 


•Samuel C. ThomtoUi 


it 


•George GoodeU, 


IWtdntnf. 


Newland Stokes, 


tt 


•BichardH.Page, 


CkOmnbut, 


iTohnH. Stokes, 


It 


James M. Beam, 


Jaeobt Town, 


Strond, 


*» 






40 









314 



MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 



CAKDEN GOUHTY. 



♦Henry B. Brannin, 


Blackvfoodtown. 


♦John V. Schenck, 


Camden. 


♦Sylvester Birdaall, 


Camden. 


♦John W. Snowden, Waiefford Giau Worki 


RICHARD H. COOPER, 


" 


♦John R. Stevenson, 


Camden. 


Jonathan Comfort, 


UaddonJUld, 


David M. Stout, 


Taneboro. 


♦Thomas P. CuUen, 


Camderu 


Henry A. M. Smith, 


Oioucetter CUy. 


♦Bowman Hendry, 


** 


Martin Synott, 


Blaekwoodtom. 


Charles D, Hendry, 


Haddof^fidd. 


OTHL. H. TAYLOR, 


Camden. 


Lorenzo F. Fisher, 


Camden. 


♦H. Genet Taylor, 


14 


♦Napoleon B. Jennings, 


HaddonfUid. 


R. D. Taylor, 


" 


♦Alex. Marcy, 


Camden. 


♦J. GUbert Young, 


ffaddon/ffid. 


♦Isaac S. Mulford, 


(I 


Wm. S. Bishop. U. S. N., 


Camden. 


♦John M. Ridge, 


(4 


♦Richard C. Dean, U.B.N 


, " 




CAPE HAY COITKTY. 




Randolph Itarshall, 


MarshaUviUe. 


Slaughter, Cape May Cowi H. 


Edmnnd L. B. Wales, 


Tuckahoe. 


John Wiley, 


44 


Maurice Beaslcy, 


J)enni8vUl4, 


V. M. D. Marcy. 


ColdS^^ring. 


George Carroll, 


(i 


S. S. Marcy, 


Cape Island. 


Alex. Young, 


Goshen. 


James S. Kennedy, 


44 


Alex. Mccray, Cape May Court H, 








CUHBERLA. 


TO comriY. 

♦Samuel Q. Cattell, 


DeerJMd. 


•Wm. S. Bowen, 


BHdgetm. 


♦J. Barron Potter. 


(t 


♦Charles C. PhiUips, 


(4 


♦Natl. R. Newkirk, 


" 


BBNJ. R. BATKMAN, 


CedarcUU. 


♦Robert W. Elmer, 


ii 


♦Eli C. Batcman, 


** 


John B. Bowen, 


»« 


♦Bphraim Bateman, 


•* 


WILLIAM ELMER, 


11 


♦Robert M. Bateman, 


" 


♦William Elmer, Jr., 


" 


Charles Butcher, 




James Loper, 


MiUvilU. 


George Butcher, 


Dividing Cretk. 


EUJah B. Richmond, 


" 


Samuel Butcher, 


Mauricetown. 


Wm. L. Newell, 


" 


♦George Tomlinson, 


Roadstoan. 


Charles B. Thomas, 


li 


♦Thomas H. Tomlinson, 


SkUoh, 


J. Sheppard Whltaker, 


" 


♦Enoch Fithian, 


VTeenwwcH. 


R. M. Chase, 


Vineland. 


♦Wm. B. Ewing, 


" 


L. H. Aiken, 


•♦ 


Ephralm Holmes, 


** 


H. W. Causdell, 


»* 


Thomas E. Stathems, 


44 


E. B. Flagg, 


ti 


J. Howard Willetts, 


J^frtStizabUk. 


C. R. Wiley, 


a 


Jacob T. Sharp, 


" 


J. Ingraham, 


" 


Daniel Carlisle, 


Leeslmrg. 




ESSEX 


COUKTY. 




♦Milton Baldwin, 


Newark. 


M. H. C. Vail, 


NevDork 


Wilson P. BeU, 


" 


♦Wm. S. Ward, 


44 


♦J. Henry Clark, 


(i 


♦John F. Ward, 


44 


ABRAHAM COLES, 


" 


♦Arthur Ward, 


" 


♦Joseph A. Corwln, 


" 


Charles F. Webner, 


" 


J. J. Craven, 


»4 


♦Charles M.Zeh, 


" 



PHYSICIANS OF NEW JEESEY. 



315 



♦J. A. Croas, 


Neioark. 


♦James B. Cutter, 


Nemtrk. 


♦B. L. Dodd, 


ti 


♦Lott Southard, 


it 


* J. D. Bmmley, 


it 


♦Addison W.Woodhul], 


it 


James Hajes, 


t( 


♦Edgar Holden, 


li 


♦Alex- N. Donghertj, 


it 


♦A. M. Mills, 


li 


♦Christopher Eyrich, 


(C 


G. M. Brennan, 


ti 


♦James Elliott, 


" 


♦D. C. Hickey, 


it 


W. B. Grover, 




♦Charles P. Lehlbach, 


it 


♦Gabriel Grant, 




♦D. S. Smith, 


Irvinffion. 


Ambrose Herzog, 




♦Edward T. Whittingbam, 


MUUmm. 


♦PridoUneBl, 






Newark, 


♦Joseph B. Jackson, 




♦Daniel M. Skinner, 


BeUefoUU. 


♦Max Kuechler, 




♦Samuel L. Ward, 


" 


W. Kanflhian, 




♦Wm. Pierson, 


Orange. 


♦J.H.Hobart;Breintnall. 




♦Stephen Wlckes, 


" 


8. C. Marsh, 




Charles H. Hedges, 


i» 


♦Wm. T. Mercer, 




♦Wm. Pierson, Jr., 


it 


R B. Mershon, 




Wm. H. Holmes, 


it 


Henry Kadler, 




♦L. M. Crane, 


" 


♦Edward P. Nichols, 




♦Frederick N. Bennett, 


it 


♦Isaac A. Nichols, 




Henry W. Boone, 


it 


♦Wm. O'Gorman, 




James Orton, 


CatdweU. 


♦£. A. Osborne, 




Charles H. Hunter, 


it 


♦J. D. Osborne, 




♦Stephen Pewonette, 


Verona. 


SAMUEL H. PENNINGTON, " 


Joseph A. Davis, 


BloonkfUid. 


♦Abner W. Reeve, 


" 


♦Eleazer Ward, 


" 


J. O. Schoch, 


it 


Edward M. Ward, 


ii 


♦EdwardD. G.Smith, 


it 


Isaac Davis Dodd, 


it 


♦D. W. Smith, 


*» 


♦J. H. H. Love, 


MonUiair. 


♦Wm. Taylor, 


it 


♦W. Hugh Pierson, U.S.N. 


, Orange. 


♦H, H. Tichenor, 


tl 


Samuel H. Bassinger, 


Blamed. 


I. P. Trimble, 


it 


A. A. Ransom, 


South Orange. 




GLOTTCESTEB COUHTY. 




JOSEPH JflTHIAN, 


Woodimry. 


W. Jackson, 


Bridport. 


♦Charles P. Clark, 


" 


J Warner, 


" 


♦Benjamin P. Howell, 


it 


♦John H. Ashcroft 


MuUiea HiU. 


♦Henry C. Clark, 


*' 


♦Jacob Fisher, 


Harrison. 


♦Samuel T.Miller, 


FaulOaro. 


Martin Synott, 


Glasboro. 


B. L. Reeves, 


** 


J. F. Hentage, 


it 


♦James C. Weatherby, 


Clarktboro. 


JOHN R. SICKLER, Carpenter's Landing 


♦Charles Garrison, 


Swedeabaro, 


Samuel Fisher 


Fiskervm. 


♦Lnther F. Halsey, 


it 


C. W. Smith, 


Malaga. 




HUBSOir 


COXnffTT. 




THEO. R. VARICK, 


Jersey aty. 


Edgar Olcott, Jr., 


Jersey City. 


♦J. Edwin Culver, 


SwUan OUy. 


Alfred A. Sutklns, 


it 


♦Joseph H. Yondy, 


Jersey CUy. 


Walter J. Hadden, 


it 


♦Banlel L. Reeve, 


" 


Avery, 


Bergen. 


♦Zalmon S. Booth, 


£eT^^n» 


Wm. Homblower, 


Hudson CUy. 



816 MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JERSEY. 




^Borneo P. Chabert, 


BDMm, 


Hogg, 


Bergen. 


•Samael R. Fomum, 


JBttffUU 


JohnM.Julien, 


BoMoen. 


•Theo. F. MorrlB, 


Jeney CUv, 




ct 


•F. G. Payne, 


BtTff^k I\ivM» 




Jersey CUy. 


•John W. Hunt, 


Jengy OUy, 


B. A. Watson, 


»i 


•Joseph F. Finn, 


OrMMPkh. 


Charles Cook, 


u 


* Jiunea Cnig, 


jBTHVOUy. 


Josiah Homblower, 


BttdaonfUy. 


•James Wilkinson, 


Bergen. 




WMHiMbfn. 


•George W. Talson, 


Weet Hodden. 


L W.Elder, 


HoMten. 


•T. K Noble, 


BudeonCUy. 


Lowenthall, 


** 


•James McDowell, 


Jereey OUy. 


Peter H.Zabriskie, 


Jersey CUy. 


•J. T. Field, 


SaUeretWe. 




Vnionma. 


•J. B. Bardett, 


Hudson GUy. 


AdolphKirsten, 


Jersey CUy. 


•AitdiibaldMoJ. Gregory, 


Jereey City. 


W. Hasbronck, 


(I 


•B. B. Buffet, 


Bergen. 


OttacarKopetchney, 


w 


Edgar Olcott, 


Jermy CUy. 


W. J. Dodd, 


»t 




SUMTSSDOH GOinrTT. 




•Wm. Johnson, 


WkUehouee. 


John Honeyman, 


H^GemuuUoum 


•JohnF.Schenck, 


jnemington. 


W. A. A. Hunt, 


Oarkstm. 


SAMUEL LnJiY, 


LamdertviUe. 


Theo. K Hunt, 


«( 


•G. H. Lariflon, 


(4 


Henry Field. 


CIMim. 


•J. H. Btuddlford, 


»i 


SyWeeterVanSychel, 


(i 


•J. A. Gray, 


Fleminfftan. 


J. BlackfM^, 


lebmonviUi. 


•George K. Sollivan, 


u 


Joseph Bird, 


T».M«iii«iIWt 

A m yumn. 


•Moses D. Knight, 


IMOe York. 


John Grandln, 


xrawMicn. 


•Charles Bartolette, 


Milord. 


Howard Servis, 


HewEeMHftm. 


•N. B. Botlean, 




JohnPnrcen, 


FrenehUmn. 


•John Leavitt, 




Wm. Rice, 


u 


•Matthias Abel, 


Quakertown. 


Wm. Wetherin, 


LemUrtsitte. 


•C. W. Larison, 


Bkit/oee. 




Iir.GermmUm 


•J. R. Glenn, 


BeaoOe. 


Henry Race, 


FUUtoenL 


•Henry Smith, 


NMhafOe. 


Cicero Hunt, 


mngoes. 


•WnL S. Creyeling, 


atanlon. 


Thomas M. Bartolette, 


Mmford. 


•Isaac S. Cramer, 




R. B. Matthews, 


ChserSUL 


•H. B. Nightingale, 


Stockton. 


J. v. Johnson, 


WkUdiOUM. 


•Levi Farrow, 


JPtrryme. 


B. A. Watson, 


(i 


•John 8. Linaberry, 




Thomas Johnson, 


BeaHngtsn. 


JOHNBLANB, 


* vn yvuie. 


J. D. McCanley, 


OentftnBt. 




XSSGEl 


I GOUMTY. 




•W. W. L. Phillips, 


Trenion. 


J.G.Lindgren, 


Trenton. 


•John L. Taylor, 


ti 


•T. J. Corson, 


" 


JAMES B. COLEMAN, 


It 


John Woodhull, 


PrinettmL 


•JohnMcKelway, 


41 


J. 8. Schenck, 


14 


Alex. McKelway, 


U 


Archibald Alexander, 


44 


•Charles Hodge, Jr., 


'\ 


James WyooA; 


44 


•David Nearman, 


ii 


W.J.Lytle, 


»* 


•D. P. VaiU 


(4 


Ellas Baker, 


44 


•Charles Skdton, 


i« 


•p. H. Bartine, 


44 



PHYSICIANS OF NEW JEBSEY. 



317 



*R.R.Bflgen, 


TrmUm. 


John Warren, 


PrtneeUm, 


«B. J. Grant, 


(. 


B. N. Baker, 


LawrencevUU. 


*C. Shepard, 


i( 


Geoige White, 


ii 


•H. a DesEDger, 


4t 


John Bcndder, 


Xwinff. 


L-J-Ionnan. 


it 


George B. Bobins, 


ffamUton Bq're. 


Sanh B. Ijman, 


t« 


Uoyd Wilbnr, 


Eightttown. 


♦8. B. Conover, 


ii 


R P. Hawk, 


ffopeweU. 


JOHN WOOLVKRTON, 


l( 


H. P. Welling, 


SemUtffUm. 


Jos. W. Woolverton, 


ii 


K. L. WeUlng, 




Patrick McCaflhiy, 


»' 


Blackwell, 


TUutvm. 


Wm. Green, 


•* 


Israel Hart, 


Bemington. 


Jacob R. James, 


li 


JOHN H. PHILLIPS, 


ii 




ti 


John M. Lowe, 


TUueviUe. 




lODOLESEX GOUKTY. 




*Wm. Van Deuaen, 


Ifew Brunttffick, 


Wm. Lot, 


Crwwerry. 


•Ang. F. Taylor, 


(t 


fltrirlrrrr 


it 






J. Janeway, 


«i 


•J. 0. Thompson, 


Washington. 


*C. Morrongh, 


u 


•B. J. Bramagen, 


Bpottufood. 


•A. D. Newell, 


it 


•Ambrose Treganowan, 


South Amb&y. 


*Clia0. H. Dunham, 


u 


•G. W. Stont, 


it 


*H.B. Baldwin, 


it 


Chas. Woodward, 


Jamesburg, 


•J.W.Meeker, 


ii 


•C. McK. Smith, 


Perth Amboy. 


♦P. B. BarlMffin, 


ii 


•Solomon Andrews, 


ii 


•Cliaa. H. YoorhiB, 


it 


•Dayton Decker, 


Metuchen, 


Blover, 


ii 


BZBA M. HUNT, 


ii 


Iff- Kamnara, 


il 


•B. B. Freeman, 




H. S. dove. 


Cranberry. 


•Sam'l B. Freeman, 


ii 


aGnllck, 


It 


SUas Bnnyon, 


New MarleL 


Holmes 


it 


CJorrlell, 


ii 




XOVXOtrXH C0T7HTT. 




•Jeremiahs. EnglUh, 




Z-S.Chattle, 


Long Branch. 


•B, W. Cooke, 


Bolmda. 


Z. W. Scrlvner, 


it 


•A. V. Conover, 


Freehold, 


R W. Dlsbrow, 




•Edward Taylor, 
ALPBBD B. DAYTON, 
•Wm. A.Newen, 


MiddUdown. 
AUentown. 


Jackson Dlsbrow, 


it 

PerHnevlUe. 
«i 


Van Zant, 


•Jno. J. Woodhnll, 


Freehold, 


Jas. Pattlson, Jr., 




♦D. W.Barclay, 


BifteBaU, 


Wm. Davis, 


Upper Freehold. 


♦Jno. Vonght, 


Freehold, 


Bdward Taylor, Jr., 


Middletown. 


•Robt Laird, 


SQuan vmoffe. 


Wm. Hnbbard, 


Bed Bank, 


•John R. Ckmover, 


FreehxAd. 




BioeviOe, 


•Bobt. R. Conover, 


Bid Bank. 


Hartshorn, 


mddUtoum. 


•J. B. Arrowsmlth, 


KevJPtfrL 


J. Van Qleson, 




.•J. J. Thomason, 


F^rrinetfUle, 


Beets, 


Bed Bank. 




BlueBaO. 


B. Wills, 


Key Port. 


•A. A. Howell, 


AOmtrnxm, 


I. Downs, 


(i 


•S.M.Dl8brow, 


Bguankum. 


Bd. Allen, 


Bhrewebury, 



318 MEDICAL SOOIBTY OF NEW JEBSEY. 


•Wm. D. NeweU, 


AUefUown. 


B. H. Porter, 


Key PaH. 


*Henry L. Cooke, 


HdmitL 


Wm. Palmer, 


w 


*A. A. Hlggtns, 


JSiueBaa. 


L. O. Morgan, 


Maiawem. 


♦Jno. Cook, 




J. S. Shackelton, 


t« 


O. Goodrich, 


It 


Jaa Croft. 






X0XBI8 


COUITTY. 




Lewis Fisher, 


MorHtiawn. 


Henry Stiger, 


Mendhani. 


W. St. G. KUlott, 


li 


J. W. Meuoght, 


" 


Wm. G. Stevenson, 


»( 


Smith Hedges, 


Chester. 


I. N. DeHart, 


" 


Woodhall Hedges, 


44 


T. B. Flagler, 


*• 


Thos. Crittenden, 


Jkmr. 


K. S. HoAnan, 


41 


J. W. Condict. 


" 


G. B. Wood, 


tl 


Colnmbus Beach, 


Soekaway. 


B. W. Stevenson, 


*i 


Jno. Grimes, 


Boonton. 


N. W. Condlct, 


" 


Malcolm Grimes, 


" 


B. B. Woodroir, 


44 


Jno. G. Byerson, 


44 


Marshall Hunter, 


" 


Smith Farrand, 


** 


J. D. Manir, 


" 


Jas. Bieby, 


£fuecaewma. 


F. J. Hyndshaw, 


4» 


BIches, 


44 


Wm. Gray, 


MadUon. 


Timothy Kitchel, 


Whippwy. 


J. E. Wagner, 


44 


Calvin Anderson, 


44 


Jno. Albright, 


CtuUham. 


A. A. McWlthy, 


Fartippany. 


Jno. Stigcr, 


Mendham, 








OCEAN 


COUNTY. 




P. D. Kneskem, 


Torru River. 


Edmund Bennet, 


Bameffot. 


Lewis Lane, 


44 


Blisha S. Merryman, 




Sam'l T.Locke, 


»* 


Geo. T. Fort, 


NewXgypt, 




PASSAIC 


COIFNTY. 




♦JeturR.Rigg«, 


PaUraon. 


♦Oswald Warner, 


Patemn. 


♦A. W. Sogers, 


" 


♦Wm. Blnndcl, 


'* 


♦Jno. Qnin, 


" 


♦Garret Terhnne, 


TtiMsak. 


•B. J. Whitely, 


44 


♦B. A- Terhune, 


*♦ 


♦Bidley Kent, 


44 


Wm. Colfax, 


Fomptott. 


♦Sam'l Burr, 


44 


A. A. McWithy, 


44 


♦Henry Van Blarcom, 


" 


Collins, 


We8t2a^rord. 


♦M. Moss, 


" 


W. S. Corson, 




♦Com. S. Van BIper, 


44 


C.T. Van Winkle, 


LUUeFaO*. 


♦S. B. Merrill, 


** 


Marcus Van Winkle, 


" 


Orson Barnes, 


44 








8ALEX 


COUNTY. 




Qainton Gibbon, 


Salem. 


Mayhew Johnson, 


PgnnsGrow. 


Jno. Klrby, 


" 


J. B. Burnett, 


•* 


Jno. B. Presson, 


'* 


Thos. J. Yarrow, 


AUowoyttown, 


Edward S. Sharp, 


" 


Thos. B. Clement, 


Pittsgrovi. 


Oliver S. Belden, 


44 


Moses J. Paulding, 


44 


Ben}. A. Waddington, 


44 


Wm. H. Izzarde, 


PiOeUnofL 



tHYSlCIANS OF NEW JEBSEY. 



819 



Jos. H. Thompson, 


SfOem, 


Geo. M. Paollin, 


Canton, 




Woodstaum. 


ThoB. P. Dickeson, 


Hancock'9 Bridge. 


Thoa. G. Bced, 


" 


Jos. B. Ware, 




• 


SOMERSET 


COITKTY. 




♦Henry H. Vanderveer, 


SomervUle. 


♦Jno. Bobbins, 


BranchvUle. 


•Henry P. Vanderveer, 


'* 


♦Jas. G. Maynard, 


Six Mile Bun. 


•Henry G. Waggoner, 


it 


♦Jno. C. Sntphen, 


I^aFack. 


ROB'T 8. SMITH, 


Bound Brook. 


♦Jos. 8. Sntphen, 


IfuckanUn. 


♦Robt M. Morey, 


(1 


♦Sam'l K. Martin, 


MartinevUU. 


•J. Fred Berg, 


North Branch. 


♦L. H. Mosier, 


Griggetown. 


♦Peter D.McKUsack, 


MiUatOM, 


Henry Smith, 


Shamrock. 


•W. R. Kibble, 


II 


A. W. Voorhees, 


Baskenridge. 


«W. E. MatUson, 


II 


Jas. Doty, 


*' 




SUSSEX 


COUNTY. 




♦Chas. A. Cooper, « 


Deckertoum. 


♦Eugene Schnmo, 


Dayton. 


♦Jno. Titoworth, 


" 


♦P. W. Jacobus, 


FlalbrookoHle. 


♦Alex. Linn, 


11 


♦Thos. Roe, 


PeteretaOey. 


♦Jonathan Havens 


II 


Jeremiah Sackett, ^ 


Oreeneville. 


♦Jos. Hedges, 


BranchvUle. 


Jos. Hedges, 


Stanhope. 


♦Wm. H. T.inn, 


Hamburg. 


D. Mills, X 


" 


♦J. Linn AUen, 


Lafayette. 


•David M. Sayre, 


Newton. 


♦Theophilns H. Andrcss,^ Sparta. 


♦Jno. R. Stuart, 


t( 


♦J. Bedell Boss, 


II 


THOS. RYERSON, 


** 


♦Jno. Miller, 


Andoeer. 


♦Franklin Smith, 


II 


♦Rob't G. Malnes, >C Kennedyelnirg. 


♦Wm. J. Roe, 


" 


♦Chas. V. Moore, 


StiUwater. 


♦Chas. R. Nelden, 


" 


♦Isaac 9. Hnnt, ;c. 


CentreviUe. 


♦Carlos AUen, ^ 


** 




UHIOH 


COUKTY. 




GEO. R. CHETWOOD, 


Elizabeth. 


H. H. James, 


Bahway. 


♦I. 8. Cnme, 


" 


D. W. C. Hough, 


II 


♦RoVt Westcott, 


" 


Hoxie, 


N€W Providence. 


♦L. W. Oakley, 


II 


L H. Snyder, 


Conn. Warms. 


I. S. Green, 


" 


♦Eugene Jobs. 


Springfidd. 


R. J. Bowen, 


" 


Kinch, 


Weatfidd. 


Lonis Brovni, 


II 


J. D. Petheridge, 


II 


♦S. E. Arms, 


11 


Lewis Craig, 


PkAnJUld. 


Sam'l Abemethy, 


Bahway. 


Clias. Stillman, 


*' 


L. Drake, 


11 


JNO. W. CRAIG, 


II 


E. B. Silvers, 


It 


♦J. 8. Martin, 


Blizabethport. 


' 


WABREH COTJHTY. 




♦Jaa. C. Fitch, 


Hope. 


Wm. P. Vail, 




♦P. F. Brakely, 


Belvidere. 


Henry Harris, 


AUamuchy. 


♦Sam'l 8. Clarke, 


II 


Thos. Bond, 


Polkville. 


♦Edwin Byington, 


11 


A. 0. StUes, 


Harmony. 


♦Roderick|Byington, 


II 


J. F. Shepard, 


PhUipstmrg. 



820 



MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JEBSEY. 



* John C. JohiiBon, 
*FhUipF. HnlBhizer, 
•Lathnr C. Bowlby, 
^L. C. Osmnn, 
*Jno. 8. Cook, 
♦Wm. Cole, 
*JaB. D. Dewitt, 
♦QarnerH. Cllne, 
*Lewi8 C. Cook, 
^Tbeo. Cnme, 
*Sam'l S. Kennody, 
*Henry Hnlshizer, 
*Da]i'lL. Dnncan, 



Blairtitnvn. 

SUwardiffUU, 

Vienna. 

Samtttytburg. 

Eadeittiown. 

BnrtOolden. 

Barmonif, 

It 

HackeUtt&wn, 

ti 

StewartmfilU. 



L. M. Otmnn, 
H. H. Abemathy, 
WhitaeldH. Drake, 
Wm. Shipman, 
P. a Crereliiig, 
Alfred Gale, 
Jos. S. Cuok, 
Sam'l Qlenn, 
Jno.y.]latti8on, 
Wm. A. Herrick, 
G. 8. Dearbon, 
Isaac C. Btnart, 



IMlipiburg. 

CarpenimfMi. 

SeilfelniUe. 

Sprinfftiovn, 

BroadwKy. 

Aii/wy. 

WaMinifttHi. 



GafordFurMu 
Btoomfbwrn, 



StJMMARY. 



Monmooth . 

MoiTls 

Ocean 

Passaic... 

Salem 

Somerset... 
Saseez 



Atlantic 5 

Bergen 11 

Burlington 87 

Camden 94 

Cape May .....11 

Cnmberland 86 

Essex 76 

Gloucester 18 

Hudson 48 

Huiterdon 43 

Mercer 44 

Middlesex 80 

NOTE.— The slight discrepancy between the above snmmaiy and the report of the 
Standing Committee, arises from the bringing down tho statistics to a later date. 



44 

» 

6 

tt 

18 

18 

% 

Union....* « 

Warren * 



Total. 



The next annual meeting of the Medical Society of New 
Jersey, will be held at Newark, on the fourth Tuesday of 
May, 1867, at half-past 7 o'clock, P. M. 

Each District Society is entitled to three delegates at large, 
and one additional for every ten members. 

The assessment for the year 1867 upon the District Societies 
is one dollar for each member. 

The Secretaries of the respective Societies are requested to 
send a list of delegates and members to the Recording Secre- 
tary on or before the third Tuesday of May, 1867, in accor- 
ance with the by-laws. 

WM. PiERSON, Jr., Becoy^ding Secretary. 



©otttettts* 



List of Officers, 1866 Page 2 

MtNTJTEs OF Centehnial Meeting • " 3 

Prbsideitt's Address " 15 

Do. do. " The Microcosm," " 21 

Historical Narrative " 67 

Report of SciEirriFic Committeb " 106 

Report OF Standing Committee " 118 

OBrruARiES " 128 

E.Fitz Randolph Smith. " 128 

David C. English " 129 

Alex.Barclay " 130 

Henry Ackley " 130 

Lyndon A. Smith " 133 

Dubois Hasbrouck " 142 

Reports OF District Societies " 144 

Bergen County " 144 

Burlington County " 149 

Camden County " 165 

Cumberland County " 180 

Essex County " 184 

Hudson County " 211 

Hunterdon County " 223 

Mercer County " 258 

Middlesex County " 261 

Monmouth County " 264 

Passaic County " 269 

Salem County " 277 

Somerset County " 282 

Sussex County " 286 

Warren County " 297 

Physicians in New Jersey " 313 

Secretary's Notice of next Annual Meeting " 321 



F 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THB 



MEDICAL SOCIETY 



OF 



NEW JEBSEY, 



1867, 



NBWABK, N. J.: 

FBIHTXD AT THX XTBNIZia OOTJBIBB OVFICB, 800 BBOAO n. 

1867. 



OE^IFIOEK^S, 18 67. 



President. 

JNO. 0. ^0H|7|gK)^....« BLMBiiovN. 

Vice Presidents. 

l8T. TH08. J. CORSON Tbehtos. 

2d, WM. PDERSON ^ Oea»«. 

8d. THOS. p. CULLEN CAimiH 

Corresponding Secretary. 

CHAS. HODGE, Jb TBEirroir. 

Recording Secretary. 

WM. PIERSON, Jb Orasoi. 

Treasurer. 

H. R. BALDWIN New BBUimwiCE. 

Standing Committee. 

STi)PH£N WICKES, Permanent Chairman 0ba50E. 

CHARLES HASBROUCE Hagkbnbace. 

F, GAUNTT , BuBUorGTOir. 






TEIANSACTIONS 

OF THE 




dk«I <f 0mtg »f Piw §ttst^. 



The One Hundred and First Annnal CoBventim of the Medical 
Society of New Jersey was held at Newark, on Tuesday, May 
28th, in Council Hall, at 8 o'clock P. M. 

Dr. B. R. Bateman, President, in the Chair, supported by Vice 
Presidents Drs. Johnson and Corson. 

Dr. R. M. Bateman was appointed on the Committee of Organ- 
ization, which Committee reported by the Recording Secretary the 
following as duly accredited Delegates : 

Burlington District Society — John W. Webb, A. B. Budd, Alex. 
Elwell, Ellis P. Townsend. Members, 20. 

Camden District — ^Thomas P. Cullen, Alex. Marcy, H. G. Tay- 
lor, John W. Snowden. Members, 16. 

Cumberland District— S. O. Cattell, Thos. H. Tomlinaon, R. M. 
Bateman, William Elmer, Jr. Members, 17. 

Essex District— Fj. D. G. Smith, Stickney, Wm. Taylor, H. H. 
Tichenor, Arthur Ward, John P. Ward, Robert Westcott. Mem- 
bers, 48. 

Gloucester District— Wm. K. Turner, C. P. Clark, S. T. Miller. 
Members, 10. 

Hudson District— J. E. Culver, J. W. Hunt, S. R. Fonnan, R. 
F. Chabert, M. A. Miller. Members, 27. 

Hunterdon District — John P. Schenck. Members, 10. 



4 MEDICAL BOCIBTT OF NEW JEBSST. 

Middlesex District — Charles Dnnham, Jr., C. McK. Smith, A. 
Treganowan. Members, 19. 

Mercer District — Jos. L. Bodine, G. Shepard, Dr. Warman, W. 
W. L. Phillips. Members, 19. 

Monmouth District — ^A. B. Dayton, H. G. Cook, John Cook, 
T. J. Thomason. Members, 19. 

Passaic District — A. W. Rogers, J. Qnin, Orson Barnes, R. A. 
Terhune, C. S. Van Riper. Members, 20. 

Somerset District — S. K. Martin, John C. Sutphen, Jas. G. May- 
nard, fl. G. Waggoner. Members, 20. 

Warren District — Lewis C. Cook, Samnel S. Kennedy. Mem- 
bers, 12. 

Sussex District — Jona. Havens, Charles R. Nelden, Charles V. 
Moore, P. W. Jacobus. Members, 19. 

The Secretary also reported the following 

OFFICEBS. 

President — B. R. Batemaa. 

First Vice President-^ohn C. Johnson. 

Second Vice President — T. J. Corson. 

Third Vice President — William Pierson. 

Corresponding Secretary — ^Charles Hodge, Jr. 

Recording Secretary — William Pierson, Jr. 

Treasurer — H. R. Baldwin. 

Standing Committee — Drs. S. Wickes and Chas. Hasbrouck. 

Fellows present or were present some time during the sessioii — 
John W.Craig, B. H.Stratton, Z. Read, R. S. Smith, S. H. Penning- 
ton, S. Lilly, A. B. Dayton, R. M. Cooper, T. Ryerson, J. P. Cole- 
man, J. R. Sickler, J. Blane, J. Woolverton, T. R. Varick, B. M. 
Hunt, A. Coles. 

Delegates from Corresponding Societies present : 
Massachusetts — Dr. Edward Jarvis. 



inNUTES. 5 

Medical Society oj the State of Jfew York — Drs. W. Govan, J. 
F. Jenkins, R. A. Varick. 

Connecticut Medical Society — ^Prof. 0. A. Lindsley , J. H. Beecher. 
Who, on motion of Dr. Wickes, were invited to sit as Corres- 
ponding Members. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read and approved. 

On motion of Dr. Pennington, the following gentlemen were in- 
vited to sit with the Association during its present sessions : 

His Honor the Governor of New Jersey, Prof. Atwater, Dr. 
Hunt ef the Daily Advertiser, Dr. B. J. Hammond of Rhode Island, 
Drs. Warren, Sell, Atkinson, Bates, Garrish of New York, Dr. S. 
W. Butler of Pennsylvania. 

The President then read the Annual Address, the subject of 
which was Cholera. 

On motion of Dr. Ryerson, a vote of thanks was extended to the 
President for his able and interesting address, with the request 
that he furnish the Standing Committee with a copy for publica- 
tion. 

The President announced the following Committees : 
Committee on the Treasurer's Accounts — Drs. Stratton, Hodge, 
Forman. 

Committee on Unfinished Business — Drs. R. M. Cooper, Culver, 
C. F. Clark. 

Committee on Jfomtnating Officers for the Ensuing Year — Alex. 
Marcy, Camden ; C. McK. Smith, Middlesex ; Arthur Ward, Essex ; 
John W. Webb, Burlington ; S. G. Cattell, Cumberland ; W. H. 
Turner, Gloucester ; J. E. Culver, Hudson ; John P. Schenck, Hun- 
terdon ; Jos. L. Bodine, Mercer ; H. G. Cook, Monmouth ; A. W. 
Eogers, Passaic; S. K. Martin, Somerset; L. C. Cook, Warren; 
Jona. Havens, Sussex. 

A communication was received flfom Dr. Pierson, Third "Vice 
President, asking to be excused from reading an essay, having 



6 MEDICAL SOCIBTT OP NEW JEBSEY. 

been prevented from preparing one by a severe injury which he 
had recently received. 

By vote of the Society he was excused. 

The order of business being suspended, acting Mayor Baker 
was presented, who, on behalf of the City Government, made a 
brief address of welcome to the Society, and tendered to the 
members the hospitalities of the city. 

The President replied, with thanks to the City of Newark for 
the courteous manner in which the Society was received, and for 
the accommodations freely extended to it. 

On motion, the Association adjourned, to meet to-morrow at 9| 
o'clock. 



Wednesday morning. The Society convened pursuant to ad- 
journment, the President in the Chair. 

Prayer was offered by the Rev. Dr. Stearns. 
On motion of Dr. R. M. Cooper, it was 

Resolved, That the resident Physicians of Newark, and others 
who may be in town, be invited to be present during the sessions 
of the Society, as corresponding members ; also, the Rev. Dr. 
Steams. 

The report of the Standing Committee was read by the Chair- 
man, Dr. S. Wickes, which report was accepted, and referred to 
the Committee for publication, and the bills ordered to be 
paid. The Committee also presented a petition for the forma- 
tion of a Medical Society in Atlantic county, together with 
the proceedings of the Physicians at their first meeting, with 
a recommendation that they be referred to a Special Commit- 
tee, which was adopted. The following was announced a8 the 
Committee : Drs. R. M. Cooper, S. Pennington, S. Lilly. The 
Committee subsequently reported that they had examined the pa- 
pers, and found the proceedings had been regular, with the excep. 
tion of two names of irregular Physicians on the application, and 



MINUTES. 7 

they recommended that these names be erased, and that a commis- 
sion be granted. The report was accepted and adopted. 

Dr. E. M. Hunt, in behalf of the Committee appointed at the 
last meeting of the Society to present the sanitary and hygienic 
interests of the State to Executive and Legislative consideration, 
made a report, appended to which were the folWwing preamble and 
resolutions : 

Whereas, we regard the public health as a matter of vital im- 
portance, needing the power of legal enactment as well as the 
efforts of medical men, therefore, 

Resolved, That we hereby express our interest in the attention 
given to the subject by his Excellency Governor Ward, in his An- 
nual Message to the last Legislature of the State, and herewith 
utter our conviction that there is much need of such legislation as 
shaR secure in city and country a more general regard to well un- 
derstood sanitary principles and practices. 

Resolved, That the Committee on the subject be continued, and 
be requested on our behalf as citizens, no less than as Physicians, 
in such method as they regard best, to commend the subject to 
Executive and Legislative consideration. 

The report was accepted and the resolutions adopted. 

On niiotion, Dr. Hunt was requested to read a paper on Public 
Health and the importance of Sanitary Laws, before the Assoeia-, 
tion to-day at 12 J o'clock. 

The Committee to obtain the << Record of the Medical gentlemen 
of this State who have served in the Army and Navy of the 
country," made a report, which was accepted and referred to the 
Standing Committee. 

The Corresponding Secretary made the usual annual report 
which was accepted. His bill for postal expenses ($7.45) was or- 
dered to be paid. 



8 MEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

The Treasurer submitted the following report : 

BECBIFT8. 

Amount from late Treasurer $374 00 

Essex District Medical Society assessment 86 00 

Middlesex " " " 20 00 

Passaic " " '* 44 50 

Warren " •" " dO 00 

Amount for dinner tickets (Centenary) 291 00 

1835 50 

EXFENDITUBES. 

Bill of Corresponding Secretary $3 10 

'< of Standing Committee 297 40 

*' for dinner 463 00 

" of Recording Secretary 6 00 

" of Treasurer 12 50 

" of Newark Daily Advertiser 51 50 

" of Janitor for room.... 2J)0 

$835 50 
The Committee on Treasurer's Accounts reported that they had 
examined his vouchers and compared them with his accounts, and 
found the same to be correct. 

The Treasurer presented the following bills : Newark Daily Ad- 
vertiser, $1.50 ; State Gazette, $1.00 ; Medical and Surgical Bo- 
porter, $6.00. 

On motion of Dr. Lilly, the same were ordered to be paid, and 
hereafter the cost of [all advertising to be agreed for prior to its 
being done. 

The Committee on Unfinished Business reported that they had 
examined the records"and found nothing to report. 

Dr. Lilly, of the Delegation to the American Medical Associa- 
tion, read a report of the meetings in 1866 and 1867. 

Dr. Pieraon, of the Delegation to the Connecticut Medical So- 
ciety, read a^report of the meeting Jn 1867. 

Dr. Cooper, also of the Delegation, read a report of the meeting 
in 1866. 



MINUTES. 9 

Dr. E. M. Hunt, of the Delegation to the Medical Society of the 
State of New York, read a report of the meeting in 1866. 
All were accepted and referred to the Standing Committee. 

Dr. Treganowan, of the Delegation to the Medical Society of the 
State of Pennsylvania, stated that owing to a misunderstanding 
among the Delegates as to the time of the meeting of the Society, 
this Society was not represented. 

Delegations from Corresponding Societies being presented. Dr. 
Jarvis, in behalf of the Massachusetts Delegation ; Dr. Lindsley, in 
behalf of the Connecticut ; and Dr. Govan, in behalf the New York, 
duly responded. 

Dr. Aimy, of Cincinnati, late Vice President of the American 
Medical Association, being present, made a brief response to his 
presentation. 

Dr. J. V. Schenck, the regular Essayist, read a paper on Throm- 
bosis. 

On motion, the thanks of the Association were presented to Dr. 
Schenck for his interesting paper, and a copy requested for publi- 
cation in the Transactions. 

Prof. J. C. Hutchinson, of Long Island College Hospital, being 
present, was invited to a seat as a Corresponding Member. 

On motion of Dr. Pennington, the following resolution was 
adopted : 

Resolved, That the Standing Committee be requested to consider 
and report at the next annual meeting, some measures for impart- 
ing greater interest to its proceedings and making them more 
practically useful. 

By vote of the Society, the Standing Committee were given dis- 
cretionary power to publish from five hundred to one thousand 
copies of the Transactions. 

Dr. Ryerson presented the following : 

Resolved, That a Committee of five members be appointed to re- 
2 



10 MEa)ICAL SOCIBTT OP NEW JEBSBJY, 

port to the next' meeting of this Society a plan for establishing at 
a central railroad point a State Hospital, under the auspices of this 
Society, and "by legislative aid, having a definite pro rata number 
of beds free for each county of the State, when demanded by its 
authorities. 

Resolved, That the Society establish, in connection therewith, a 
Medical Library and Museum of General and Pathological An- 
atomy. 

The resolutions were adopted, and the President announced the 
following as the Committee: Drs. Ryerson, Varick, Pennington, 
Bead and Dayton. 

Dr. Varick presented the following : 

Whereas, this Society has been forcibly reminded, by the expe- 
rience of its members, that the utter incompetency of many per- 
sons who are in the habit of dispensing medicines, has led to very 
serious results, involving loss of life, as in the late case in Brook- 
lyn ; and whereas, in the opinion of this Society, some stringent 
measures should be adopted to prevent these mistakes from occur- 
ring; 

Resolved, That this Society do memorialize the Legislature io 
enact a law requiring that all dispensers of medicines, whether 
they be principals or clerks, shall be either regular medical prac- 
titioners, or shall be graduates of some recognized School of Phar- 
macy ; or in lieu of this, that all persons dispensing medicinest 
shall pass an examination before Committees, to be appointed by 
the County Medical Societies, said Committees to consist of one 
Physician and two Apothecaries, who shall be graduates in Phar- 
macy. 

Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to draw up such me- 
morial, to present it to our legislative body, and to see that it is 
duly attended to, and followed up with vigor. 

Adopted, and the following persons appointed on the Committee: 
Drs. Varick, Pierson, Sr., and Hodge. 



J 



MINUTBff 11 

On iiiotion of.Dr. PenBington,; ., . 

Resolved, That the assessment on each member of the Distriot 
Societies for the ensuing year be two dollars. 

Dr. Jeremiah S. English, of Monmolith County, having been pre- 
viously proposed, was duly elected an honorary member of this So- 
ciety. 

Dr. Baldwin proposed Dr. Stephen Wickes, of Orange, for hon- 
orary membership. 

The time set apart for Dr. Hunt's paper having arrived, the Doc 
tor read a very interesting paper upon Public Health, &c. 

On motion, the thanks of the Society were voted to him for his 
paper, and a copy requested for publication. 

The Committee on Nommations made the following report, which 
was accepted : 

Far President — John C. Johnson, Blairstown. 

JFHrst Vice President — ^Thomas J. Corson, Trenton. 

Second Vice President — William Pierson, Orange. 

Third Vice President — Thomas P. CuUen, Camden. 

Corresponding Secretary — C. Hodge, Jr., Trenton. 

Recording Secretary — William Pierson, Jr., Orange. 

Treasurer — ^H. R. Baldwin, New Brunswick. 

Standing Committee — S. Wickes, Orange ; C. Hasbrouck, Hack- 
ensack ; P. Gauntt, Burlington. 

Delegates to American Medical Association — ^A. W. Woodhull 
J. D. Brumley, Samuel Lilly, IL M. Cooper, J. L. Bodine, B. H, 
Stratton, H. G. Cook, T. J. Thomason, Jona. Havens, Wm. Elmer, 
Jr.j George Goodell, Edward Byington, John Blane, William Pier- 
son, Jr., L. P. Jamieson. 

To the Medical Society of Connecticut — ^E. M. Hunt, P. Gauntt, 
T. R. Varick. 

To the Medical Society ofjfew York — G. Grant, 0. McBLnight 
Smith, H. R. Baldwin. 



12 MEDICAL BOOIBTY OP NEW JEBSE?. 

To the Medical Society of Massachusetts — ^B. M. Bateman . A. B. 
Dayton, John Woolverton. 

To the Medical Society of Pennsylvania — S. G. Cattell, A. S. 
Budd, Henry C. Clark. 

To the Medical Society of Ohio — J. B. Coleman, Robert Westr 
cott. 

The gentlemen named by the Committee for the respective of- 
fices were duly elected, Drs. Cooper and Bateman acting as tel- 
lers. 

The Delegates, as named by the Committee, were also dxHj 
elected. 

On molSon, the Delegates were given power to appoint substi- 
tutes. 

On motion of Dr. Corson, 

Resolved, That the next annual meeting of this Society be held 
atPrinceton, on the fourth Tuesday of May, at half-past 7 o'clock 
P.M. 

On motion of Dr. Varick, 

Resolved, That a memorial page be inserted in the Transactions 
to commemorate the death of deceased members. 

Dr. A. Ruppaner, of New York, by request, addressed the So- 
ciety for a half hour, upon the science of Laryngoscopy and Rhin- 
oscopy. 

On motion, the thanks of the Association were voted to the Doc 
tor for his very interesting and instructive lecture. 

Dr. Garrish, of New York, made some remarks upon the use of 
Rhynchosia Excavata in Menorrhagia, also upon the use of the 
Calabar Bean, in cases where a contraction of the pupil is de- 
sired. 

On motion of Dr. Blane, 

Resolved, That in all Aiture publications made by order of this 
Society, containing a list of oflBcers of said Society, instead of the 



HINTTTES. i& 

name of Jacob Johnson, as being Third Vice President in the year 
1823, the name of William Johnson be placed on said list as the 
said officer, the name of Jacob Johnson having been placed on said 
list by mistake, as by reference to the original minutes of 1823 will 
appear. 

On motion of Dr. Ryerson, 

Resolved, That the District Societies be requested to circulate 
petitions for the signature of all the medical men of the State, 
prajring the Legislature to enact an efficient Sanitary law. 

On motion of Dr. Baldwin, 

Resolved^ Thsit this Society gratefiiUy tender their thanks to the 
Common Council of the City of Newark, and to its Board of Health 
and to its Physicians, for their courteous treatment and elegant en- 
tertainment during this the annual meeting of 1867 ; also to the Com. 
mittee of Arrangements for the very efficient manner in which they 
have provided accommodations and entertainments for the comfort 
of the Society. 

The President announced the following Committee of Arrange- 
ments for the next annual meeting : 

Drs. Wycoff, Bartine and Hodge. 

Also, the following persons as Essayists : 

Drs. Thomas P. CuUen, Third Vice President; H. G.Cook, of 
Monmouth ; also, Dr. Ryerson, of Sussex, with the request that his 
subject shall be the " Mechanism of Labor." 

The Society adjourned sine die. 

WILLIAM PIERSON, Jb., 

RecordiTig Secretary, 



REPORTS OF Committers. 



The Committee appointed to obtain a record of the Medical men 
of the State who have serred in the Army and Navy of the coun- 
try during the late civil war, report that they have found it 
impracticable to obtain anything like a complete per£|>nal history 
of the Medical oflScers. They present herewith a complete Roster 
of Medical oflBcers from New Jersey who served during the late 
war. The Committee suggests that after the publication of the 
Roster in the Transactions of the Society, and its general distribu- 
tion, a special request should be made to each and all to send a 
personal history, which may be placed in the archives of the Society, 
or referred to a Committee to compile therefrom a history of the 
part taken in it by the Medical men of the State. From such data 
the Committee believe that a very interesting historical article may 
be prepared. 

The Committee found no means of ascertaining who among our 
Medical men served their country in the Navy Department. 

Wm. W. L. Phillips, 
A. B. Dayton, 

S. CONOVEB, 

ComrniUee. 



BEPOBTS OF COHlflTTEEB. 



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16 



MEDICAL SOCIETY OF NEW JEBSBT. 








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BEPOBTS OF C01UCITTEE8. 17 

ASSISTANT SURGEONS NEW JERSEY VOLS. 



DAT! UF 
C0MMI8S10S. 



LeviD. Miller 

Eagene Schumo 

John R. Hilton 

Lnther F. Halsey 

John Helm 

George D. Fitch 

Gilliam G. Terhune . . . 

William E. Mattison 

Jonathan C. Prescott. . . 

Bowman Hendry 

Duncan W. Blake 

Jesse A. Cloud 

Olivers. Belden 

William Blundelle 

Bowman Hendry, sr. . . 
William M. Cooper. . . . 

Henry M. Fagan 

Charles B. Jaques 

Luther F. Halsey 

Frank V . Paxson 

Charles 8. Champion . . . 

H. Genet Taylor 

William M. Lamb 

Lewis Braun 

John M. Davis 

Jesse J. Thomas 

Samuel Stelle 

Peletiah Fitch 

Joseph B. Van Sant. . . . 

Edward Byington 

Edwin B. Young 

George T. Kibble 

John D. Heritage 

Samuel T. Miller 

Uriah Gillman 

William Wallace Cornell. 

George L. Brooks 

Herbert B. Chambre. . . . 
R. Lefiferts Disbrow.. . 
Qeorge S. Dearborn. . . 

George Trumpore 

John W. Black&n 

Samuel Powell 

Samuel Jones 

Stephen W. Van Duyn 
Emll Chlenschlager. . . 
Cornelius Conover. . . . 



Ist Inf ntry 

2d ** 

2d " 

2d " 

2d " 

2d " 

3d »* 

3d " 

3d ** 

4th " 

4th " 

4th " 

5th " 

5th " 

6th " 

6th " 

6th " 

7th " 

7th " 

7th " 

7th " 

8th " 

8th " 

9th " 

9th " 

10th " 

10th " 

10th " 

10th " 

11th " 

11th " 

11th " 

11th " 

12th " 

12th « 

13th " 

13th " 

14th " 

14th " 

16th " 

16th " 
1st Cavalry 

Ist ' 

Ist ' 

Ist " 
A Battery.. 
21st Inf try 



Aug. 8, *62.. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Jan. 27, '63.. 
March 9, '63. 
May 11, '63.. 
March 14, '65 
July 19, '62.. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
March 5, '63. 
Jan. 30, '62.. 
Jan. 4, '65... 
March 14, '65 
May 17, '62.. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
July 19, '62. . 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Feb. 11, '63.. 
July 19, '62.. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Dec. 16, '64.. 
March 22, '65 
Sept. 14, '61. 
April 20, '64. 
Oct. 3, '61... 
May 1, '62... 
March 9, '62. 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Sept. 16, '62. 
March 7, '65 
Aug. 6, '62. 
Aug. 20, '62 
Feb. 10, '63. 
May 15, '63. 
Aug. 1, 62.. . 
Aug. 20, '62. 
Sept. 16, '62. 
Sept. 22, '64. 
Dec. 31, 62 . 
Aug. 16, 6f . 
Aug. 20, 62. 
Dec. 15, '62.. 
March 16, '63 
Oct. 2, '63... 
Sept. 23, '64. 
April 4, '65.. 
July 27, '61.. 
May 16, '63.. 



Discharged June 23, 1864 
Discharged Jan. 8, 1863.. 
Died March 17, 1863 



Discharged June 21, 1864 
Discharged July 11, 1865 
Discharged June 23, 1864 
Resigned March 5, 1863. 
Discharged June 23, 1864 
Resigned Nov. 3, 1864.. . 
Discharged July 9, 1865. 
Discharged July 9, 1865. 
Dismissed Nov. 30, 1862. 
Resigned Sept. 24, 1864.. 
Discharged Sept. 7, 1864 

Dismissed 

Discharged April 21, 1863 
Discharged Oct. 7, 1864. 
Resigned March, 1863. . . 
Resigned May 30, 1865. . 
Discharged July 17, 1865 
Resigned March 15, 1864 
Discharged July 17, 1865 
Resigned March 20, 1862 
Discharged May 10, 1865 

Died May 4, 1862 

Resigned Sept. 10, '62. . . 
Discharged July 1, '65.. . 
Discharged July 1. '65. . . 
Resigned March 20, '63. . 

Resigned Feb. 5, '68 

Discharged June 6, '65. . 
Discharged June 6, '65. . . 

Resigned Nov. 8, '64 

Discharged June 4, '65. . 
Resigned July 21, '64.. . . 
Discharged June 8, '65. . 
Resigned Aug. 14, '63. . . 
Discharged June 18, '65. 
Resigned Nov. 26, '62. . . 

Resigned Jan. 10, '62 

Resigned Dec. 10, '63 

Died Aug. 8, '64 

Discharged June 7, '65. . 
Discharged July 24, '65. . 

Died of Wounds, '64 

Discharged June 19, '63. 



18 



WSDICAI. SOGIETT OF NEW JERSET. 



ASSISTANT SURGEONS N. J. VOLS.— continued. 



DATB or 
OOMMISSIOir. 



Samuel H. Jones 

John E. Gary 

David G. Hetzell 

Robert W.Elmer 

Alban Williams 

Thomas G. Kowand.. . . 

Robert M. Bateman 

Seffrine Daily 

Thomas S. Osborne 

J. Henry Stiger 

Charles H. Suydam 

Benjamin N. Baker. . . . 

Joseph P. Berg, jr 

Judson G. Shackleton.. 

Ezra M. Hunt 

Elijah W. Lawrence. . . 
Alexander Barclay, jr.. . 

George E. Summers 

John T. Lanning 

Joseph B. Cook 

Nathaniel Jennings 

Williams. Willes 

John L. Krauter 

John R. Todd 

J. Henry Stiger 

Charles W. Stickney 

David G. Hetzell 

Con. C. Badger 

Richard G. Taylor 

John T. Lanning 

Edward H. Reed 

Samuel Woolverton 

Lawrence O. Morgan. . . 

Samuel A. Phillips 

John Helm 

R. Douglass James 

Morton Robinson 

El wood P. Hancock .... 

Israel Hart 

William S. Combs 

George W. Douglass. . . . 

Harmon Heed 

glias Wildman. ...,.,., 



22d Inftry 



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23d 


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24th 


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24th 


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25th 


(. 


25th 


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26th 


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28th 


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31st 


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31st 


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it 


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2d ** 


33d Inftry 
33d " 


34th 




34th 




35th 




35th 




35th 




35th 




3d Cavalry. 
3d " 


3d 


a 


3d 


a 


37th 
37th 


Inftry 


38th 




38th 




d9th 




40th 




40th 





Sept. 17, '62. 
Sept. 17, *62. 
Sept. 17, '62. 
Sept. 19, '62. 
Sept. 16, '62. 
Sept. 16, '62. 
Oct. 15, '62.. 
Nov. 1, '62. . 
Feb. 18, '63.. 
Oct. 9, '62. . . 
March 18, '63 
Oct. ?, '62... 
Sept. 15, '62. 
Sept. 19, '62. 
Oct. 9, '62.. . 
June 4, '63. . 
Sept. 15, -62. 
Sept. 19, '62. 
March 18, '63 
Sept. 15, '62 
Sept. 15, '62. 
March 26, '63 
Feb. 9, '64.. . 
April 15, '64. 
July 20, '63.. 
Aug. 3, '63;. 
Oct. 20, '63.. 
June 13, '64. 
Aug. 22, '63. 
Sept. 23, '63. 
July 26, '64.. 
June 8, '65... 
Dec. 18, '63.. 
Feb. 13, '64.. 
Sept. 15, '64. 
Jan. 16, '65.. 
June 23,' '64. 
June 23, '64. 
Sept. 22, '64. 
Sept. 23, '64. 
Sept. 24, '64. 
March 2, '65. 
March 3, '65. 



Discharged June 2o, *63. 
Discharged June 25, ^63. 
Discharged June 27, ^63. 
Discharged June 27, '63. 
Discharged June 29, ^63. 
Discharged June 29, ^68. 
Discharged June 20, '63. 
Discharged June 20, '68. 
Discharged April 17, '63. 
Discharged July 2, '63.. . 
Discharged July 3, '63.. . 
Discharged July 6, '63.. . 
Discharged July 6, '63.. . 
Discharged June 30, '68. 

Resigned Jan. 7, '63 

Discharged June 30, -63. 
Resigned March 5, '63. . . 
Discharged June 27, 'dS. 
Discharged June 27, y^S. 

Resigned Jan. 6, '63. 

Discharged June 24, '63. 
Discharged June 24, *63.. 
Discharged Nov. 1, '65.. . 
Discharged Nov. 1, '65.. . 
Discharged July 17, '65.. 
Discharged July 17, *65.. 
Discharged April 80, '66. 
Discharged April 80, '66. 
Re8ign<3 March 7, *64. . 

Resigned July 5, '64 

Resigned March 29, '65. . 
Discharged July 20, '65.. 

Resigned July 28, '64 

Dismissed June 25, '64.. . 
Discharged Aug. 1, '65.. . 
Discharged Aug. 1, '65.. . 
Discharged Oct. 1, '64. . . 
Discharged Oct. 1, '64. . . 
Discharged June 30, '65. 
Discharged June 30, '65. 
Discharged June 17, '65. 
Discharged July 13, '641.. 
Discharged July 17, '65.. 



REPORTS OF COMMITTEES. 19 

REPORT OP THE COMMITTEE ON SANITARY LAWS. 

The Committee appointed at your last meeting to present the 
subject of " Sanitary and Hygienic " interests of the State to Exec- 
utive and Legislative consideration, would respectfully report that 
a letter on the subject was addressed to His Excellency Governor 
Ward, early in February, 1866, whereupon he cordially invited the 
Committee to present the subject before him in person, and invited 
members of both Houses of the Legislature to meet at the Executive 
Chamber and listen to the suggestions of your Committee. The 
result was the appointment of a State Sanitary Commission, who 
were thus enabled officially to draw the attention of the State tu 
important matters bearing on public hygiene, and to awaken an 
interest in the whole subject. In their report to the Legislature, 
this Commission recommended to the Legislature the passage of a 
general State Health Law, framed in accordance with the most 
approved views on this subject. Although the bill failed of passage, 
it was only lost by a small majority, and your Committee have 
reason to know that the health interests of the State are now re- 
garded as a permanent subject of legislative attention . The present 
Executive showed an intelligent and appreciative interest in all 
suggestions as to sanitary reform, and has the highest statesmanlike 
view of the importance of State action in this regard. It must be 
said, too, of the Legislature, that while there were some illogical 
objections, many of the members took enlarged and correct views 
of the relations of sanitary legislation to the health of the citizens. 
For the first time we believe in our history, there was a Committee 
on Public Health, all of whom showed a lively interest and intelli- 
gent co-operation in the plan suggested. Had the Commission 
been able to suggest a bill early in the session, and to have given 
it the advantage of personal explanation to various members, it 
would no doubt have become a law. While we may honestly dilBFer 
as to minor points in legal sanitary enactment, we believe that the 
medical profession owe it to themselves as philanthropists, no less 



20 HEDICAL SOCIETY OP NEW JERSEY. 

than as medical men, to take a lively interest in all that relates to 

the public health. 

While we ask no exclusive privileges, and have little confidence 

in any special legislation as to health matters, we believe that the 

physicians of the State have it in their power, by facts and figures, 

so to create public sentiment as to secure some good form of health 

law for the State, at the next meeting of its Legislature. Your 

Committee considered their duties, as the representatives of the 

Society, to have ended when a Sanitary Commission was appointed, 

but refer to those facts as having to do with results following the 

appointment of the Committee by this Society. We recommend 

that, in such way as you may deem proper, the attention of the 

State be directed to this matter, and that the Society co-operate in 

every way in their power, with all judicious effort, to secure a more 

widely diffused knowledge of sanitary science and a proper system 

of State enactment. 

E. M. Hunt, 

B. H. Stbatton, 

John Woolvebton. 



REPORTS OF DELEGATES TO OTHER SOCIETIES. 



RBPOBT OF DELEOATIOK TO AMERICAN IfBDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

Your delegates to the American Medical Association, appointed 
at your last meeting, wonld respectftlUy report : That in the per- 
formance of the duties assigned them they attended the meeting 
of said Association at Baltimore, Md., on the first day of May, 
1866. Besides the representatives from this Society, there were 
present from the State of New Jersey, delegates from the Cumber- 
land County District Society, Essex Medical Society, Hunterdon 
County District Society, and Newark Medical Association, together 
with Drs. John Blanc and E. M. Hunt, permanent members. 

The Committee on Credentials reported an attendance of 326 
delegates and permanent members, which number was subsequently 
considerably increased. 

The proceedings were of the most interesting and harmonious 
character; the discussions on the various subjects brought to the 
attention of the Association, while they were earnest, were 
characterized by t